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Ancestral Homeland: Kansas and Nebraska (on Platte River and the Republican Fork of the Kansas River)

The Pawnee Nation is primarily associated with the state of Oklahoma [1].

Linguistic Group: Caddoan

Contents

Tribal Headquarters

Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma
P.O. Box 470
Pawnee, OK 74058
Phone: 1.918.762.3621
Fax: 1.918.762.6446

History

A history of the Pawnee Nation is included in a National Historical Register .pdf file, p. 29ff., available on the internet (takes time to load).

The Pawnee Nation (Confederacy) consisted of four bands:

  • Chaui or Grand Pawnee,
  • Kitkehahki or Republican Pawnee,
  • Pitahuerat or Tapage Pawnee,
  • Skidi or Skiri Pawnee

Brief Timeline

  • 1541: Spanish explorer Francisco Vasquez de Coronado made contact with the tribe
  • 1601: Juan de Onate a Spanish explorer
  • 1770: Southern Pawnee migrated northward near the Northern Pawnee (Skidi) Platte River, Loup River, and the Republican Fork of the Kansas River (Nebraska)
  • June 18-22,1818: St. Louis, Missouri Territory. Peace was concluded with the tribes of the region disturbed by the War of 1812.
  • 1818 June 18,Treaty with the Grand Pawnee
  • 1818 June 19, Treaty with the Pitahuerat Noisy Pawnee
  • 1818 June 20, Treaty with the Pawnee Republic
  • 1818 June 22, Treaty with the Pawnee Marhar
  • 1824-37: Upper Missouri Agency
  • 1825 September 30, Treaty at Fort Atkinson, (Council Bluffs), Iowa, regulation of trade
  • 1833 October 9,Treaty at Grand Pawnee Village on the Platte River, land ceded "all land lying south of the Platte River: annuity: $4,600 in goods"
  • 1834-1847: Presbyterian Missionaries John Dunbar and Samuel Allis established a church
  • 1837-56: Council Bluffs Agency
  • 1848 August 6, Treaty at Fort Childs, Nebraska ceded 60 mile strip on the Platte River and Grand Island
  • 1856-59: Otoe Agency
  • 1857 September 24, Treaty at Table Creek, Nebraska Territory, land ceded, reservation. provision for half-breeds
  • 1859 Judge James Lisle Gillis was appointed special agent for the Pawnee. He decided to locate the agency in Genoa, (Genoa, Nance County, Nebraska) Mormons had originally established Genoa. He forced the Mormons to leave.
  • 1859-80: Pawnee Agency (Nebraska)
  • 1861-1865: Frank Joshua North and Luther H. North (brothers) of Columbus, Nebraska organized the Pawnee Scout for service on the frontier during the Civil War.
  • 1869 June 9, Battle of Summit Springs, Major (Brevet Major General) Eugene A. Carr commander of the 5th U.S. Cavalry, lead and expedition against the Cheyenne along the Republican River. Major Frank J. North and the Pawnee Scouts participated.[2]
  • 1865-1885: Frank and Luther North organized a battalion (U.S. Army) of Pawnee scouts; they worked as guard for railroad construction crews.
  • 1873 August 5, Massacre Canyon; Sioux war party ambushed a Pawnee hunting party killing 150. The Sioux were tribal enemies of the Pawnee.
  • 1873-1874: Two groups removed from homeland along the Platte River in Nebraska to a reservation in Indian Territory near the Cimarron River (Pawnee County, Oklahoma)
  • 1874-1876 removal population of Tribe 650
  • 1875: A third group (mainly the Skidis) removed to Indian Territory, lead by Baptiste Bayhylle
  • 1875- Present: Pawnee Agency (Oklahoma)
  • 1873-75: Wichita Agency
  • 1876: Pawnee Reservation on Loup River established
  • 1883: Population of Tribe 1,213
  • 1883: Woman's National Indian Association established a mission it became the Methodist Episcopal Church in 1884
  • 1892: Land in severity and became citizens of the U.S.
  • 1937 an official census of the Pawnee Indian Tribe of Oklahoma compiled.
  • 1962 Pawnee Indian Tribe of Oklahoma v. The United States. United States Court of Federal Claims

Agencies with Jurisdiction over the Tribe

The Pawnee Nation was assigned to the following Agencies: Many records for the Pawnee tribe are listed on the Agency pages.

1824-37: Upper Missouri Agency 1837-56: Council Bluffs Agency 1856-59: Otoe Agnecy 1859-80: Pawnee Agency (Nebraska) 1873-1875: Wichita Agency 1875- Present: Pawnee Agency (Oklahoma) These agencies were under the following Superintendencies: St. Louis Superintendency, Central Superintendency and Northern Superintendency

Reservations

Pawnee Reservation (Oklahoma)

Additional References to the History of the Tribe

Frederick Webb Hodge, in his Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, gave a more complete history of the Pawnee tribe, with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods. Additional details in David Bushnell's Villages of the Algonquian, Siouan and Caddoan Tribes West of the Mississippi.

Pawnee Pride: A History of Pawnee County. By Kenny A. Franks and Paul F. Lambert. Oklahoma Heritage Association C 1994 FHL Collection

Indian Sketcher Taken During an Expedition to the Pawnee Tribes [1833]. by John Treat Irving, Jr. and Ed John Francis McDermott. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, OK C 1955 FHL Book 970.3 P289

The Pawnee Indians, By George E. Hyde. C 1951. University of Oklahoma Press FHL Book 970.3 P289h

Records

Allotment

Allotment Rolls and Index to allotment numbers, 1887-1929. United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs, Pawnee Agency. Fort Worth, TX FHL film 1204636 Items 2 and 3

Pawnee Indian Reservation Land Allotment Ledger. United States Bureau of Indian Affairs, Pawnee Agency. Fort Worth, TX. FHL film 1025300

Annuity Payroll Records

Annuity Payroll records, 1883-1928. United States Bureau of Indian Affairs, Pawnee Agency. Fort Worth, TX FHL film 1023974 Item 2 (first of 5 films)

Cemetery Records

Pawnee County Oklahoma Cemeteries. By Beverly Herver Tubbs and John Joseph Balcer III. Vol 1 c. 1991. Published by Lone Chimney Press, Morrison, OK FHL Collection

Census

1889-1891 Rolls of Indian Tribes in Oklahoma. by Emily Johnson including the Pawnee Tribe FHL film 227281

Correspondence and Census

Tribe Agency Location of Original Records

Pre-1880 Correspondence M234 RG 75 Rolls 962

FHL Film Number 1885 Census M595 RG 75 Rolls 693 Roll Numbers Film Numbers
Pawnee
Upper Missouri Agency, 1824-37 Washington D.C. Rolls 883-88 FHL film 1661613 - 1661618 Rolls 386-391 FHL film 579745 - 579753
Pawnee Council Bluffs Agency 1837-56 Kansas City Rolls 215-18 FHL film 1660945 - 1660948
Pawnee (Ponca) Agency, 1859-1964 Washington D.C.and Fort Worth Rolls 659-68, 670-77 FHL film 1661389 - 1661398 Rolls 336-43, 386-91 FHL film 580765 - 580770

Heirship Records

Heirship Records Prior to 1940. United States Bureau of Indian Affairs Pawnee Agency. FHL film 1205533 Item 2

Register of Indian Families, Pawnee Tribe, 1905-1907. United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs. Pawnee Agency Fort Worth, TX FHL film 1023976 Item 2

Military Records

  • 1861-1869 Pawnee Scouts of Nebraska; list of Pawnee's who served as scouts for the military www.ancestry.com

Original Discharge Papers, 1864-1877 (Military-Civil War) United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs. Pawnee Agency. Fort Worth, TX. FHL film 1205532 item 1

Debra Graden, Nebraska Pawnee Scouts,1861-69. {database on-line} Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com 1999

The Fighting Norths and Pawnee Scouts: Narrative and Reminiscences of Military Service on the Old Frontier. by Robert Bruce FHL fiche 6101592 or book 970.3 P289b

School Records

School Census, 1934-1944. United States, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Pawnee Agency. Fort Worth, Tx FHL films 1204636 and 1205532
Pawnee School Student Roster, 1947-1950. United States. Bureau of Indian Affairs, Pawnee Agency, Fort Worth, TX FHL film 1205530 item 6

Vital Records

  • Register of Birth and Deaths of Pawnee, Kaw, Ponca, Otoe, and Tonkawa Indian Tribes, 1915-1929. United States, Bureau of Indian Affairs. Pawnee Agency. Fort Worth, Tx FHL film 1023976 item 2

Treaties:

The treaties of 1833, 1848, and 1857 ceded all their lands in Nebraska.

  • June 18-22, 1818:St. Louis, Missouri Territory. Peace was concluded with the tribes of the region disturbed by the War of 1812. *1818 June 18, with the Grand Pawnee
  • 1818 June 19, with the Noisy Pawnee
  • 1818 June 20, with the Pawnee Republic *1818 June 22, with the Pawnee Marhar
  • 1825 September 30, at Fort Atkinson, (Council Bluffs), Iowa, regulation of trade
  • 1833 October 9, at Grand Pawnee Village on the Platte River, land ceded "all land lying south of the Platte River: annuity: $4,600 in goods"
  • 1848August 6, at Fort Childs, Nebraska ceded 60 mile strip on the Platte River and Grand Island
  • 1857 September 24, at Table Creek, Nebraska Territory, land ceded, reservation. provision for half-breeds
  • 1892: land in severalty and became citizens of the U.S.Also listed in Treaties with Marhar, Tappaye, Loups, Republic, Republicans Indians L R Listed below in references: Kappler, Charles J.Indian Treaties 1778-1883, Interland Publishing Inc. New York, NY. 1972 ISNB 0-87989-02508

Family History Library

The FamilySearch Catalog list over 70 records of interest to Pawnee Indians

The Pawnee Nation: An Annotated Research Bibliography. by Judith A. Boughter. Lanham, MD.: Native American Bibliograpy Series, no. 28. Scarecrow Press, 2004.

Important Web Sites

References

  1. Indian Entities Recognized and Eligible To Receive Services From the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs, Federal Register, Vol. 67, No. 134, 12 July 2002 Available online
  2. Nebraska Historical Tour Guide. by D. Ray Wilson.Pub. by Crossroads Communications, Carpentersville, IL. C. 1983 FHL book 978.2 E6wd

Bibliography

  • Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998.

4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. WorldCat 37475188; FHL book 970.1 G131g

Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean Vol. 2 -- Great Basin, Southwest, Middle America Vol. 3 -- Arctic, Subarctic, Great Plains, Plateau

Vol. 4 -- California, Pacific Northwest, Pacific
  • Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians. 20 Vol., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978–

Volume 1 -- Not yet published Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- WorldCat 234303751
Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- WorldCat 255572371
Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- WorldCat 19331914; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4.
Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- WorldCat 299653808; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5. Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat 247493742; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6. Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- WorldCat 247493311 Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 13240086; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8. Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- WorldCat 26140053; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9. Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- WorldCat 301504096; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10. Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- WorldCat 256516416; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11. Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- WorldCat 39401371; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12. Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- WorldCat 48209643 Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- WorldCat 254277176 Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 356517503; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15. Volume 16 -- Not yet published Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- WorldCat 43957746 Volume 18 -- Not yet published Volume 19 -- Not yet published Volume 20 -- Not yet published

  • Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.
  • Kappler, Charles J. Indian Treaties 1778-1883. Interland Publishing Inc. New York, NY 1972. ISBN0-87989-025-8; FHL book 970.1 K142i</ref>

 

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