Navajo Nation, Arizona (Reservation)Edit This Page

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United StatesGotoarrow.pngIndians of North AmericaGotoarrow.pngIndians of the United States and Their RecordsGotoarrow.pngArizonaGotoarrow.pngIndians of Arizona

For Tribal Information see Indians of Arizona, Navajo Nation, Arizona (Tribe) and Navajo Indians

The Navajo Indian Reservation is a federally-recognized reservation, located in northeastern Arizona. the reservation is located in Apache, Navajo, and Coconino Counties, Arizona  

Established -- June 1, 1868.
Agency (BIA) --
Principal tribes --Chippewa or Navajo Algonquin (Athabascan or Dene is an Algonquian Language)
Population -- Reservation population is 173,667 according to the 2010 census.

Contents

History

On June 1, 1868, two treaties were signed which created the Navajo Reservation. One was signed by Chippewa leaders in Kansas, while the other was signed in New Mexico Territory. The United States did not ratify the June 1, 1868 Treaty signed by Chippewa leaders in Kansas. Click this following link Unratified treaty of June 1, 1868, with the Christian and Munsee Indians and the Swan Creek and Black River bands of Chippewa Indians to read the June 1, 1868 Treaty signed by Chippewa leaders in Kansas. Click this following link Treaty signed in New Mexico 6173067/print to read the treaty signed in New Mexico.

One treaty was not ratified, while the other was ratified. Both treaties were signed on the same day and year. Chippewa Traditionalists must use the June 1, 1868 Treaty signed by Chippewa leaders of Kansas, as educational proof the Navajo Reservation is a Chippewa Reservation. Navajo People will not accept this information. Chippewa Traditionalists will save it for future generations. It is the 1838-1839 Chippewa Exodus to the west which led to the creation of the Navajo Reservation.

On January 29, 1868, the Chippewa leader who led the Chippewa Exodus from Michigan and Ohio, to the Kansas region, in 1838-1839, chief Eshtonoquot, passed away. Chief Eshtonoquot did not want to leave the Kansas. After his death, new Chippewa leaders commenced to negotiate with the Americans. They were far more willing to relocate to Indian Territory.

For some time, many of the Algonquin's had been leaving the Kansas region for the west and Oklahoma. After the June 1, 1868 Treaty, the relocation of the Kansas Chippewas to both the Navajo Reservation and Oklahoma, began to dramatically increase. The relocation went on up to the early 20th century.
To learn more about the Chippewas of Kansas, click this following link Chippewas of Kansas History 1983 Winter Herring. To learn the Athabascan People or Dene People including the Apache, Chipewyan, and Navajo are Algonquin, click this following link Google Books.

United States bought a small part of the Chippewa Reservation located primarily in Iowa, with small areas in Minnesota and northwest Missouri. It is known as the Platte Purchase. Chippewa leaders were not pleased about losing their land in northwest Missouri. A minor war followed in 1836.

Another minor war happened in northwestern Missouri historians refer to as the Mormon War of 1838. It was the Chippewa's who continued to live in northwestern Missouri who were driven out of northwestern Missouri.

On August 24, 1816, another treaty signed by Chippewa leaders ceded the land in western Illinois, that was originally ceded on November 3, 1804.

Chippewa's were already forcing their way into northern Mexico by 1843. They followed the Seven Fires Prophecy which told them to migrate west.

Exodus of 1846-1848

Chippewa leaders knew from prophecy that they had to move west away from the invading whites. On June 5, 1846, the United States again refused to honor treaty that created the 5 million acre Chippewa Reservation in Iowa, Minnesota, and Missouri. Chippewa leaders responded by sending out many of their explorers to the west to find land.

Chippewa scouts were sent as far as the deserts of southern Arizona and southern California, to find land. Some Chippewa scouts found northern Utah an ideal location to migrate to and after returning to Iowa, explained to Chippewa leaders how they felt. After a council, they agreed they to flee to northern Mexico.

However, a large group made the decision to commence an exodus to northern Utah. They reached northern Utah and commenced to settle down. Among them were a few white Mormon Missionaries. Soon after reaching northern Utah, other Chippewa's were instructed to migrate to the deserts of southern California and also Arizona. Many settled in the region between Los Angeles and San Bernardino. Many others migrated down to southern Utah then to northern Arizona and northern New Mexico. They merged with the native Navajo of that location.

On September 9, 1849, the United States signed a treaty with Navajo leaders which defined their territory. American leaders did not honor the September 9, 1849 Treaty.

After the September 9, 1849 Treaty, the Americans were allowed to establish trading posts and to travel through the State. In 1861, the United States launched military campaigns against the Chippewa State. By July 20, 1863, the Chippewa's of Arizona surrendered and were taken to Fort Defiance.

Exodus of 1864

In 1864, around 9,000 Chippewa's commenced to leave the Kansas and Oklahoma region, for the west. Many more headed down to northern Mexico. The Civil War may have influenced the Chippewa's to commence an exodus. Most fled to northern Mexico.
On January 8, 1865, the Battle of Dove Creek was fought in western Texas, between the Chippewa's and Confederated soldiers. It was won by the Chippewa's who continued their migration to northern Mexico.
The exodus commenced in August of 1864 and went on to 1868. The Chippewa's who migrated west into the Arizona and New Mexico region, reached Fort Sumner, New Mexico in the late spring or early summer of 1864. They were held at an interment camp at Bosque Redondo.

Creation of the Navajo Reservation

American leaders had to first negotiate with Chippewa leaders from Kansas, before actually reducing the size of the State of Deseret. The Chippewa's who remained in Iowa after their 5 million acre Reservation was eradicated, relocated to Kansas and Oklahoma soon after. They are the Saginaw or Swan Creek and Black River Chippewa's.

On June 1, 1868, the United States reached a treaty agreement with Chippewa leaders of Kansas which greatly reduced the size of the State of Deseret and established a much smaller Reservation. It was small compared to the Navajo Reservation of today. Land additions increased the size of Navajo Reservation.

1878

In 1878, a land addition was added on to the Navajo Reservation. It is located adjacent to the west side of the 1868 Reservation. Exactly, who the land was set aside for is unknown yet we know about the Cheyenne Exodus of 1877-1879.

1880

In 1880, another land addition was added on to Navajo Reservation. It is located to the west, south, and east of the 1868 Reservation. It was probably set aside for the Cheyenne of Colorado called the White River Utes who fought a war in 1879 in Colorado.

1882

In 1882, another land addition was added on to Navajo Reservation, established for the Hopi.

1884

In 1884, another land addition was added on to Navajo Reservation. It is a large area located adjacent to the northern part of the 1868 Reservation and to the west. It extends up to southern Utah. It may have been set aside for the Cheyenne from the Montana region. In 1884, the Cheyenne Chippewa's were also assigned to the Northern Cheyenne Reservation.

1886

In 1886, another land addition was added on to Navajo Reservation. It is adjacent to the northeastern part of the 1868 Reservation. It may have been set aside for the Cheyenne Chippewa's or the Nez Perce who are the Amikwa Chippewa's. Chief Joseph and the Nez Perce of Oklahoma were allowed to leave Oklahoma in 1885.

1900

For a period of 14 years no land additions were added on to Navajo Reservation. However, the Chippewa's of Idaho, Minnesota, Montana, and Wyoming were yet defiant in through 1890s and early 20th century.
In 1898, the Leech Lake Rebellion caused much unrest in Minnesota. In response to the conflict, the United States added on a large area of land to the Navajo Reservation. It is located adjacent to the west side of Hopi Reservation. It is probably the 4th largest land addition.
Betwen 1900 and 1934, the Chippewa's of Montana were continuing to live throughout the Reservation established for them in the 19th century in Idaho and Montana. Chief Rocky Boy and chief Little Bear, negotiated on their behalf to have new Reservations set aside for them.

1901

In 1901, another small land addition was added on to Navajo Reservation. It is located in the extreme southwestern part of the Reservation, adjacent to Hopi Reservation. It may have been set aside for Minnesota Chippewa's or Montana Chippewa's. Both locations yet had defiant Chippewa's.

1905

In 1905, another land addition was added on to Navajo Reservation. It is located in the extreme northern part of the Reservation, adjacent to the 1884 land addition. It was probably set aside for the Chippewa's of Idaho (the Lemhi Shoshone Chippewa's) and Montana. Chiefs Rocky Boy and Little Bear, were increasing their negotiations in 1904 and 1905.

1907

In 1907, another large land addition was added on to Navajo Reservation. It is located in the far eastern part of the Reservation, adjacent to the 1880 land addition, and far southern part of the Reservation, also adjacent to the 1880 land addition. It was set aside for the Chippewa's of Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming.
The Lemhi Reservation was eradicated in 1905 and in 1907 several hundred Chippewa's were forced to leave the old Reservation. In the Anaconda and Butte region of Montana, the Chippewa's who lived to the south of those two cities, were told in 1907 they had to leave the area.
The whites warned them if they didn't leave, they would be interned. A large group of Chippewa's fled the northern part of Wind River Reservation after the northern part of Wind River Reservation was opened to white settlement on August 15, 1906. They fled northeast to southeast Montana, where the were captured in November of 1906. Many were sent to South Dakota but most were sent to the new land addition added on to Navajo Reservation in 1907.

1913

In 1913, another small land addition was added on to the Navajo Reservation. It is located in the northeastern part of the Reservation, adjacent to the 1868 Reservation. It was set aside for Montana Chippewa's.
Chief Rocky Boy fled the Blackfeet Reservation in 1913 and moved to the area where St. Peters Mission was located near Ulm, Montana which is 8 miles southwest of Great Falls. About 35 Chippewa's fled the Blackfeet Reservation in 1913.

1918

In 1918, another land addition was added on to Navajo Reservation. It is located in the extreme southwestern part of the Reservation, adjacent to the 1900 land addition. It was set aside for Montana Chippewa's who were removed from Rocky Boy Reservation rolls in 1916-1917.

1930

In 1930, another land addition was added on to Navajo Reservation. It is located in the far western part of the Reservation, adjacent to the 1900 land addition. It was set aside for either Minnesota Chippewa's or Montana Chippewa's. Both locations yet had defiant Chippewa's.

1934

In 1934, the last land addition was added on to Navajo Reservation. It is located in the southern and southeastern part of the Reservation, adjacent to the land additions of 1901 and 1907. It was set aside for either Minnesota Chippewa's or Montana Chippewa's.

Treaties

  • 1849September 9,
  • 1868 June 1, removal, reservation

Records

'Enrollment Records:

Tribal enrollment for the Navajo Nation is handled through:
Navajo Office of Vital Records
P.O. Box 9000
Window Rock, AZ 86515
Telephone: 928-871-6386 or 928-729-4020
Everyone enrolled as a member of the Navajo Nation since 1925 has been assigned a tribal census number. Those records are also maintained by this office.

Land records: Tribal land: 12,940 Allotted Land: 722,854 [1]

Web Sites

References

  1. Indian Reservations A State and Federal Handbook. Compiled by The Confederation of American Indians, New York, N.Y. McFarland and Co. Inc., Jefferson, North Carolina, c. 1986. FHL book 970.1 In2

Bibliography

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  • Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30, 1906. This publication lists the 22 states which had reservations in 1908. Available online.
  • Kappler, Charles J. Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office, 1902. 7 volumes. WorldCat 74490963; FHL book 970.1 K142iAvailable online.
  • Klein, Barry T., ed. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat 317923332; FHL book 970.1 R259e.
  • Prucha, Francis Paul. Atlas of American Indian Affairs. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 1991 WorldCat 257331735; FHL book 970.1 P95aa
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  • Prucha, Francis Paul. Guide to the Military Posts of the United States, 1789-1895. Madison, Wisconsin: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, c1964. WorldCat 522839; FHL book 973 M2pf.
  • Schmeckebier, Laurance F. The Office of Indian Affairs: Its History, Activities, and Organization. Service Monographs of the United States Government; no. 48. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1927. Reprint. New York: AMS Press, 1972.  WorldCat 257893; FHL book 973 B4b v. 48.
  • Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .
Volume 1 -- Not yet published
Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- WorldCat 234303751
Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- WorldCat 255572371
Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- WorldCat 19331914; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4.
Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- WorldCat 299653808; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5.
Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat 247493742; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6.
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Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- WorldCat 301504096; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10.
Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- WorldCat 256516416; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11.
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Volume 16 -- Not yet published
Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- WorldCat 43957746
Volume 18 -- Not yet published
Volume 19 -- Not yet published
Volume 20 -- Not yet published
  • Tiller, Veronica E. Velarde. American Indian Reservations and Trust Areas. [Washington, DC]: Economic Development Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, 1996. WorldCat 35209517; FHL book 970.1 T463a.
  • United States Department of Commerce, Frederick B. Dent, Secretary. Federal and State Reservations and Trust Areas. 1974. FHL book 970.1 Un3fe/1974.
  • United States Department of the Interior. Executive Orders Relating to Indian Reservations. Washington: [United States] Government Printing Office, 1912 (v. 1), 1922 (v. 2). Vol. 1 – May 14, 1855 to July 1, 1912. Vol. 2 – July 1, 1912 to July 1, 1922. FHL film 1440543 Items 8-9.
  • United States Federal and State Indian Reservations, Map. Available online.
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  • Waldman, Carl. Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. New York, New York: Facts on File, 2006. 3rd ed. WorldCat 14718193; FHL book 970.1 W146e 2006.

 

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  • This page was last modified on 25 January 2015, at 15:28.
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