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United States Gotoarrow.png American Indian Research Gotoarrow.png Indians of Oklahoma Gotoarrow.png Caddo Indians

CaddoTribe (leader of Whitebead Caddo) George Sashington (Sho-we-tat, Little Boy) born in Louisiana in1816,byAlexanderGardner,1872NO.100.jpg

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Various Spellings: Caddo, Cadoe

The Caddo Tribe is primarily associated with the state of Oklahoma[1].

1984 enrollment 2.947 [2]


Tribal Headquarters

Caddo Nation
P. O. Box 487
Binger, OK 73009
Phone: 1.405.656.2344
Fax: 405.656.2892


Brief Timeline

1541: First encountered by De Soto

1714: French trading post at Caddoan village at Natchitodes

1770: Caddo-Spanish Treaty

1803: Louisiana Purchase,

  • 1835 July 1, at Caddo Agency, some of the tribe migrated to Texas, some joined the Choctaw

1836: Texas became a republic,

1844: Choctaw expelled the Caddo as "Indian Intruders"

  • 1846 May 15, at Council Springs Treaty

1854: Many moved to Brazos Reserve, Texas

1859: Removal by Superintendent Robert S. Neighbors, on a reservation near the Washita River in Indian Territory - now Caddo County, Oklahoma

1861: Signed a treaty with the Confederate States, those loyal to the Union fled to Kansas until 1867

1865: Caddo were scouts for the U.S. Army

1867: Moved to Oklahoma

1872: Caddo-Wichita Reservation established


Red River Agency1824-30

Caddo Agency 1824-42

Texas Agency 1847-59

Wichita Agency 1859-78

Kiowa Agency 1878-80


Brazos Reservation

Caddo-Wichita Reservation

Western Superintendency

Southern Superintendency

Central Superintendency

Colorado Superintendency

Additional References to the History of the Tribe and/or Bands

Frederick Webb Hodge, in his Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, gave a more complete history of the Caddo Nation, with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods. Additional details are given in David Bushnell's Villages of the Algonquian, Siouan and Caddoan Tribes West of the Mississippi.


Land Records

Tribally owned 2,602.64 acres. Allotted land 55,599.92 acres [3]

Agency Records

Correspondence and Census

Tribe Agency Location of Original Records

Pre-1880 Correspondence M234 Roll Number

FHL Film Number Post-1885 Census M595 Roll Number FHL Film Number
Caddo Anadarko Area Office, 1881-1962 Fort Worth - First film: 1638620
Rolls 211-23

First film:


Caddo Red River Agency, 1824-30 Washington D.C. Roll 727 - - -
Caddo Caddo Agency,1824-42 Washington D.C. Roll 31 - - -
Caddo Wichita Agency, 1859-78 Washington D.C. Rolls 928-30 1638620 Rolls 211-23 573847
Caddo Kiowa Agency, 1864-1962 Washington D.C. and Fort Worth Rolls 375-86 -


- FHL Films: 576900-576912


The link on the year (Year of the Treaty) connects to an online copy of the treaty.

  • May, 13, 1833, referred to in Quapaw Treaty,
  • 1835 July 1, at Caddo Agency
  • 1846 May 15, at Council Springs

Important Web Sites


Parsons, Elsie Worthington Clews. Notes on the Caddo. Kraus Reprint Co., 1969. FHL Book 970.3C114p

Swanton, John Reed. Source Material on the History and Ethnology of the Caddo Indians, Washington, GPO. 1942. FHL Fiche 6039060 (five fiche)

  1. Indian Entities Recognized and Eligible To Receive Services From the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs, Federal Register, Vol. 67, No. 134, 12 July 2002 Available online
  2. Indian Reservations A State and Federal Handbook. Compiled by The Confederation of American Indians, New York, N.Y. McFarland and Co. Inc., Jefferson, North Carolina, c. 1986. FHL book 970.1 In2 page 214
  3. Indian Reservations A State and Federal Handbook. Compiled by The Confederation of American Indians, New York, N.Y. McFarland and Co. Inc., Jefferson, North Carolina, c. 1986. FHL book 970.1 In2 page 214


  • Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
  • Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 Available online.
  • Klein, Barry T., ed. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat 317923332; FHL book 970.1 R259e.
  • Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. WorldCat 37475188; FHL book 970.1 G131g.
Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean
Vol. 2 -- Great Basin, Southwest, Middle America
Vol. 3 -- Arctic, Subarctic, Great Plains, Plateau
Vol. 4 -- California, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Islands
  • Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .
Volume 1 -- Not yet published
Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- WorldCat 234303751
Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- WorldCat 255572371
Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- WorldCat 19331914; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4.
Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- WorldCat 299653808; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5.
Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat 247493742; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6.
Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- WorldCat 247493311
Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 13240086; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8.
Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- WorldCat 26140053; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9.
Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- WorldCat 301504096; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10.
Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- WorldCat 256516416; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11.
Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- WorldCat 39401371; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12.
Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- WorldCat 48209643
Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- WorldCat 254277176
Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 356517503; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15.
Volume 16 -- Not yet published
Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- WorldCat 43957746
Volume 18 -- Not yet published
Volume 19 -- Not yet published
Volume 20 -- Not yet published


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  • This page was last modified on 2 January 2015, at 14:04.
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