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United States Gotoarrow.png American Indian Research Gotoarrow.png Indians of Iowa Gotoarrow.png Indians of Kansas Gotoarrow.png Indians of Nebraska Gotoarrow.png Indians of South Dakota Gotoarrow.png Upper Missouri Indian Agency


Contents

Indian Tribes Associated With This Agency

History

The Upper Missouri Agency was established in 1819 and was assigned responsibility for all the Indians living in a very large area of the Northern Plains of the United States, along the Missouri River. The exact boundaries of its jurisdiction were not defined.

In 1824, two subagencies were organized -- the Sioux Subagency near the Big Bend of the Missouri River and encompassing a large part of central South Dakota; and the Mandan Subagency on the Missouri River near the present site of Bismarck, North Dakota. The Mandan Subagency existed only to 1838, when its duties were absorbed by the Upper Missouri Agency.

The Upper Missouri Agency had several homes from its beginning to 1835:

1819-1827 -- Council Bluffs, Iowa
1827-1832 -- Fort Leavenworth, Kansas
1832-1835 -- Bellevue, Nebraska, about 20 miles below Council Bluffs on the opposite side of the Missouri River from Council Bluffs.

In 1835, the Upper Missouri Agency received was again moved to Fort Leavenworth and was given the responsibility for the Prairie du Chien-Sauk and Fox Agency.

In 1837, the old Upper Missouri Agency became the Council Bluffs Agency. The old Sioux Subagency, which had become a full agency under the St. Louis Superintendency, became the new Upper Missouri Agency.

From 1839 to 1842, there was no agent for the Upper Missouri Agency. When it was reactivated in 1842, the Agency had no central location. The agent was simply expected to visit the Indians along the Missouri River.

From 1849 to 1851, Upper Missouri was reduced to subagency status, but was again made a full agency in 1851. It operated as such under the Central Superintendency from 1851 to 1861 and under the Dakota Superintendency from 1861 to 1870.

In 1866, the Upper Missouri Agency was permanently located at Crow Creek, just below the Great Bend of the Missouri and from that point was commonly called the Crow Creek Agency. The name was officially changed to Crow Creek Agency in 1874 and the use of the name Upper Missouri Agency was discontinued.

The Upper Missouri Agency was the forerunner to a number of agencies, all of which reduced the size of its area of jurisdiction. The following agencies were created from the area formerly administered by the Upper Missouri Agency:


1846 -- Upper Platte Agency
1855 -- Blackfeet Agency
1859 -- Yankton Agency
1859 -- Ponca Agency
1864 -- Fort Berthold Agency
1869 -- Grand River Agency, Whetstone Agency, and Cheyenne River Agency
1871 -- Red Cloud Agency [1]


Agents and Appointment Dates

Benjamin O'Fallon 1819, John Dougherty 1827, Joshua Pilcher 1837, Andrew Dripps 1842, Thomas P. Moore 1846, Gedeon C. Matlock 1847, Samuel A. Hatten 1849, James H. Norwood 1851, Robert B. Lambdin 1852, Alfred J. Vaughn 1853, Alexander H. Redfield 1857, Bernard S. Schoonover 1859, Samuel N. Latta 1861, Mahlon Wilkinson 1864, Joseph R. Hanson 1866, Capt. W. H. French 1869, Henry F. Liningston[2]

Records

Letters received from the Upper Missouri Agency, 1824-1874, are included among Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, filmed by the National Archives as their Microcopy M248, Rolls 883-888[3]. This set of records is also available at the Family History Library and its family history centers (their microfilm number 1661613-1661618).

Reports of Inspection of the Field Jurisdictions of the Office of Indian Affairs, 1873-1900 have been microfilmed by the National Archives as part of Microcopy Number M1070. The reports for Upper Missouri Agency, 1874, are on roll 55 of that Microcopy set[4]. Copies are available at the National Archives, their Regional Archives, and at the Family History Library and its family history centers (their microfilm roll number 1617728).

References

  1. Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches. New York, New York: Clearwater Publishing Company, Inc., 1974, pp. 184-187.
  2. Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches. New York, New York: Clearwater Publishing Company, Inc., 1974, pp. 184-187.
  3. American Indians: A Select Catalog of National Archives Microfilm Publications. Washington DC: National Archives Trust Fund Board, National Archives and Records Administration, 1998, Microcopy M234, p. 8.
  4. American Indians: A Select Catalog of National Archives Microfilm Publications. Washington DC: National Archives Trust Fund Board, National Archives and Records Administration, 1998, Microcopy M1070, p. 48.
  • American Indians: A Select Catalog of National Archives Microfilm Publications. Washington DC: National Archives Trust Fund Board, National Archives and Records Administration, 1998.
  • Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981.
  • Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches. New York, New York: Clearwater Publishing Company, Inc., 1974.
  • Historical Sketches for Jurisdictional and Subject Headings Used for the Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880. National Archives Microcopy T1105.
  • Marquette University. Guide to Catholic-Related Records in the Midwest about Native Americans.
  • Preliminary Inventory No. 163: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Services. Available online

 

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  • This page was last modified on 8 April 2013, at 19:57.
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