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Blackfeet Indian Reservation
United States Gotoarrow.png American Indian Research Gotoarrow.png Indians of Montana Gotoarrow.png Blackfeet Indian Reservation (Montana)


The Blackfeet Indian Reservation is located in northwestern Montana, on the Canadian border, just east of Glacier National Park and west of Cut Bank, Montana, primarily in Glacier County, with a small portion in Pondera County.

Established --  September 17, 1851 (the first Fort Laramie Treaty) and 17 October 1855 (by Treaty), modified by later treaties, executive orders, and agreements. [1]
Agency (BIA) -- Blackfeet Agency located at Browning; Old Agency near Choteau, Montana; and Running Crane Agency.
Principal tribes -- Assiniboine, Blackfeet (Siksika), Blood (Kainah), Piegan, Flathead Indians, Gros Ventre Indians including the Crow Indians (they are the Chippewa People known as the People of the Falls or Falls People), Kalispel Indians, Little Shell Chippewa Indians, Nez Perce Indians (they are Amikwa Ojibwa's), Pend d'Oreille Indians, and ;Spokane Indians.
Population -- 2010 census is 8,944 (when including mixed bloods it's 9,152) - Does not include non Indians[2]   1969: Tribal enrollment: 10,467 [3]

Contents

History

The Blackfeet Indian Reservation was established by Treaty of Oct. 17, 1855 and modified by unratified treaties of July 18, 1866, and July 13 and 15 and Sept. 1, 1868 and by Executive orders, July 5, 1873, and Aug. 19,1874. It was further modified by an act of Apr. 15, 1874 and by Executive orders, Apr.13, 1875, and .July 13, 1850; an agreement made Feb. 11, 1887, approved by Congress, May 1, 1888. An agreement made Sept. 26, 1895, approved by act of June 10, 1896; and an act of Feb. 27.1906, confirmed and additional grant of 356.11 acres, and 120 acres of unsurveyed land.

In 1902, the total size of the reservation included 1,760,000 Acres or 2,750 sq. mi.[4]. In 2010, the reservation includes 1,462,640 acres.

In the early 20th century, the Little Shell Chippewa's (the Nez Perce) of Montana, were continuing to govern the original Blackfeet Reservation which was created on September 17, 1851, when the Fort Laramie Treaty was signed. On October 17, 1855, the September 17, 1851 Fort Laramie Treaty which defined the territory of the Little Shell Blackfeet Chippewa's, was approved. This historic treaty which was signed on October 17, 1855, was signed near the mouth of the Judith River in then Nebraska Territory. To the north, is the present day Rocky Boy Reservation and to the east, south, and west was the old River Crow (the Little Shell Chippewa's) Judith basin indian reservation, which was set aside on August 16, 1873.

The correct name of the original Blackfeet Reservation, is either Judith basin indian reservation or Judith River Indian Reservation. The October 17, 1855 Blackfeet Treaty, was signed near the mouth of the Judith River which is within the Judith Basin Indian Reservation. The Blackfeet Reservation is also home to the Flathead Indians including the Kalispel, Pend d'Oreille, and Spokane. All 4 spoke the same language which is a mixture of Algonquin Chippewa and non Chippewa. 

The Nez Perce

They are in fact Chippewa. They are the Amikwa Chippewa's who lived near Lake Nipissing in Ontario. They migrated west as a result of the Seven Fires Prophecy and white encroachment. This migration commenced before 1661. One group went west, while the other (the Chipewyan) went up to the southern shores of Hudson Bay. They then forced their way up to what is now Nunavut and the Northwest Territories. Some migrated to the south into northern British Columbia and northern Alberta. They are the Beaver Tribe including the Sekani. They (the Amikwa) are also known as the Nez Perce. In Anishinabe, Amikwa means Beavers. Read the October 17, 1855 Blackfeet Treaty Text. Besides the Blackfeet and Flatheads, the Nez Perce also signed the October 17, 1855 Treaty. The Dakotas including the Brule, Hunkpapa, Santee, Sisseton, and Yanktonai, had no part in the October 17, 1855 Treaty. The Assiniboine or Nakota did. They were the bitter enemies of the Dakotas. They separated from the Yanktonai which enraged them.

Exact Boundaries

Maps before 1896, show the 4th Blackfeet Reservation (the new Reservation fragmented from the April 15, 1874 Treaty which reduced the size of the 2nd Blackfeet Reservation set aside on July 5, 1873) eastern boundary, well west of Cut Bank, Montana. In 1896, the United States reached a treaty agreement with Blackfeet leaders including chief Little Dog, in which they supposedly ceded the western part of the Blackfeet Reservation. Chief Little Dog made it clear to the American representatives, he would only cede the eastern part of the Reservation, north of Cut Bank, Montana. So there are two versions. We have to accept chief Little Dogs version. In the east of Blackfeet Reservation, is abundant farm land. White leaders were far more interested in agriculture land than mountains.

An agreement was reached between Blackfeet leaders and the United States, in which the western part of the Blackfeet Reservation was "Leased" to the United States for 99 years, in 1896. That "Lease" ended in 1995. When are the leaders of Blackfeet Reservation going to ask for the return of the "Leased" land?

Chief Little Dog ceded (according to chief Little Dog Leased) the surplus land which is located near Cut Bank, Montana to the Canada border. It extends west to where the Milk River enters the United States from Canada, and extends to the forks of the Milk River, some 23 miles to the southwest. It then extends 13.6 miles to the southeast where the forks of Cut Bank Creek are, which is 8 miles northeast of Browning. From the forks of Cut Bank Creek, it extends to the northeastern shores of Kipp Lake then east to Mission Lake.

It follows Mission Lake southwest to Two Medicine Creek then southeast to the confluence of Two Medicine Creek and Badger Creek. It then follows Two Medicine Creek east to just north of Alkali Lake. It then extends south to Alkali Lake then to Birch Creek. It then follows Birch Creek southwest to Swift Reservoir. Nearly all of Blackfeet Reservations abundant farm land is east of this boundary line. This surplus land agreement may have happened around 1908-1909. If it did it means chief Rocky Boy negotiated on behalf of the Blackfeet Reservation. It also means Blackfeet Reservation is off limits.

Maps after 1895, show the eastern boundary of the Blackfeet Reservation commencing adjacent to and north of Cut Bank, to the Canadian border. Very unlike the maps before 1896. And maps of the original Blackfeet Reservation shows it extending to the main divide (Continental Divide which is the Rocky Mountain Trench) of the Rocky Mountains. Since the Rocky Mountain Trench is the true Continental Divide of the Rocky Mountains, it means the western boundary of the Blackfeet Reservation really extends to the mountains 8 miles northeast of Eureka, Montana. It's 114 miles west from where Milk River enters the United States from Canada. In the west, the western boundary of Blackfeet Reservation is adjacent to Roosville, British Columbia.

It follows the mountains along the east side of the Rocky Mountain Trench, southeast to Lake Whitefish and continues following the same mountains to a location just north of Columbia Falls. It then follows Flathead River to the Middle Fork of Flathead River. Then it follows the Middle Fork of Flathead River east to a location 6.5 miles southwest of East Glacier Park Village. It then follows the waterway there east to Two Medicine Creek. It extends to the south to Swift Reservoir. This waterway was used by Chippewas to sail from the Pacific Ocean, to the Gulf of Mexico, south of New Oreleans.

During the 19th century, salmon could swim from the Pacific Ocean, east into north central Montana, by using this waterway. White explorers of the 18th and 19th centuries, were very aware of this sailing route, and in fact, one of Lewis and Clarks goals was to learn if it was possible to sail from the Gulf of Mexico to the Pacific Ocean. That is why Meriweather Lewis was at or near what is now the Blackfeet Reservation.

The 99 Year Land Lease & The Cobell Conspiracy

Elouise Cobell has paid a dear price for being fooled. She was from the Blackfeet Reservation and possibly knew about the 99 year "Lease" of the eastern part of Blackfeet Reservation. In June of 1996, or 100 years after the "Lease" was granted by Blackfeet leaders, Cobell filed the Cobell V. Salazar lawsuit. It is no coincidence it coincides with the 1896 "Lease" granted to the United States by Blackfeet leaders. As you know, the attention of the Cobell V. Salazar lawsuit has nothing to do with the 99 year "Lease" of the eastern part of the Blackfeet Reservation. Most who know about the 99 year Lease, think the western part of Blackfeet Reservation was leased. Not according to chief Little Dog who claimed the Blackfeet would Lease the land between Cut Bank, Montana to the Canadian border, for $3 million. They instead received $1.5 million. Nearlly all of Blackfeet Reservations abundant farm land was Leased.

Since the only way this "Lease" can be resolved is by returning the western part of the Blackfeet Reservation, to the Blackfeet Reservation, negotiations must commence for the return of the "Leased" land. They will not return the real Leased land (the eastern part of Blackfeet Reservation). The main divide or continental divide of the Rocky Mountains, is the western border of the Blackfeet Reservation. The Rocky Mountain Trench is the real continental divide. Eureka, Montana is a couple of miles from the western border of the Blackfeet Reservation.

Little Shell Chippewa Land Claim Lawsuit

If any Blackfeet People think they are not Chippewa, they don't know about the Little Shell Chippewa Land Claim Lawsuit about the 3rd Blackfeet Reservation which was set aside on April 15, 1874. They don't know they have already tried a land claim lawsuit to receive compensation for the loss of the 3rd Blackfeet Reservation. Little Shell Chippewa leaders confined their land claim lawsuit to the 3rd Blackfeet Reservation which was located from where the Montana-North Dakota border is, and follows the Missouri River to the Marias River, and from the Marias River to the eastern border of the 4th Blackfeet Reservation which is the current Blackfeet Reservation.

It took quite a long time before the case was brought before the whites. They (the whites) refused to acknowledge that the Chippewas lived in Montana before the 1880s. On April 5, 1974, the United States once again refused to honor treaty. They rejected the Little Shell Chippewa Land Claim Lawsuit. Read the Seven Fires Prophecy.

Fragmented Reservation & Perseverance

One broken promise after another is how you describe the way the United States treated treaty agreements with Indian Nations. Chippewa leaders continued to honor the original treaties and the United States did not. New Reservations were set aside for Chippewa leaders who did not have the authority to act on behalf of the Anishinabe Nation.

We know the Little Shell Chippewa's were continuing to govern the original Blackfeet Reservation in the early 20th century. In 1921, a meeting was held at Joseph Paul's family's ranch near Lewistown, Montana. This meeting was probably about filing a land claim lawsuit about the original Blackfeet Reservation. As mentioned, the Little Shell Chippewa's were continuing to govern the original Blackfeet Reservation.

They had at least 9 small districts across the original Blackfeet Reservation. They were: Wolf Point (major district 565); Hays (major district 565); Harlem (major district 565); Box Elder (major district (565); Dupuyer (major district 574); Augusta (major district 399); Great Falls (major districts 399 and 574); Lewistown (major district 399); and Helena (major district 398).

It would stay unchanged up to at least 1939. A meeting was held at Joseph Paul's home in Great Falls, Montana on June 10, 1939. Exactly what transpired is not known but soon after friction became a problem. Even in 1939, the Little Shell Chippewa's had 9 representatives for the 9 small districts mentioned above. Raymond Gray formed the Montana Landless Indians Organization in 1939. That further went to disrupt the government of the Little Shell Chippewa's Blackfeet Reservation.

After World War II, the leaders of the Little Shell Chippewa's Blackfeet Reservation government, became despondent and they commenced to go their own ways. Joseph Dussome was in favor of filing a land claims lawsuit about the 3rd Blackfeet Reservation. In 1950, Dussome gave up and hired a lawyer. A year later (1951), Dussome filed the land claims lawsuit. He was joined by Elizabeth Swan, leaders from Rocky Boy Reservation, and other Little Shell Chippewa leaders.

However, they confined their land claim to the northern part of the original Blackfeet Reservation with the number 565. For some reason, they excluded the areas of the original Blackfeet Reservation with the numbers 398, 399, and 574. That may have been because the other district represntatives did not agree to file the land claim lawsuit. Click http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/S?ammem/hlaw:@filreq%28@band%28@field%28DATE+18510917%20%28Treaty%20of%20Fort%20Laramie%20never%20ratified.%29%29+@field%28FLD003+@band%28llss+c56%29%29%29+@field%28COLLID+llss%29%29 this link, to visit the Library of Congress website, to read the September 17, 1851 Fort Laramie Treaty which defined the territory of the Little Shell Blackfeet Chippewa's. On the bottom of the page are several links. Click on Montana 1. The original Blackfeet Reservation has the numbers 398, 399, 574, and 565. Or they focused on the April 15, 1874 treaty which set aside the 3rd Blackfeet Reservation. It has the number 565.

To better understand the land area of the land claims lawsuit filed by Dussome, Swan, and the other Little Shell Chippewa leaders, click http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/S?ammem/hlaw:@filreq%28@band%28@field%28DATE+18730816%29+@field%28FLD003+@band%28llss+c56%29%29%29+@field%28COLLID+llss%29%29 this link, to read the August 16, 1873 Treaty which established the Little Shell Blackfeet Chippewa's Judith Basin Reservation. On the bottom of the page is a link. Click on Montana 2. The land claim filed by Dussome, Swan, and the other Little Shell Chippewa leaders, covers the area on the land cession map with the pink color and the number 692.

You'll notice the much smaller Blackfeet Reservation on the northwest border, and the Fort Belknap and Fort Peck Reservations. You will also notice the Judith Basin Indian Reservation with the green color and number 557. All Reservations were originally a part of the Little Shell Blackfeet Chippewa's original Blackfeet Reservation. The land area with the number 692, is within area number 565, while the Judith Basin Indian Reservation is within area number 399.

Those Reservations, which include the Blackfeet Reservation, Fort Belknap Reservation, Fort Peck Reservation (all have a yellow color), and the Judith Basin Indian Reservation, were illegally established. Chiefs Little Shell III and Red Thunder, refused to cede the vast Chippewa Reservation in 1892, the United States set aside for the Little Shell Chippewa's decades earlier. Joseph Paul and other Little Shell Chippewa leaders, were following chiefs Little Shell III and Red Thunders, demands that the vast Chippewa Reservation be kept in governance. Dussome, Swan, and other Little Shell Chippewa leaders, gave up.

On April 5, 1974, the United States again refused to honor treaty agreements. They rejected the land claim lawsuit filed by Joseph Dussome, Elizabeth Swan, leaders from Rocky Boy Reservation, and other Little Shell Chippewa leaders. Click http://www.anishinabe-history.com/little-shell-land-claim.pdf here, to read the judgement of the land claim lawsuit.

Chief Rocky Boy

Chief Rocky Boy was born and raised in southwest Montana. He claimed somewhere between Anaconda and Butte. He became a principle leader of the Little Shell Blackfeet Chippewa's of southwest and western Montana, and southeast Idaho, in the 1880s or 1890s. In southwestern Montana, the Little Shell Blackfeet Chippewa's are known as the Inuk'sik. Chief Rocky Boy was their leader. Even during the years between 1885 and 1910, southwest Montana had a large Chippewa population. They followed treaty and moved from place to place. However, the United States did not follow treaty. Of course, I'm referring to the treaty which set aside the original Blackfeet Reservation on September 17, 1851 and approved on October 17, 1855.

In March of 1902, chief Rocky Boy contacted an attorney and sent a letter to the President requesting for Reservation. American leaders knew what that represented. Rocky Boy was elected grand chief of the Montana Chippewas in 1902 also. The year before (1901), chief Little Shell III passed away. However, chief Papawee opposed chief Rocky Boy and refused to dishonor treaty.

Chief Rocky Boy was instructed by the Americans to send Chippewa land surveyors to find suitable land for a Reservation. Rocky Boy told the Americans he favored a Reservation in the Anaconda and Butte region, and that both the Blackfeet and Flathead Reservations were attractive.

One Chippewa land surveyor told chief Rocky Boy he favored the land between Tobacco Plains (Eureka, Montana) and Babb, Montana. Another liked northern Idaho. A bill was sent to the congress of the United States by Senator Gibson and was passed on January 8, 1904, which proposed a new Chippewa Reservation within the Flathead Reservation. Exactly where this Chippewa Reservation is located is unknown. By 1908, the United States changed their attitude.

On May 22, 1909, Presdent Tafts Proclamation ruined Rocky Boy's promised Reservation. Chief Rocky Boy is far more important to the Blackfeet and Flathead Reservations than they realize. Chief Rocky Boy may have accepted the infamous 10 cent an acre Treaty or the McCumber Agreement, which was passed by the United States in 1904.

Chief Rocky Boys Blackfeet Reservation

In either late 1907 or early 1908, a farmer at Flathead Reservation warned the Reservations superintendent about the Chippewa's led by chief Rocky Boy. In 1908, the first round of allotments at Flathead Reservation were conducted. It caused serious trouble. Indian Agent Frank Churchill was sent to Montana to find chief Rocky Boy and negotiate with him about the land acts.

Churchill found chief Rocky Boy at a small Chippewa village near Garrison, Montana. Probably the Garrison, Montana a few miles northwest of Deer Lodge. Another Garrison, Montana was located very near Ulm, Montana which is 8 miles from Great Falls. It may have been that Garrison, Montana for all we know.

Both negotiated about the land acts. An agreement was reached which concerned Blackfeet Reservation, Flathead Reservation, Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation (aka Rocky Boys Reservation), Fort Belknap Reservation, and Fort Peck Reservation. Both knew Fort Peck Reservation was the most dangerous location. Unlike the other Reservations, Fort Peck Reservation was ideal farm land. They knew the Fort Peck Chippewas would respond violently.

Churchill requested from the government of the United States that all of Valley County, Montana (it was really all of Fort Peck Reservation) be withdrawn from white settlement and that a new 2,592 sq. mi. Chippewa Reservation be created for the Fort Peck Reservation Chippewas. His requests were granted.

Chief Rocky Boy was responsible for the creation of the new 2,592 sq. mi. Chippewa Reservation. William R. Logan (the Fort Belknap Reservation superintendent) was put in charge of finding land to be the new Chippewa Reservation. He selected the land south and west of Fort Belknap Reservation to be added on to Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation and Fort Belknap Indian Reservation. Fort Peck Reservation Chippewas moved to their new Reservation in late 1909 and 1910.

In late 1908 (around the time of the Swan Valley Massacre), chief Rocky Boy commenced to gather the Chippewas of western and southwestern Montana at Birdseye, which is very near Fort Harrison, Montana or Helena. Throughout 1909, more Chippewas moved to near Fort Harrison to be relocated to the 4th Blackfeet Reservation. Many were very angry and chief Rocky Boy had to use threats he would use American soldiers to keep them in the Helena region, to prevent the terrified Chippewas from leaving.

On November 13, 1909, Chippewas boarded trains at Helena and were sent to the Blackfeet Reservation. They arrived on November 14. Shortly afterwards, more Chippewas led by chief Little Bear, moved to the 4th Blackfeet Reservation. Several hundred had moved to the 4th Blackfeet Reservation by 1910.

When the land allotments commenced at the 4th Blackfeet Reservation including opening up the Leased land in the eastern part of the Blackfeet Reservation to white settlement, it led to chief Rocky Boys brother chief Pennato, leading an exodus off the Reservation. Many were captured and sent to the Fort Harrison region. They were probably relocated to the Navajo Reservation later on.

Overall, however, most Chippewas stayed at the 4th Blackfeet Reservation. White historians claim most left but that is probably not true. Most of the 4th Blackfeet Reservation (the western half) remained Indian and that kept the Chippewas content and willing to live there.

When chief Rocky Boy and Frank Churchill held their negotiations, they obviously negotiated a long time about the Blackfeet Reservation and how to avoid violence. It worked out very well. I suspect what really caused the Chippewa Exodus off Blackfeet Reservation in 1910, was learning that the far western part of the Blackfeet Reservation was stolen. The United States did not consult with Indian leaders. Of course, i am referring to Glacier National Park and the region between Glacier National Park and the Rocky Mountain Trench, which is the continental divide.

Chief Rocky Boys Blackfeet Reservation is supposedly located in the mountain valley between St. Mary and the Canadian border and covers around 11,500 acres. Babb is located just north of St. Mary. However, the forks of the Milk River (the location is 18 miles east of Babb) is a boundary most don't know about, as are the forks of the St. Mary River.

Either the South Fork Milk River is a continuation of the boundary or the Middle Fork Milk River is. It may be that chief Rocky Boys Blackfeet Reservation commences where the Milk River enters the Blackfeet Reservation from Canada, and extends to the forks of the Milk River. From the forks of the Milk River, the boundary may extend south to Cut Bank Creek. It may then extend to Kipp Lake then to Mission Lake. From Mission Lake, it extends south to Two Medicine Creek, then southeast to Birch Creek.

All land east of this boundary is highly productive farm land. It is the land chief Little Dog Leased to the United States in 1895 and was ratified by the United States in 1896. Of course, that land is still a part of Blackfeet Reservation but the United States will not return it.

Though the Lease Agreement happened in 1895-1896, it was not fully implemented until after 1907, or after the Blackfeet Reservation Land Allotment Act commenced. In fact, it was not implemented until the time period between 1910 and 1912. Chief Rocky Boy definitely was instrumental in how the Leased land agreement worked. All land west of the Leased land, is off limits. It is a rugged and mountainous land. About 35% to 40% of Blackfeet Reservation (that's not including the real western boundary of Blackfeet Reservation which is the Rocky Mountain Trench), is within the Leased land.

Communities

  • Arrowtop: About 1.7 miles north of North Browning, is the fast growing community of Arrowtop. I have no idea if this community even has a name. I named after a street which runs through the area. It's population is included with the population of Brownings zip code area. However, it is it's own distinct community. Several hundred people live there. It needs to be organized by its citizens then petitioned to become a distinct community before the government of Blackfeet Reservation.
  • Babb: 2010 population is 174. Indians make up 84.5% of the population of Babb. Babb covers 9.55 sq. mi. It is located just north of Lower Saint Mary Lake, in a narrow mountain valley.
  • Blackfoot: It is located 6.5 miles east of Browning. It's population is included with the population of Brownings zip code area. However, Blackfoot is a distinct community. Kipp Lake is 1.3 miles to the southeast.
  • Browning:2010 population is 5,209. Browning is made up of three communities. Browning(2010 population is 1,016) , which is located between South Browning and North Browning. South Browning(2010 population is 1,785), which is adjacent to Browning on the south. North Browning(2010 population is 2,408), which is adjacent to Browning on the north. All three communities are classified as a distinct community but all three are connected. All are cdp's (census designated places). The three communities which make up Browning, cover 6.47 sq. mi.
  • East Glacier Park Village:2010 population is 363. Indians make up 55% of the population of East Glacier Park Village. When including mixed bloods it's 60%. The small community is a gateway to Glacier National Park. It covers 4.36 sq. mi.
  • Heart Butte:2010 population is 582. Indians make up 97.5% of the population of Heart Butte. Heart Butte covers 4.57 sq. mi. It's located in the southwestern part of the Reservation.
  • Hill 57:2010 population is unknown. It is located adjacent to Great Falls, Montana but not within the city limits of Great Falls. Though Hill 57 is not within the 4th Blackfeet Reservation, it is within the original Blackfeet Reservation which was created on September 17, 1851 and approved on October 17, 1855. And it continues to be an Indian settlement. Last census of Hill 57 is from 1956. Hill 57 had a population of over 400 in 1956. Today, the Hill 57 Little Shell Chippewa population is dramatically lower. Probably fewer than 20 people live there. The Little Shell Blackfeet Chippewa's had 2 minor districts here. The minor districts (within the major districts of 399 and 574) representative was Joseph Paul.
  • Kiowa:2010 population is ? Kiowa is located in the western part of the Reservation. It is not far from Glacier National Park.
  • Little Browning: 2010 population is 206. Indians make up 94.7% of the population of Little Browning. It covers 1.01 sq. mi. Cut Bank, Montana is located about 1 mile to the east of Little Browning.
  • St. Mary: 2010 population is ? St. Mary is located about 6 miles south of Babb, in the same narrow mountain valley as Babb. It's a gateway to Glacier National Park. Part of St. Mary is off the Reservation.
  • Starr School:2010 population is 252. Indians make up 97.2% of the population of Starr School. It covers 4.23 sq. mi.
  • Wippert: It is located over 1 mile south of South Browning. Most of the housing units are mobile homes. It's population is included with Brownings zip code area. Since this small community of 60 or so housing units, does not have a name, i thought i would name it after a street in the community. The citizens of Wippert need to organize their community to be petitioned to become a distinct community before the government of Blackfeet Reservation. Several hundred people live in this fast growing community.

Population Growth History

In 1901, the population of Blackfeet Reservation was 2,022. Between 1900 and 1910, the United States government went so far as to build a fence around the Blackfeet Reservation to keep the prophecy weary Chippewa's from leaving the Reservation. In late 1909, the United States forced over 200 Chippewa's (that includes the Cree who are the northern Chippewa's) to relocate to the Blackfeet Reservation.

In 1930, or about 4 years before the Indian Reorganization Act was voted on and accepted at the Blackfeet Reservation, the Indian population of the Blackfeet Reservation was 3,962. Between 1901 and 1930, the Indian population increased by 100% at the Blackfeet Reservation. The population increase can be attributed to the relocation of 100s of Chippewa's to the Blackfeet Reservation commencing in 1909.

Between 1930 and 2010, the Indian population of the Blackfeet Reservation, experienced a much slower population increase. That is probably because of the Indian Reorganization Act. One of the Indian Reorganization Act's goals was to relocate Indians from Reservations, to white communitites.


Records

Many of the records of individual Indians living on the Blackfeet Reservation were kept by the Blackfeet Agency of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Others are kept by the Tribal Office.

Land Records: Allotted Land 775,412.52 acres

http://thorpe.ou.edu/IRA/IRAbook/tribalgovpt1tblA.htm IRA population estimates for Indian Reservation Agencies during the 1930s

http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol1/HTML_files/APP1027.html 1902 populations for Indian Reservation Agencies


References

  1. "Montana Indian Reservations," Handbook of Indians North of Mexico, by Frederick Webb Hodge Available online.
  2. Census 2000 Tribal Entity Counts for American Indian Reservations and Off-Reservation Trust Lands. U.S. Census Bureau, Geography Division. Available online. {Note: This census figure only accounts for tribal members living on the reservation or trust lands. Other enrolled tribal members may live off-reservation.)
  3. Indian Reservations A State and Federal Handbook. Compiled by The Confederation of American Indians, New York, N.Y. McFarland and Co. Inc., Jefferson, North Carolina, c. 1986. FHL book 970.1 In2
  4. "Montana Indian Reservations," Handbook of Indians North of Mexico, by Frederick Webb Hodge Available online.

Bibliography

  • Confederation of American Indians. Indian Reservations: A State and Federal Handbook. Jefferson, North Caroline: McFarland & Co., c1986. WorldCat 14098308; FHL book 970.1 In2.
  • Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30, 1906. This publication lists the 22 states which had reservations in 1908. Available online.
  • Kappler, Charles J. Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office, 1902. 7 volumes. WorldCat 74490963; FHL book 970.1 K142iAvailable online.
  • Klein, Barry T., ed. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat 317923332; FHL book 970.1 R259e.
  • Prucha, Francis Paul. Atlas of American Indian Affairs. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 1991 WorldCat 257331735; FHL book 970.1 P95aa
  • Prucha, Francis Paul, ed. Documents of United States Indian Policy. 3rd Edition. Lincoln, Nebraska: Univeresity of Nebraska Press, 2000. WorldCat 50416280; FHL book 970.1 P95d.
  • Prucha, Francis Paul. Guide to the Military Posts of the United States, 1789-1895. Madison, Wisconsin: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, c1964. WorldCat 522839; FHL book 973 M2pf.
  • Schmeckebier, Laurance F. The Office of Indian Affairs: Its History, Activities, and Organization. Service Monographs of the United States Government; no. 48. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1927. Reprint. New York: AMS Press, 1972.  WorldCat 257893; FHL book 973 B4b v. 48.
  • Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .
Volume 1 -- Not yet published
Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- WorldCat 234303751
Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- WorldCat 255572371
Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- WorldCat 19331914; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4.
Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- WorldCat 299653808; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5.
Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat 247493742; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6.
Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- WorldCat 247493311
Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 13240086; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8.
Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- WorldCat 26140053; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9.
Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- WorldCat 301504096; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10.
Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- WorldCat 256516416; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11.
Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- WorldCat 39401371; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12.
Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- WorldCat 48209643
Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- WorldCat 254277176
Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 356517503; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15.
Volume 16 -- Not yet published
Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- WorldCat 43957746
Volume 18 -- Not yet published
Volume 19 -- Not yet published
Volume 20 -- Not yet published

 

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