Rayado, Colfax County, New Mexico, The RayadosEdit This Page

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Jusepe Gutierrez, a Native American from Culiacan, Mexico , was the only known survivor of the Umana and Leyba expedition to the Great Plains in 1594 or 1595, guided Vicente Saldivar in 1599, and in 1601 Governor Juan de Onate on expeditions to the plains. Along with more than seventy Spanish soldiers and priests, a retinue of hundreds of Indian soldiers and servants, and seven hundred horses and mules Onate journeyed across the plains eastward from New Mexico in a renewed search for Quivira, a place first visited by Francisco Vazquez de Coronado while in search of the mythical Seven Cities of Gold, who visited New Mexico and other parts of what are now the southwestern United States between 1540 and 1542.
They encountered Apache. Apache is the collective term for several culturally related groups of Native Americans in the United States originally from the American Southwest. He proceeded eastward following the Canadian River, the largest tributary of the Arkansas River. It starts in Colorado and traveling through New Mexico to Texas and Oklahoma.
Jusupe probably led Onate on the same route he had taken with Humana and Leyva six years earlier. They found an encampment of people Onate called Escanjaques. The Escanjaques were a native American people named by Juan de Onate in 1601 during an expedition to the Great Plains of Texas. He estimated the population at more than 5,000 living in 600 hundred houses. The Escanjaques lived in round houses as large as ninety feet in diameter and covered with tanned buffalo hides. They were hunters, according to Onate, depending upon the buffalo for their subsistence and planting no crops.

The Escanjaques told Onate that a large settlement of their enemies, the Rayados, was located only about twenty miles away in a region called Etzanoa. Thus, it seems possible that the Escanjaques had gathered together in large numbers either out of fear of the Rayados or to undertake a war against them. They attempted to enlist the assistance of the Spanish and their firearms, alleging that the Rayados were responsible for the deaths of Humana and Leyva a few years before.

The Escanjaques guided Onate to a large River a few miles away and he became the first European to describe the tallgrass prairie, an ecosystem native to central North America, with fire as its primary periodic disturbance. He spoke of fertile land, much better than that through which he had previously passed, and pastures "so good that in many places the grass was high enough to conceal a horse." He tasted and found of good flavor a fruit that sounds like the Pawpaw. Near the river Onate, the Spaniards, and their numerous Encajaque guides saw three or four hundred Rayados (painted or tattooed people) on a hill. The Rayados advanced, throwing dirt into the air as a sign that they were ready for war. Onate quickly indicated that he did not wish to fight and made peace with this group of Rayados who proved to be friendly and generous. Onate liked the Rayados more than he did the Escanjaques. They were "united, peaceful, and settled." They showed deference to their chief, named Catarax, whom Onate detained as a guide and hostage, although "treating him well.

Rayado, Colfax County, New Mexico
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Location: RAYADO - From Cimarron, NM go west on 10th Street ( US 64) toward South Lincoln Avenue. Take the 3rd left onto NM 21 south on Collison Avenue. Travel south about 11 miles. Turn left into Rayado. RAYADO CREEK - From Rayado travel west toward NM 21. Turn right, go north, for 3.8 miles. The creek starts here and travels through Rayado to Urreca Creek 11 miles west of Springer. RAYADO MESA - From Rayado, travel south on NM 21 about 2 miles. Continue south on 569, where NM 21 turns left (east), for about 2 miles. It is the Mesa directly to the east. It is 14 miles west of Springer. RAYADO PEAK - A summit about 9 miles west of Rayado. Go west on the gravel road that crosses NM 21 just south of Rayado from Sunny Side. About 4-5 miles the road forks at the canyon, take the left fork west to the end of the road. It is still more than a mile away.

GPS: Latitude: 36.3687 N; Longitude: - 104.9270 W.

Elevation: 6,509 feet (1,984 meters)

Interactive Maps: Rayado; Historic District; Rayado Creek; Rayado Mesa; Rayado Peak;

Photos: Ruins

Post Office: Post Office 1873 to 1881 and intermittently to 1919.

Cemetery: Rayado Cemetery

Census Data: 1860 US Federal Census, alphabetic list of households, click here.

1870 US Federal Census, all enumeration was listed at Elizabethtown.

1880 US Federal Census, alphabetic list of households, click here.

1900 US Federal Census, alphabetic list of households, click here.

Details:

Rayado is Spanish for streaked. Certain Native American tribes were called "rayados" by the Spanish because of horizontal lines painted on their faces. This was a trading point 23 miles west of Springer, and 12 miles south of Cimarron. When this settlement was established in 1848 by Lucien Maxwell, Cimarron did not exist. This was the first settlement east of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. It became a stagecoach stop along the Santa Fe Trail. In 1857 settlers from this town went to establish Cimarron. Waite Phillips purchased the townsite in the 1920's, donated the land to what is now part of Philmont Scout Ranch. The remains have been fully and authentically restored by the Boy Scouts of America and is open for summer tours.

Jusepe Gutierrez, a Native American from Culiacan, Mexico , was the only known survivor of the Umana and Leyba expedition to the Great Plains in 1594 or 1595, guided Vicente Saldivar in 1599, and in 1601 Governor Juan de Onate on expeditions to the plains. Along with more than seventy Spanish soldiers and priests, a retinue of hundreds of Indian soldiers and servants, and seven hundred horses and mules Onate journeyed across the plains eastward from New Mexico in a renewed search for Quivira, a place first visited by Francisco Vazquez de Coronado while in search of the mythical Seven Cities of Gold, who visited New Mexico and other parts of what are now the southwestern United States between 1540 and 1542.
They encountered Apache. Apache is the collective term for several culturally related groups of Native Americans in the United States originally from the American Southwest. He proceeded eastward following the Canadian River, the largest tributary of the Arkansas River. It starts in Colorado and traveling through New Mexico to Texas and Oklahoma.
Jusupe probably led Onate on the same route he had taken with Humana and Leyva six years earlier. They found an encampment of people Onate called Escanjaques. The Escanjaques were a native American people named by Juan de Onate in 1601 during an expedition to the Great Plains of Texas. He estimated the population at more than 5,000 living in 600 hundred houses. The Escanjaques lived in round houses as large as ninety feet in diameter and covered with tanned buffalo hides. They were hunters, according to Onate, depending upon the buffalo for their subsistence and planting no crops.

The Escanjaques told Onate that a large settlement of their enemies, the Rayados, was located only about twenty miles away in a region called Etzanoa. Thus, it seems possible that the Escanjaques had gathered together in large numbers either out of fear of the Rayados or to undertake a war against them. They attempted to enlist the assistance of the Spanish and their firearms, alleging that the Rayados were responsible for the deaths of Humana and Leyva a few years before.

The Escanjaques guided Onate to a large River a few miles away and he became the first European to describe the tallgrass prairie, an ecosystem native to central North America, with fire as its primary periodic disturbance. He spoke of fertile land, much better than that through which he had previously passed, and pastures "so good that in many places the grass was high enough to conceal a horse." He tasted and found of good flavor a fruit that sounds like the Pawpaw. Near the river Onate, the Spaniards, and their numerous Encajaque guides saw three or four hundred Rayados (painted or tattooed people) on a hill. The Rayados advanced, throwing dirt into the air as a sign that they were ready for war. Onate quickly indicated that he did not wish to fight and made peace with this group of Rayados who proved to be friendly and generous. Onate liked the Rayados more than he did the Escanjaques. They were "united, peaceful, and settled." They showed deference to their chief, named Catarax, whom Onate detained as a guide and hostage, although "treating him well.

Caratax led Onate and the Escanjaques across the river, to a settlement on the eastern bank, one or two miles from the river. The settlement was deserted, the inhabitants having fled. It contained "about twelve hundred houses, all established along the bank of another good-sized river which flowed into the large one [the Arkansas]. As he described it, the settlement of the Rayados seemed typical of those seen by Coronado in Quivira sixty years before. The homesteads were dispersed; the houses round, thatched with grass, large enough to sleep ten persons each, and surrounded by large graineries to store the corn, beans, and squash they grew in their fields. Onate restrained with difficulty the Escanjaques from looting the town and sent them home.

The next day Onate and his Spaniards and New Mexican Indians proceeded onward for another eight miles through heavily populated territory, although without seeing many Rayados. At this point, the Spaniard's courage deserted them. There were obviously many Rayados nearby and the Spaniards were warned that they Rayados were assembling an army. Discretion seemed the better part of valor. Onate estimated that three hundred Spanish solders would be needed to confront the Rayados, and he turned his soldiers around to return to New Mexico. Onate had worried about the Rayados attacking him, but it was instead the Escanjaques who attacked him as he was beginning his return to New Mexico. Onate described a pitched battle with one thousand five hundred Escanjaques -- probably an exaggeration -- in which many Spaniards were wounded and many Indians killed. After more than two hours of fighting, Onate retired from the battlefield. The Rayado chief, Catarrax, was freed by a raid on the Spanish and Onate freed several women captives, but he retained several boys at the request of the Spanish priests so that they could be instructed in the Catholic faith. The cause of the attack may have been Onate's kidnapping of women and children. We have only the Spanish description of the battle and what caused it

Onate and his men returned to New Mexico, arriving there on November 24, 1601 without any further incidents of importanceThe path of Onate's expedition and the identity of the Escanjaques and the Rayados are much debated. Most authorities believe his route led down the Canadian RiverCanadian RiverThe Canadian River is the largest tributary of the Arkansas River. It is about long, starting in Colorado and traveling through New Mexico, the Texas Panhandle, and most of Oklahoma....
from Texas to Oklahoma, cross-country to the Salt ForkSalt Fork Arkansas RiverThe Salt Fork of the Arkansas River is a tributary of the Arkansas River, 192 mi long, in southern Kansas and northern Oklahoma in the United States. Via the Arkansas River, it is part of the watershed of the Mississippi River...
, where he found the Escanjaque encampment, and then to the Arkansas RiverArkansas RiverThe Arkansas River is a major tributary of the Mississippi River. The Arkansas generally flows to the east and southeast as it traverses the U.S...
and its tributary, the Walnut RiverWalnut RiverThe Walnut River is a tributary of the Arkansas River, 121 mi long, in the Flint Hills region of Kansas in the United States. Via the Arkansas, it is part of the Mississippi River watershed....
at Arkansas City, KansasArkansas City, KansasArkansas City is a city situated at the confluence of the Arkansas and Walnut rivers in the southwestern part of Cowley County, located in south-central Kansas, in the central United States. The population was 11,963 at the 2000 census...
where the Rayado settlement was located. A minority view would be that the Escanjaque encampment was on the Ninnescah River and the Rayado village was on the site of present day Wichita, KansasWichita, KansasWichita is a city in and the county seat of Sedgwick County, Kansas, United States. As of the 2000 census its population was 344,284. The 2008 estimated population of 366,046 made it the 51st largest city in the country and the most populous city in Kansas...
. Archaeological evidence favors the Walnut River site.

Authorities have speculated that the Escanjaques were Apache, TonkawaTonkawaThe Tonkawa are a Native American people indigenous to present-day Oklahoma and Texas. They once spoke the Tonkawa language, an isolate not related to languages of other tribes. It is now extinct. The tribe is federally recognized and most members live in Oklahoma.-History:Scholars used to think...
, Jumano, QuapawQuapawThe Quapaw people are a tribe of Native Americans who historically resided on the west side of the Mississippi River in what is now the state of Arkansas.They are federally recognized as the Quapaw Tribe of Indians.-Government:...
, KawKawKaw may refer to:* Kaw , a Native American tribe* Kaw, French Guiana, a town in French Guiana* Kaw , a character in The Chronicles of Prydain* Kaw City, Oklahoma, a city in the United States* Kaw Lake, a lake in the U.S...

or other tribes. Most likely they were Caddoan and spoke a WichitaWichita (tribe)The Wichita are a tribe of Native Americans, indigenous inhabitants of North America, who traditionally spoke Wichita, a Caddoan language. The tribe is indigenous to Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas...
dialect. We can be virtually certain that the Rayados were Caddoan Wichitas. Their grass houses, dispersed mode of settlement, a chief named Catarax, a Wichita title, the description of their graineries, and their location all are in accord with Coronado's earlier description of the Quivirans. However, they were probably not the same people Coronado had met. Coronado found Quivira 120 miles north of Onate's Rayados . The Rayados spoke of large settlements called Tancoa -- perhaps the real name of Quivira -- in that area to the north. Thus, the Rayados were related culturally and linguistically to the Quivirans but not in the same political entity. The Wichita at this time were not unified, but rather a large number of related tribes scattered over most of KansasKansasKansas is a U.S. state located in the Midwestern United States. It is named after the Kansas River which flows through it, which in turn was named after the Kansa tribe, which inhabited the area. The tribe's name is often said to mean "people of the wind" or "people of the south wind," although...
and Oklahoma. That the Rayados and Escanjaques may have spoken the same language, but were nevertheless enemies is not implausible.



 

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