Little Shell Band of Chippewa Indians, MontanaEdit This Page
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Little Shell tribe is recognized by the state of Montana
Little Shell Tribe
P.O. Box 543
Black Eagle, Mt 59414
Chippewas have lived in Montana for a very long time. Centuries before the whites invaded the America's. In Montana, the Algonquians are known as the Arapaho (that includes the Gros Ventre), Blackfeet, Cheyenne, Chippewa, and Cree. The Flathead (they include the Kailspel, Pend d'Oreille, and Spokane) are a mixture of Algonquin and non Algonquin Indians. Their language is in fact a part of the Algonquian language family. Under important websites below, is a link to a pdf book about the history of the Little Shell Tribe. It's the third link. It includes geneological information.
What brought the Chippewas west into the Montana region was prophecy. They were alarmed about the Seven Fires Prophecy and reacted with intense acceptance. Survival was put first. They commenced to migrate west into the Montana region about 1,000 to 1,500 years ago. Thus, the reason for why the Flathead People including the Kalispel, Pend d'Oreille, and Spokane speak the same language. Ojibway authors from the 19th century, wrote about the Chippewas forcing their way west into Montana and fighting the Flatheads. This ancient war happened long ago.
In Montana, the Chippewas are also known as the Arapaho (that includes the Gros Ventre), Blackfeet, Cheyenne, and Cree. The Cree are the northern Chippewas. And the Blackfeet are Cree according to those who have researched their history and linguistics. They are also known as the Ma-ski-go-walk. It means Swamp or Swampy People. Cheyenne means south in Chippewa. Of course, the Chippewa word for south is Shawan. Most think it is pronounced as Sha-wan but it is really pronounced as Shaw-an. Both the Arapaho (that includes the Gros Ventre) and Cheyenne, are the same people.
The Nez Perce
They are also Chippewa. In the Lake Nipissing region of Ontario, the Amikwa Chippewas live. Actually they live between the north shores of Lake Huron and Lake Nipissing. Amikwa in Chippewa means Beavers. The Amikwa are also known as the Nez Perce. The Amikwa Chippewas were forced to retreat from the Lake Nipissing region before 1661, by the white invaders and their Indian allies. By 1661, they were living along the northern shores of Lake Superior. They continued to follow prophecy and migrated west into the Alberta and Montana region. After reaching the Montana region, they commenced to wage war against the Flatheads. They eventually migrated west into Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. They also migrated down into northern California. Other Amikwa Chippewas migrated north into northern Alberta and northern British Columbia. They are the Beaver Tribe including the Sekani, of that region. Click this link http://www.wilkesweb.us/algonquin/nations.htm to visit The Center for Algonquin Culture . It has a list of Anishinabe speaking Chippewas or Anishinabek.
The 1876-1877 War
In 1876, the United States launched a military campaign against the Montana Chippewas. It lasted for nearly 3 years. The Nez Perce did not commence an exodus east, they commenced an exodus west, as told to do in the Seven Fires Prophecy. The so called Great Sioux War of 1876-1877, was fought primarily in Montana and Wyoming, and did not involve the Indians from South Dakota.
Great Falls Chippewa Reservation
This is a sensitive subject yet it needs to be addressed. There is evidence that Great Falls is within a Chippewa Reservation. During early 1894, two white entreprenuers wanted to promote the sun dance across Montana. Federal regulations prohitited the sun dance on Indian Reservations. Indian Reservations are under federal jurisdiction. Joe Lessard and John P. Dyas contacted chief Little Bear about the sun dance. They wanted the sun dance to be held at the Great Falls fairgrounds on June 14th, 15th, and 16th of 1894.
They met with chief Little Bear and after a period of negotiations, they reached an agreement to promote the sun dance. Chief Little Bear was always trying to find ways to raise money up to help his people. They needed to meet with leaders from the Great Falls Chamber of Commerse to get their approval for the sun dance. After meeting with the Great Falls Chamber of Commerse leaders, the Great Falls Chamber of Commerse gave their approval for the sun dance. However, there was a major problem. Federal regulations prohibited the sun dance on Indian Reservations. Indians who lived off Reservations, were not under federal jurisdiction and could hold the sun dance in white communities.
Supposedly, religious leaders of Great Falls did not want the sun dance held at Great Falls. They protested and then met with chief Little Bear on May 27, 1894, at a Chippewa village located along Sun River Road about 2 miles west or southwest of the Great Falls fairgrounds. It did not go well. Governor Rickards issued a proclmation banning the sun dance on June 5, 1894. Remember governor Rickards proclamation banning the sun dance because it's the center of this conspiracy. It did not stop the sun dance from being held at Havre on the 15th, 16th, and 17th of June, 1894. By 1894, Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation had been reduced in size and Havre was no longer on the Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation. It also didn't stop the sun dance from being held at, of all places, Helena (the home of governor Rickards) on July 4, 1894. And it also didn't stop the sun dance from being held at Butte a little later that same summer.
According to a reporter from the Havre Advertiser, he claimed the Chippewa village located along Sun River Road about 2 miles west or southwest of the Great Falls fairgrounds, had 45 lodges and a population of 150 people. Three people per lodge. His population estimate it too low. Things were different back then. Families had to support each other which means household sizes were larger then. The population of the Chippewa village had to be between 300 and 400. Six people per lodge.
And the other evidence that Great Falls, Montana is within a Chippewa Reservation, is very easy to find if you do enough research. Click this link http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/map_item.pl?style=law&data=/gmd370m/g3701m/g3701em/gct00002/ca000039.sid&title=Montana+1&itemLink=r?ammem/hlaw:@field%28DOCID+@lit%28llss/4015/786/235%29%29 to find where this Chippewa Reservation is located. Look for the numbers 399 and 574. The area with the number 398 is difficult to ascertain. Below is information which will help you learn more about this very sensitive subject.
The 1896 Great Falls Forced Relocations
In June of 1896, Montana Governor Rickards, sent a telegram to the sheriff of Cascade County, sheriff Dwyer, informing him to instruct major Sanno to round up the Little Shell Chippewas in the Great Falls region (in the June 17, 1896 issue of the Anaconda Standard they claimed it was the Cree but the Cree are the northern Chippewas who are known as Mus-ke-go-walk which means Swampy People) to prepare them for forced relocations.
On June 18, 1896, the first Little Shell Chippewas were forced to board trains in the Great Falls region. First Lieutenant John J. Pershing was looking for chief Little Bear but Little Bear was not around. Instead, Pershing met with chief Buffalo Coat. Chief Buffalo Coat told sheriff Dwyer the leading adviser in the tribe was a full blooded Chippewa who strongly opposed the deportations. He may have been chief Rocky Boy. Sheriff Dwyer described chief Buffalo Coat as intelligent who dealt with the predicament in a business like manner. He was bought.
Other locations in Montana, the Little Shell Chippewas were gathered to be sent to after boarding trains to be deported out of the Little Shell Chippewas Great Falls Reservation, were Custer (Custer, Montana was located adjacent to the Crow Reservation in 1896 - 200 to 300 Chippewas were relocated to Crow Reservation), Havre (almost adjacent to Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation - 100 to 200 Chippewas were relocated to Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation), Malta (a few miles east of Fort Belknap Reservation - 100 to 200 Chippewas relocated to Fort Belknap Reservation), Missoula (It's a few miles south of Flathead Reservation - 200 to 300 Chippewas were relocated to Flathead Reservation), and Glasgow (a few miles west of Fort Peck Reservation - 100 to 200 Chippewas relocated to Fort Peck Reservation). Most may have been relocated to the Wind River Reservation of Wyoming, in 1896.
Some Little Shell Chippewas were relocated to Alberta (the Montana Reserve) and Saskatchewan (Onion Lake Reserve). However, the whites were cautious about relocating the Chippewas to Canada. Exactly how many originally lived in the Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin region, is not known. Many were refugees from the 1862 Minnesota Indian War.
It was reported that the Chippewas were only to be relocated to Canada. That is a lie. During those times and even now, the whites have used the excuse that the Montana Chippewas were from Canada. That is incorrect. Only a few Chippewas fled south back to their native Montana, in 1885. The immediate families of chiefs Little Bear, Little Poplar, and Lucky Man. Probably at the most 50 people but to be realistic not more than 30 Chippewas returned to Montana, in 1885.
Chippewas followed prophecy. They knew if they fled to an area with a large white population, it meant destruction. If they fled anywhere it was north. So many Chippewas from the Great Lakes region, followed the Seven Fires Prophecy and migrated west into Montana. That is the issue the United States refused to deal with in an honorable manner. Exactly how many of the Montana Chippewas who were sent back to Minnesota and Wisconsin, is unknown. They even relocated the Chippewas who were born and raised in Montana, out of Montana.
What happened in 1896, was the deliberate forced relocation of several thousand Chippewas in the Great Falls region and north central Montana, to other Reservations in Montana and elsewhere. It was done to reduce the large Chippewa population in the Great Falls region and north central Montana. What actually caused the forced relocations was the illegal theft of the Little Shell Chippewas Reservation in the Great Falls region. It is the land chief Little Shell III refused to cede. After chief Little Shell III was arrested in May of 1895, the United States wasted little time indulging in criminal activity.
Other locations the Little Shell Chippewas of Montana were relocated to in 1896 include the following Reservations: Yakima Reservation; Fort McDermitt Reservation; Yurok-Hoopa Reservation; Pyramid Lake Reservation; Temoak Reservation; Uintah-Ouray Reservation; Chemehuevi Reservation; Augua Caliente Reservation; Morongo Reservation; Torres Martinez Reservation; Papago or Tohono O'odham Reservations; Yankton Reservation; Fort Berthold Reservation; Spirit Lake Reservation; Red Lake Reservation; Leech Lake Reservation; Lac Courte Oreilles Reservation; Bad River Reservation; Brighton Reservation (?) of Florida; and White Earth Reservation.
It is known that the Little Shell Chippewas or Pembina Chippewas, were set aside a Reservation within White Earth Reservation in 1873. After the 1876-1877 War in Montana, the Little Shell Chippewas who were relocated to Oklahoma, were forcefully relocated to Fort Marion, Florida. They were eventually allowed to settle in southern Florida. They were to hostile while in Oklahoma and Florida was an ideal location to keep them at peace.
This following link http://www.nps.gov/nagpra/documents/ResMAP.HTM has a map of the Indian Reservations in the United States. Look for the number 173. Click on "Map Index" or click this link http://www.nps.gov/nagpra/documents/ResMapIndex.htm to find a list of the numbers which identify each Indian Reservation. For 173 it has OUT. It really represents the forced relocation of the Little Shell Chippewas of Montana, out of Montana.
In 1898, chief Buffalo Coat, who was a leader of the Chippewas in the Great Falls region, requested from the State of Montana and the federal government, for State aid, land, and citizenship. Their reply was quite different from their 1894 reply. The State of Montana and federal government claimed no jurisdiction to settle the Chippewas on a Reservation or support them. Remember in 1894 they claimed jurisdiction in their crooked way.
Land Claim Lawsuit
In 1950, Joseph Dussome, Elizabeth Swan, leaders from Rocky Boy's Reservation, and other Chippewa leaders, hired a lawyer then filed a land claim lawsuit in 1951. Instead of including the entire land area of the original Blackfeet Reservation which was created on October 17, 1855, they confined their land claim to the land area of the original Blackfeet Reservation with the number 565 or the 3rd Blackfeet Reservation. On April 5, 1974, the United States again refused to honor treaty. They rejected the land claim lawsuit.
Those Little Shell Chippewas who continue to side with Joseph Dussome and those other Chippewa leaders who filed the land claim lawsuit, must relocate their Little Shell Tribe office to the area with the number 565. Great Falls is within the land area with the number 399. Dussome and those other Little Shell Chippewa leaders made themselves clear. They confined their land claim lawsuit to the land area with the number 565 or the 3rd Blackfeet Reservation.
They confined their land claim lawsuit to the April 15, 1874 Treaty. Click this link http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/S?ammem/hlaw:@filreq%28@band%28@field%28DATE+18740415%29+@field%28FLD003+@band%28llss+c56%29%29%29+@field%28COLLID+llss%29%29 to read the April 15, 1874 Treaty. They included the Crow but did not include the Crow in the treaty which created the original Blackfeet Reservation on October 17, 1855.
According to the pdf book mentioned above about the history of the Little Shell Chippewa and geneological information, a meeting was held at the family ranch of Joseph Paul. The meeting happened in 1921 near Lewistown, Montana, according to Howard Paul who was Joseph Paul's son. It is on page 92. We know from that same book that the Montana Chippewas were continuing to govern the entire land area of the original Blackfeet Reservation.
On page 119, it is written that a meeting was held at Joseph Paul's home in Great Falls, Montana on June 10, 1939. Even in 1939, they were assigning representatives for districts throughout the original Blackfeet Reservation. Those districts are: Wolf Point (565); Hays (565); Harlem (565); Box Elder (565); Dupuyer (574); August (399); Great Falls (399 and 574); Lewistown (399); and Helena (398).
After the June 10, 1939 meeting, the Little Shell Tribes government experienced friction. By 1950, Joseph Dussome and the other Chippewa leaders mentioned above, gave up then hired a lawyer. The following year, they filed the land claim lawsuit for the land area with the number 565.
It is that information which proves the Chippewas did not cede their vast Reservation which is the original Blackfeet Reservation created on October 17, 1855. Since a delegation of Chippewa leaders confined their land claim lawsuit to the area with the number 565, the remaining part of the original Blackfeet Reservation must assume the new name of the Judith Basin Indian Reservation or more properly, the Judith River Indian Reservation. And they must dispute the land area with the number 565. In the land claim lawsuit, they included the new Reservation established on April 15, 1874, which is the 3rd Blackfeet Reservation.
We have to include the land area with the number 574 because a district was located within that land area in 1939. Of course, that was Dupuyer, Montana which is 6 miles south of the 4th Blackfeet Reservation. Land areas with the numbers 398 and 399, were not ceded by the September 1, 1868 Treaty. It is claimed by the United States that the September 1, 1868 Treaty was not ratified.
Chippewa leaders did not consent to cede the land areas with the numbers 398, 399, and 574, after the July 5, 1873 Treaty was signed. Supposedly, the land area with the number 399 was ceded but that is not true. And they made no mention of land area 398 which means something is off. If you read the October 17, 1855 Treaty, you'll notice it is written: with the consent of the Indians, by Executive order of July 5, 1873, a reserve was set apart for the joint occupancy of the Gros Ventres, Piegan, Bloods, Blackfeet, and River Crows.
This reserve is supposedly the second Blackfeet Reservation which covers the land areas with the numbers 565 and 574. If the reserve is actually the land area with the numbers 398, 399, and 574 it means the United States is covering up the fact. If the Blackfeet relinquished a portion of their original Reservation, it was probably the land area with the number 565. We know the land claim lawsuit was about land area 565. We also know the Chippewas were governing the land areas with the numbers 398, 399, and 574 in 1939. And we know the Chippewa Representatives from the land area with the number 565, operated their own organization.
So to continue this dispute, we have to include the 4th Blackfeet Reservation, as well as the original Rocky Boy's Reservation (aka Fort Assiniboine Indian Reservation), and also Fort Belknap Reservation and the Valley County Chippewa Reservation set aside in 1909. They are connected to the Judith River Indian Reservation.
We also have to include the Flathead Reservations which include the Columbia, Colville-Spokane, and Kalispell Reservations. We also have to include Coeur d'Alene Reservation, Kootenai Reservation, Lemhi Reservation, and many others. Why? The United States made a blunder by placing the Continental Divide in the wrong place on maps from the 19th century and even now. The Rocky Mountain Trench is the true Continental Divide.
Chiefs Little Shell III, Red Thunder, and other Chippewa leaders refused to cede the original Blackfeet Reservation in 1892. They continued to honor the treaties which created their vast Reservation. The United States hired Chippewa leaders who did not have the authority to cede the original Blackfeet Reservation, to sign the fraudulent 1892 McCumber Agreement, which was passed by the United States in 1904.
First Chippewas possibly invaded the Montana region. However, it may have happened centuries earlier.
A planned expedition to the west was led by an Italian. They sailed towards the west for several months before landing on one of the islands of what is now the Bahamas.
Chippewas from the Montana region, were sent to the east to support the Great Lakes Chippewas in wars against the invading whites and their Indian allies. According to Chippewa author George Copway, the Chippewas forced their way to the east from the west. According to the 1832 Edinburgh Encyclopedia, the Lenni Lenape or Delaware Tribe, forced their way from the Missouri River region to the east. They are the Chippewas.
Lewis and Clark reached the Great Falls, Montana region on June 13. They discovered the village situated near where the current Hill 57 Chippewa settlement is.
Chief Ignace (Aeneas) Paul arrived to the Bitterroot Valley of western Montana. He was possibly the first Paul to live in Montana. If he was, the Montana Paul clan laid down their first roots in western Montana. Antoine Plante had reached Montana a few years before.
White settlers commenced to invade the Great Plains from the West and East. Chippewa soldiers were constantly at war against the invading whites and their Indian allies.
Last of the Chippewa Wars against the United States were fought in Idaho, Montana, and Oregon. Many Chippewas followed prophecy and migrated west into Idaho, Oregon, Washington, and to Canada.
An exodus to the west commenced. After a few months the United States halted the westward exodus but the Chippewas commenced an exodus to the north into Alberta and Saskatchewan. They were led there by chiefs Big Bear and Sitting Bull.
Chief Joseph and many Chippewas (Nez Perce) are arrested and relocated to Oklahoma. A few years later, chief Joseph and many Chippewas were freed but forced to relocate to the Colville Reservation in Washington.
A.D. 1879 or 1888
Joseph Paul is born near Fort McGinnis, Montana. His birth is strange because his mother may have been Elzear Paul's first wife. She was Rose LaPlante. She passed away in 1881. Click on the worldconnect.genealogy link below to learn about the mother and the mysterious birth of Joseph Paul.
Chief Sitting Bull surrendered to the United States. He was forced to relocate to the Cheyenne River-Standing Rock Reservation of North Dakota and South Dakota.
Chiefs Little Shell III, Red Thunder, and many other Chippewa leaders are arrested and forced to relocate to the Turtle Mountain Reservation in North Dakota. Many barricaded themselves in a fort but eventually surrendered. Chief Little Shell III and about 150 to 200 Chippewa soldiers, arrived to the fort after the surrender. Afterwards, chief Little Shell III was arrested. This event ended Chippewa resistance. Relocations commenced afterwards.
Chippewas in the Great Falls region, are forced to relocate to Canada, Flathead Reservation, and Reservations in the southwest (Arizona and California). Many, however, continued to refuse to relocate.
Chippewas are set aside a Reservation in the northwestern part of the Flathead Reservation.
Many Chippewas are upset about the Land Act's. On November 2, 1906 a group of Chippewas were stopped in southeastern Montana by United States soldiers. White historians claim the Indians were Utes but they were Chippewas. They were relocated to the Cheyenne River Reservation of South Dakota.
Swan Valley Massacre leads to 4 Chippewas and one white being killed. The massacre happened a few miles east of the Flathead Reservation.
Up to 200 Chippewa's are relocated to a new Chippewa Reservation within the Blackfeet Reservation. Surplus land at the Blackfeet Reservation went to the whites. The new Chippewa Reservation within the Blackfeet Reservation, is the fourth Blackfeet Reservation. On November 13, 1909, the first train loads of Chippewa settlers reached their new Chippewa Blackfeet Reservation.
A new Reservation is created for the Chippewas from Fort Peck Reservation. Indian Inspector Frank Churchill requested for and received 60 townships or 2,160 sq. mi. for the Chippewas from Fort Peck Reservation. The 2,160 sq. mi. was added on to the Fort Belknap Reservation. It is located adjacent to the western border of Fort Belknap Reservation. With the new land addition, the size of Fort Belknap Reservation increased to 3,160 sq. mi. In November of 1909, the first Chippewa settlers arrived to their new Chippewa Fort Belknap Reservation.
Chief Pennato leads 100s of Chippewa's off their new Reservation in the Blackfeet Reservation in late 1910. Many fled towards southwest Montana then into Idaho. By early 1911, they are in northern Nevada. A small group of perhaps 12, butchered four white ranchers and one Chinese man. On February 26, 1911 a white posse caught them in northwestern Nevada and killed eight of them. It is known as the Shoshone Mike Massacre. What caused the exodus was land allotments.
Chief Rocky Boy passed away. Some speculate chief Rocky Boy was assassinated. He was instrumental in having new Chippewa Reservations created in Montana, for the Chippewas of Idaho and Montana.
Rocky Boy Reservation is supposedly established. However, it is a part of the new Chippewa Reservation created in 1909 for the Chippewas from Fort Peck Reservation. Up to 500 new Chippewa settlers were relocated to Rocky Boy's Reservation, after it was officially created in 1916. Some of the Chippewas came from Idaho.
Last exodus of the Montana Chippewas leads to near 200 Chippewas being relocated to the Navajo Reservation. Many fled to Hill 57. Between 1900 and 1934, 1,000s of Montana Chippewas were relocated to the Navajo Reservation. In the 1940s, many were relocated to the Colorado River Indian Reservation of Arizona and California. These Chippewas were removed from Reservation rolls for some reason in 1916 and 1917.
Joseph Paul forms the Little Shell Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana. He claims the July 16, 1855 Hell Gate Treaty and October 17, 1855 Blackfeet Treaty, are not valid. Since Joseph Paul may have been in his 40s at the time, the formation of the Little Shell Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana, may have happened years earlier.
Indian Reorganization Act is passed. Several 1,000 Chippewas are still living throughout the original Blackfeet Reservation, in their own communities. Their communities or enclaves or ghettos, were usually located adjacent to or very near white settlements. Though the number of Chippewa communities had dropped since 1900, there were still a few in the 1930s. During the 1930s, the United States possibly relocated 1,000s of Montana Chippewas to the Navajo Reservation. Land additions were added to the Navajo Reservation in 1930 and 1934, specifically for the landless Chippewas of Montana, and also California and Nevada.
Joseph Paul passed away. To this day the Little Shell Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana are not recognized by the United States. Joseph Paul made certain it would stay that way. To learn about the land owned by the Chippewa's at Little Shell Mountain (Hill 57) which was auctioned off in 1950, click the digital.library.okstate.edu link below. Though the United States won't let the truth be known, the Chippewas did own considerable land around Hill 57. The current Little Shell Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana were in a dispute some time ago which was recently settled. They are after federal recognition.
What you don't know about this group of Chippewas, is the land they claim. That is nearly all of Montana and parts of several other States. Joseph Paul's defiance will be kept alive!
Additional References to the History of the Tribe
Crow-Northern Cheyenne Reservation.
Fort Peck Reservation.
Wind River Reservation.
Fort Hall Reservation.
Nez Perce Reservation.
Coeur d'Alene Reservation.
Warm Springs Reservation.
Coastal Oregon Reservation.
Round Valley Reservation.
All California Indian Rancherias.
Important Web Sites
- Constitution of the Little Shell Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Montana
- Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
- Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 Available online.
- Klein, Barry T., ed. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat 317923332; FHL book 970.1 R259e.
- Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. WorldCat 37475188; FHL book 970.1 G131g.
- Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean
- Vol. 2 -- Great Basin, Southwest, Middle America
- Vol. 3 -- Arctic, Subarctic, Great Plains, Plateau
- Vol. 4 -- California, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Islands
- Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .
- Volume 1 -- Not yet published
- Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- WorldCat 234303751
- Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- WorldCat 255572371
- Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- WorldCat 19331914; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4.
- Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- WorldCat 299653808; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5.
- Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat 247493742; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6.
- Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- WorldCat 247493311
- Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 13240086; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8.
- Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- WorldCat 26140053; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9.
- Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- WorldCat 301504096; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10.
- Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- WorldCat 256516416; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11.
- Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- WorldCat 39401371; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12.
- Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- WorldCat 48209643
- Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- WorldCat 254277176
- Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 356517503; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15.
- Volume 16 -- Not yet published
- Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- WorldCat 43957746
- Volume 18 -- Not yet published
- Volume 19 -- Not yet published
- Volume 20 -- Not yet published
- Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.
- Waldman, Carl. Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. New York, New York: Facts on File, 2006. 3rd ed. WorldCat 14718193; FHL book 970.1 W146e 2006.
- This page was last modified on 16 September 2014, at 13:47.
- This page has been accessed 3,827 times.
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