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Census taking during the time of the Deutsche Zollverein and the German Reich (1834-1919)

Population statistics before 1816 can be retrieved through church registers. In 1816 the first census took place in Prussia (how many public and private houses. Population was listed according to gender and age, i.e., under 14 years, 14-60 years and over 60 years. Furthermore religion was an important factor, how many were married, how many were enlisted) When Prussia became part of the Zollverein, further censuses were levied. The Zollverein was a union of German states for easing customs regulations and tariffs so that, for instance, goods travelling from Königsberg to Köln would not have to be inspected 80 times. The idea of custom free home markets within their territory came from the Rheinbundstaaten. Here are two maps explaining which states belonged to the Rheinbund and the Zollverein.


Following is explained when the various states and their enclaves joined the Zollverein before and after 1834.


Before 1834:
1. Preußen mit den angeschlossenen Staaten und den angeschlossenen Enklaven – Anhalt-Bernburg (seit 17. Juni 1826), Anhalt-Dessau (seit 17. Juli 1828), Anhalt-Köthen (seit 17. Juli 1828), Waldeck (seit 16. April 1831), enklavierte Gebiete von Schwarzburg-Sondershausen (seit 25. Oktober 1819), enklavierte Gebiete von Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt (seit 24. Juni 1822), Enklave Allstedt (zu Sachsen-Weimar) (seit 27. Juni 1823), Enklave Oldisleben (zu Sachsen-Weimar) (seit 27. Juni 1823), Enklave Rossow (zu Mecklenburg-Schwerin) (seit 2. Dezember 1826), Enklave Netzeband (zu Mecklenburg-Schwerin) (seit 2. Dezember 1826), Enklave Schönberg (zu Mecklenburg-Schwerin) (seit 2. Dezember 1826), Enklave Volkenroda (zu Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha) (seit 4. Juli 1829), Enklave Oberamt Meisenheim (zu Hessen-Homburg) (seit 31. Dezember 1829), Enklave Fürstentum Birkenfeld (zu Oldenburg) (seit 24. Juli 1830)
2. Großherzogtum Hessen (seit 14. Februar 1828 beim preußisch-hessischen Zollverband)
3. Kurfürstentum Hessen (seit 25. Juli 1831 beim preußisch-hessischen Zollverband) ohne die Grafschaft Schaumburg (Hessen-Kassel war bereits seit 1828 Mitglied des Mitteldeutschen Handelsvereins)
4. Bayern (seit 18. Januar 1828 beim Süddeutschen Zollverein) mit der angeschlossenen Enklave Amt Königsberg (zu Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha) (seit 14. Juni 1831)
5. Württemberg (seit 18. Januar 1828 beim Süddeutschen Zollverein) mit den angeschlossenen Staaten – Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (seit dem 28. Juli 1824), Hohenzollern-Hechingen (seit dem 28. Juli 1824)
6. Sachsen (durch Beitrittsvertrag vom 30. März 1833) (Sachsen war bereits seit 1828 Mitglied des Mitteldeutschen Handelsvereins)
7. "Zoll- und Handelsverein der Thüringischen Staaten" (durch Beitrittsvertrag vom 11. Mai 1833), also Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach, Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha, Sachsen-Meiningen, Sachsen-Altenburg, Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt (ohne deren enklavierten Gebiete; siehe Preußen), Schwarzburg-Sondershausen (ohne deren enklavierten Gebiete; siehe Preußen), Reuß-Greiz, Reuß-Schleiz, Reuß-Lobenstein-Ebersdorf, Kreis Schmalkalden (zu Hessen-Kassel) (seit 10. Mai 1833), Stadt- und Landkreis Erfurt (zu Preußen) (seit 10. Mai 1833) (Die Thüringischen Staaten waren bereits seit 1828 Mitglied des Mitteldeutschen Handelsvereins)


After 1834:
1. Hessen-Homburg (durch Vertrag vom 20. Februar 1835) (hierbei wurde das Oberamt Homburg dem Zollgebiet des Großherzogtums Hessen und das Oberamt Meisenheim dem Zollgebiet Preußens zugeordnet; Hessen-Homburg war somit nur mittelbares Mitglied des Zollvereins) (Hessen-Homburg war bereits seit 1828 Mitglied des Mitteldeutschen Handelsvereins)
2. Baden (durch Vertrag vom 12. Mai 1835) (hierbei blieb ein Teil des Klettgau (einschließlich der Gemeinde Büsingen am Hochrhein) außerhalb des Zollgebiets des Zollvereins (siehe Artikel 6 des Zollvereinsvertrags vom 8. Juli 1867))
3. Nassau (durch Vertrag vom 10. Dezember 1835) (Nassau war bereits seit 1828 Mitglied des Mitteldeutschen Handelsvereins)
4. Frankfurt am Main (durch Vertrag vom 2. Januar 1836) (Frankfurt am Main war bereits seit 1828 Mitglied des Mitteldeutschen Handelsvereins)
5. Lippe-Detmold (durch Vertrag vom 18. Oktober 1841) (hierbei wurde das Staatsgebiet dem Zollgebiet Preußens zugeordnet, so dass Lippe-Detmold nur mittelbares Mitglied des Zollvereins war) (Lippe-Detmold war bereits seit 1828 Mitglied des Mitteldeutschen Handelsvereins)
6. Braunschweig (durch Vertrag vom 19. Oktober 1841) (Braunschweig war bereits seit 1828 Mitglied des Mitteldeutschen Handelsvereins)
7. Grafschaft Schaumburg (Teil von Hessen-Kassel) (durch Vertrag vom 13. November 1841) (Die Grafschaft war bereits seit 1828 Teil des Mitteldeutschen Handelsvereins)
8. Hannover (durch Vertrag vom 7. September 1851, in Kraft getreten seit 1. Januar 1854) (Hannover war bereits seit 1828 Hauptmitglied des Mitteldeutschen Handelsvereins; mit deren Beitritt zum Deutschen Zollverein erlosch der Mitteldeutsche Handelsverein)
9. Schaumburg-Lippe (Schaumburg-Lippe gehörte bereits seit 1828 zum Zollgebiet Hannovers; es kam mit diesem zum Deutschen Zollverein)
10. Oldenburg (durch Vertrag vom 1. März 1852, in Kraft seit 1. Januar 1854) ohne das Fürstentum Lübeck und das Fürstentum Birkenfeld (dieses aber dem preußischen Zollgebiet zugeordnet) (Oldenburg war bereits seit 1828 Mitglied des Mitteldeutschen Handelsvereins)


Free cities:
1. Hansestadt Lübeck (durch Vertrag von 1868)
2. Hansestadt Hamburg (durch Vertrag von 1881, in Kraft getreten 1888)
3. Hansestadt Bremen (durch Vertrag von 1884, in Kraft getreten 1888

Between 1834 and 1867 the Deutsche Zollverein conducted every three years a census: 1834, 1837, 1840, 1843, 1846, 1849, 1852, 1855, 1861, 1864 and 1867.
Censuses were also taken during the years of the German Empire (1871-1918) in:
December 1871
December 1875
December 1880
December 1885
December 1895
December 1900
December 1905
December 1910
December 1915
December 1917

The format of census taking was more or less underdeveloped. The execution of the census taking was in the hands of the local police. The emphasis was on numbers of population in order to distribute equal taxes etc. For the time from 1834-1852 the censuses were divided into civil and military population, gender, age, i.e., those under 14 years and those over 14 years old and furthermore those who were wives and those who were unmarried women. How these numbers were retrieved was pretty much up to the individual states.
In 1843 the guideline was issued to take a census house by house. This method was more accurate and produced better results. In 1867 for the first time a census was taken in all German states simultaneously. Still, the results were not even. Within the states of the Zollverein, the residents were counted while the Norddeutsche Bund as well as Baden and Hessen counted the factual population. The data was derived via household lists, which each head of household had to fill out. He had to count
All persons who resided in his household on the night of the census taking
All members of households who were absent on the day of census taking
The census was to contain each person with full name, gender, age, profession, nationality, why present or why not. Was a person of a different nationality, the following questions had to be answered: was the person a citizen of that state, or of another and which one?
While earlier censuses were mainly taken for statistical and tax purposes, only in 1870 the commission decided to include information about names, standing in household, gender, place of birth, family status, confession, profession, nationality and place of residence.


Sachsen


 A form of census taking in Saxony began with making lists about harvests and storage of agricultural products, the so called Erndte-Ertrags- und Vorraths-Consignationes, auch Consumenten-Verzeichnisse. Since 1772 the tabulation was done thus: the population was divided into three groups; those up to age 14, then up to age 60 and the last group consisting of people older than 60 years. These lists contained the places of residence. The lists were due in November of each year. Local administrators, pastors and teachers, were the people who established such lists. Usually these men knew the local conditions very well and therein lay a guarantee for accuracy in establishing such statistics.

In Saxony the administrations had to hand in so called Konsumentenverzeichnisse at a yearly turn since 1791. Such indexes explained population growth and grain provisions and the following data: male and female children under 14 years, males and females over 14 to 60 years of age, persons older than 60 years, residence (permanent or temporary). Since these censuses were also not accurate, the royal decree dictated new directions. In 1832 a new decree was issued to establish a census regularly taken between 3 and 5 years. A newly established administration, the Statistischer Verein, was responsible for evaluating and publishing the incoming results. All citizens were to be included with information about family status, age, religious affiliation, profession, besides stating whether a person was blind or deaf/mute. Separately, were treated persons who were non-residents. They were listed by their professions. Responsible for filling out the forms were the individual house owners. Saxony, joining the Deutsche Zollverein, agreed to the now mandatory induction of house lists.

Starting in 1852 the tenants of a house were no longer listed in a communal way but each household, even a single person household, was to list each member in it. The questions were to be answered by the head of household and had to be signed by him. The distribution and collection of the lists were done by the house owner.

The census of 1871 asked for the following information:

Name of resident person

Position in household

Sex

Place of birth and year of birth

Family status

Religious affiliation

Profession or source of income

Nationality (even if coming from a different state within Germany)

Place of residence


Also all names of household members now absent


Source: Puschmann, Anke. Volkszählungen in Sachsen - gestern und heute, Statistisches Landesamt des Freistaats Sachsen

see: http://www.statistik.sachsen.de/22/1_06Puschmann.pdf

Michel, Harald. Volkszählungen in Deutschland. Die Erfasung des Bevölkerungsstandes von 1816 bis 1933 see http://www.digitalis.uni-koeln.de/JWG/jwg_104_79-91.pdf

http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deutscher_Zollverein
http://forum.ahnenforschung.net/showthread.php?t=58736


 

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  • This page was last modified on 5 September 2013, at 06:26.
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