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Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa
523 Ashmun St.
Sault Ste. Marie, MI 49783
- Sault Tribe of Chippewa Indians Official Website
In response to the 10,000s of Chippewas commencing an exodus to the west from southern Michigan and Ohio, the government of the United States agreed to create a Chippewa Reservation which covered the entire Upper Peninsula of Michigan. They thought it would stop the migration.
During some point in the late 19th century, the government of the United States refused to honor the March 28, 1836 treaty. Leaders from the Sault Tribe refused to cede their Reservation. The government of the United States then went so far as to not recognize the Sault Tribe of Chippewas of Michigan which means the March 28, 1836 treaty is legitimate.
In 1934, the Indian Reorganization Act was brought forth. However, the Sault Tribe of Chippewas either refused to participate or they were not allowed the opportunity to vote if they wanted to accept or reject the Indian Reorganization Act. At that time (1934), the Soo Tribe was thought to be a part of Bay Mills.
On November 13, 1975, the government of the United States resumed federal recognition of the Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Michigan. However, they did not recognize the vast Reservation created for the Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Michigan. That must be accomplished if the March 28, 1836 treaty is to be honored. Below is a link to the news article about the entire Upper Peninsula of Michigan being a Chippewa Reservation.
Long before the onslaught of the white invasion, the Chippewas originally lived east. An event forced them to migrate towards the west. This westward migration may have happened 11,500 years ago. They followed the Sain Lawrence River and settled in several location including Mooniyaang (Montreal) and Baweting (Sault Ste. Marie). At Baweting, the Chippewas agreed to colonize new lands to the south, north, and west.
Those Chippewas who migrated south into the Lower Peninsula of Michigan, Ohio, Illinois, and Indiana are known as the Illini, Menominee, Miami, Potawatomi, Sac or Sauk, and Shawnee. Those Chippewas who migrated south all the way to the Gulf of Mexico including Florida, are the Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole. In the Louisiana, Texas, and Mississippi region the Chippewas are known as the Atakapa, Natchez, Chitimacha, Tunica, and Tonkawa. In the far south, the Chippewas were largely mixed with other Indian Nations and blacks who all were under Chippewa protection.
Those Chippewas who migrated north then northwest are the Chipewyan and Cree. The Chipewyan migrated northwest into far northern Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia, Northwest Territories, Nunavut, and Alaska. The Cree migrated up to northern Ontario, central Manitoba, central Saskatchewan, and central Alberta.
From Baweting, the Chippewas and Odawa or Ottawa of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, migrated west along both the northern and southern shores of Lake Superior. They migrated into the region in northwestern Ontario, between the Ontario-Minnesota border and Fort Severn, Ontario. They eventually colonized the lands of southern Manitoba, southern Saskatchewan, southern Alberta, and southern British Columbia. They also colonized Wisconsin, Minnesota, the Dakotas, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, Mexico, Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, California, Montana, Idaho, Washington, and Oregon. In California, they are known as the Wappo, Wiyot, Yuki, and Yurok.
Once they learned the whites had invaded, they followed prophecy and commenced to try and stop the whites. For nearly 400 years they were constantly at war with the white invaders and their Indian allies. It led to more diasporas in all directions.
Baweting was a very important location. In fact, you might want to classify Baweting as the capital of the eastern Lake Superior Chippewas who are also known as the Saulteaux Indians and the Nez Perce. The Amikwa Chippewas are also known as the Nez Perce. Click this link www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/355350/Macro-Algonquian-languages to learn about the Macro-Algonquian Languages.
Before the onslaught of the white invasion, the Chippewas had migrated from the east to the eastern shores of Lake Superior. Exactly when this event happened is unknown. Just before the whites invaded, the Chippewas were already living where Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan and Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario are located. It was from that location which is called by the Chippewas Ba-wi-tig, that either a land distribution happened or another unknown event, led to the dispersal of the Chippewas in three directions. One group went south into the Lower Peninsula of Michigan. They are known by several names including Illini, Mami, Potawatomi, Sac, Saginaw, Sauk, and Swan Creek and Black River Chippewas. Sac and Sauk, are short for Saginaw. The Fox Tribe is not Algonquian according to William W. Warrens 19th century book "History of the Ojibway People." Another group went north into northern Ontario. They are the Chipewyan and Cree. According to the 1832 Edinburgh Encyclopedia, the Athabascan People or Dene People including the Apache, Chipewyan, and Navajo, are Algonquian or speak Algonquin. Click books.google.com/books this link to read the Edinburgh Encyclopdia.
And the other group is the Sault (pronounced as Sioux or Soo) Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Michigan. They colonized the entire Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Among them are the Ottawa or Odawa. However, the Ottawa People are really Chippewas who absorbed many non Chippewas. The Sault Tribe also colonized the northern part of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan. They are slightly different than the more southerly Chippewas who are the Illini, Miami, Potawatomi, Sac, Saginaw, Sauk, and Swan Creek and Black River Chippewas. Many of the southerly Chippewas absorbed many non Chippewas among their populations.
They are commencing a war against the white invaders to the east. Early in the 16th century, the Dutch and French invaded the region between Quebec City and Albany, New York. The Chippewas drove them out and also drove the Indian allies of the whites out.
White soldiers and their Indian allies launched a massive military campaign against the Chippewas and other Indian Tribes, from Quebec, eastern Ontario, North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and even the Lower Peninsula of Michigan. Large numbers of Chippewas and other Indian Tribes, were driven west of Lake Michigan. From the Montana region, 10,000s of Chippewa soldiers reinforced the Chippewa refugees in northern Wisconsin. By the 1650s, the massive military campaign of the whites and their Indian allies, was crumbling. More Chippewa reinforcements from the Montana region, increased the number of Chippewa soldiers from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico including Florida.
Around this time the Amikwa Chippewas who lived between the eastern shores of Lake Superior, northern shores of Lake Huron, to the Lake Nipissing region in Ontario, were driven west. They settled along the northern shores of Lake Superior. By the 1670s, many had returned to their original homeland but many followed prophecy and migrated west into Alberta, British Columbia, Montana, Idaho, Washington, Oregon, and California. The Amikwa are also known as the Nez Perce. Amikwa means Beavers in Chippewa. The Beaver Tribe including the Sekani, of British Columbia are Amikwa Chippewas.
By 1700, the Chippewas of the Lake Superior region had halted the advance of the white invaders. They had actually halted the advance of the white invaders and their Indian allies, during the 1670s. King Phillips War may have been an attempt by the Chippewas to drive the whites out of North America. Anyway, by 1700, Chippewa soldiers were preventing the whites from advancing further to the west and north.
A long war was fought during these years between Chippewa soldiers and the white invaders. Chippewa soldiers were yet strong enough to halt the westward advance of the white invaders.
Another long war was fought between Chippewa soldiers and the white invaders. By this time many Chippewas, especially to the south, were tired of fighting. The more southerly Chippewas had absorbed many non Chippewa Indians and they were prone to accept peace or stay nuetral. Land cessions commenced with the 1795 Greeneville Treaty.
More corrupt land cessions followed, then the War of 1812. After the War of 1812, the Chippewas of Michigan commenced to cede land and Reservations were created for them. However, the United States refused to honor treaty.
During these two years an event happened in Michigan and Ohio which led to a large Chippewa Exodus from the Michigan and Ohio region, to the west. That be to the Iowa, Missouri, Kansas, and Oklahoma region. The Toledo War is very suspicious. Although it was a war without deaths, it has been classified as a war. Through treaty agreement, the United States created a large Chippewa Reservation for the Sault Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Michigan. They claim Michigan was given 3/4 quarters of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, in exchange for a narrow strip of land claimed by both Michigan and Ohio called the Toledo Strip. It covered 468 sq. mi. It was given to Ohio.
In 1893, a newstory went nationwide which told readers that the entire Upper Peninsula of Michigan was Chippewa land or a Chippewa Reservation. The Toledo War is the link (proof) that in fact the Upper Peninsula of Michigan is a Sault Ste. Marie Chippewa Indians Reservation. Click this link chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn84036012/1893-03-28/ed-1/seq-1/#date1=1893&index=3&rows=20&words=Chippewa+Indian&searchType=basic&sequence=0&state=Montana&date2=1893&proxtext=chippewa+indians&y=10&x=13&dateFilterType=yearRange&page=1 to read the March 28, 1893 article.
Additional References to the History of the Tribe
As mentioned, the entire Upper Peninsula of Michigan is reportedly a Chippewa Reservation. However, the government of the United States will not honor treaty. In the Upper Peninsula of Michigan today, the Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewas have several small Reservations which are recognized by the government of the United States. They include:
- Sault Saint Marie Reservation (2010 population is 1,237)
- Bay Mills Indian Community (2010 population is 852)
- L'Anse or Keweenaw Bay Reservation (2010 population is 1,298)
- Lac Vieux Reservation (2010 population is 119)
- Hannahville Indian Community (2010 population is 453)
Important Web Sites
- Constitution and By-laws of the Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians, adopted in 1975; included in Tribal Code that includes updates through 2001.
- Sault Tribe of Chippewa Indians Official Website
- Sault Tribe of Chippewa Indians Wikipedia
- Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
- Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 Available online.
- Klein, Barry T., ed. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat 317923332; FHL book 970.1 R259e.
- Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. WorldCat 37475188; FHL book 970.1 G131g.
- Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean
- Vol. 2 -- Great Basin, Southwest, Middle America
- Vol. 3 -- Arctic, Subarctic, Great Plains, Plateau
- Vol. 4 -- California, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Islands
- Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .
- Volume 1 -- Not yet published
- Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- WorldCat 234303751
- Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- WorldCat 255572371
- Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- WorldCat 19331914; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4.
- Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- WorldCat 299653808; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5.
- Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat 247493742; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6.
- Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- WorldCat 247493311
- Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 13240086; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8.
- Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- WorldCat 26140053; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9.
- Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- WorldCat 301504096; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10.
- Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- WorldCat 256516416; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11.
- Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- WorldCat 39401371; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12.
- Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- WorldCat 48209643
- Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- WorldCat 254277176
- Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 356517503; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15.
- Volume 16 -- Not yet published
- Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- WorldCat 43957746
- Volume 18 -- Not yet published
- Volume 19 -- Not yet published
- Volume 20 -- Not yet published
- Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.
- Waldman, Carl. Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. New York, New York: Facts on File, 2006. 3rd ed. WorldCat 14718193; FHL book 970.1 W146e 2006.
- This page was last modified on 23 June 2014, at 20:52.
- This page has been accessed 1,983 times.
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