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Civil War

A Google search on "history of the civil war prisons" has a nice list of interesting web sites.

General Information


Website for almost everything: Civil War

General overall official website:American Civil War 

General Information: Prisons 

Good information on CW Records: Civil War Home 

Kindle Books available on Civil War: Kindle American Civil War Books

Timeline: American Civil War - Timeline 

Campaigns: American Civil War - Campaigns

Alphabetical Battle List: American Civil War - Battles

Battles: Civil War Home - Battles 

Archive on Regiments Index: Civil War Archive - Regiment

Home School Supplies:American Civil War - Educational Supplieshttp://americancivilwar.com/Smart_Educational_Toys/Home_school.html

American Civil War Summary has timelines, maps and links to books and other things to buy.


The Wikipedia article, List of American Civil War Battles, has lists of battles by theater and by date with links to additional information.


About.com American History has lists of battles by name and by state.



This is about Samuel Dibble and important person in South Carolina who helped get rid of the “Carpet Baggers” and other important things: http://dibblebook.tripod.com/id3.html

CONFEDERATE PRISONS:

Andersonville

http://www.censusdiggins.com/prison_andersonville.html
Operated between 1864-65 with a maximum capacity of 10,000 but the most it held was 32,899 Prisoners. Those who escaped were 329 and 12,919 died while there. It was a type 6 prison rated as a Barren Stockade.
On November 24, 1863, Capt. W. Sidney Winder was sent to the village of Andersonville in Sumter County, Georgia, to assess the potential of building a prison for captured Union soldiers.
Originally, the prison was built as both a defensive and offensive fortification. The stockade enclosure was approximately 1,010 feet long and 780 feet wide. The walls of the stockade were constructed of pine logs cut on site, hewn square, and set vertically in a wall trench dug roughly five feet deep. According to historical accounts, the poles were hewn to a thickness of 8 to 12 inches. A light fence known as the deadline was erected approximately 19-25 feet inside the stockade wall to demarcate a "no-man's land" keeping the prisoners away from the stockade wall. Anyone crossing this line was immediately shot by sentries posted at intervals around the stockade wall.
So Andersonville was chosen as the site for a prison that would later become infamous in the North for the thousands of prisoners that would die there before the war ended.

Atlanta (Fulton County Jail) Prisoner of War Camp

Operated between 1861-1864 with a maximum capacity not known but the most it held was not known either. Those number who escaped was not known nor was the number that died while there. It was a type 1 prison built in an existing jail or prison and also type 7 prisons rated as a one on barren ground.

Belle Isle

http://www.censusdiggins.com/prison_bellisle.html
Belle Isle is located west of Richmond, Virginia in the James River. During the Civil War, this small and beautiful island was used as a Civil War Prison. Holding only a few small shacks, the island afforded no protection from the elements to the Union soldiers who were captured and taken there. Prisoners were given tents to sleep in but the tents numbered 3000, while the soldiers held there, numbered almost 10,000 by 1863. A hospital for prisoners and an iron factory were located on the island, but no barracks were ever built for the prisoners, hence the continuous exposure to weather played a large role in the death toll on Belle Isle.
The island served as a prison for Union soldiers during the American Civil War. Between 1862 and 1865, the island was home to about 30,000 POW's and as many as 1,000 died, though accounts vary with the South claiming the death rate was low, while the North claimed it was very high.

Cahaba Prison

http://www.censusdiggins.com/prison_cahaba.html or
http://www.mycivilwar.com/pow/al-cahaba.htm
Cahaba Prison Camp
Operated between?? with a maximum capacity of ?? but the most it held was ?? Prisoners. Those who escaped were ?? and ? died while there. It was a type ?? prison rated as a ?? Barren Stockade.
In January 1864, Confederate authorities decided to establish a permanent prison facility at the unfinished red-brick cotton warehouse at Cahaba, Alabama. They acquired the warehouse for the use as a prison for captured Union prisoners in the summer of 1862. Col. Samuel M. Hill originally owned the warehouse, and had constructed the building as part of a complex to provide storage for the Cahaba, Marion, and Greensborough Railroad. The railroad failed in the 1850’s and the warehouse was abandoned.
The place had been used as a gathering point for the military district's political and Union prisoners for several months, starting in late 1863. The prison was located on the on the central east end of the city on the banks of the Alabama and Cahaba Rivers. The prison was initially built to hold 500 prisoners. It held over 5,000 Union soldiers between 1863 and 1865.

Camp Ford

http://www.censusdiggins.com/prison_camp_ford.html
Camp Ford Prison, located 4 miles northwest of Tyler, Texas was constructed of logs by black slaves. Basically nothing short of a stockade fence that stood 16 feet high, without any type of barracks or shelter for the men who were imprisoned there. Left to their own devices, the men built make-shift log houses, soddies and even holes in the ground with tarps over them to keep out the rain.

Compared to other Civil War prisoners, these soldiers fared better than most. Plenty of fresh water was provided by the stream that ran right through the camp and rations consisted of corn meal, beans, bacon and occasionally fresh beef. Records indicate that over 4700 soldiers were imprisoned at Camp Ford and approximately 280 of them died, this being one of the lowest death rates reported from any Civil War Prison.

Camp Ford prisoners made novelties, music instruments and other crafts which they carved from wood. These could be sold to folks living in Tyler, providing the soldiers with some money with which to buy food from local farmers.

William Ryan, a soldier in the New York 160th Regiment said: "Eighteen men would eat out of one pot with one wooden spoon. Your clothes were what you came in with daily boiling would kill the lice. As men died other prisoners would take their clothes and shoes. There wasn’t any prison hospital, so the Yankee’s made their own. It was staffed by one Yankee doctor. Many felt once you became sick, you died! The prisoners were from 17 states. New York had 18 regiments to lead the numbers captured. The 205 prisoners from the navy had their own quarters. The total number of officers were 7 col., 4 majors, 48 captains 90 lieutenants, 1 doctor and one naval captain. Even with the number of leadership here, there was out and out gambling and stealing among the men. Fighting was a daily occurrence among the regiments from New York City and the other fellows from elsewhere it was New York city against the world!"

John Scouller McCulloch said about his capture: "We were hurried to the rear beyond Mansfield, and turned into a corn-field to camp for the night. I was without an overcoat or blanket, and the temperature was not far from freezing point. Not one quarter of the men had any covering for the night". See the rest of J. S. McCulloch's story.

The Prison was destroyed after the close of the Civil War on Independence Day - July 4, 1865. A granite memorial marker has been placed there. Inscribed on the marker are the following words:

Camp Ford

On this site during the Civil War was located Camp Ford, the largest prisoner of war compound for Union troops west of the Mississippi River, named in honor of Col. John S. 'Rip' Ford who originally established a training camp here in 1862. It was converted in the summer of 1863 to a prison camp.

It first consisted of four to five acres enclosed by a stockade sixteen feet high. In the spring of 1864 following the Confederate victories at Mansfield, Louisiana and Mark's Mills, Arkansas the enclosure was doubled to accommodate the large influx of prisoners. Approximately 4700 Federals were confined here during this period. This overcrowded condition was somewhat relieved through a series of prisoner of war exchanges between the North and the South.

Union soldiers representing nearly one hundred different regiments plus sailors from gunboats and transports were confined here. In addition there were imprisoned Union sympathizers, spies, and even Confederate deserters.

The prisoners constructed their own shelters ranging from log huts and burrows called "shebangs" to brush arbors and tents made of blankets.

A spring located about 100 yards southwest of this marker furnished an ample supply of good water. Their meager rations, essentially the same as that of their guards, usually consisted of beef and corn meal and were sometimes supplemented by vegetables purchased from nearby farms.
Although escape attempts were frequent, very few were successful due to the long distance to Union lines and the difficulty in eluding the tracking hounds used by the Confederate guards.

Even though conditions were primitive it compared favorably with the other Civil War prison camps. Camp Ford continued to serve as a prison until the surrender of the Trans-Mississippi Department in May, 1865. It was later destroyed by Federal occupation troops.

Prisoners who died and were buried at Camp Ford have been removed and re-interred at Alexandria National Cemetery in Pineville, Louisiana

Castle Pinckney

http://www.censusdiggins.com/prison_castlepinckney.html
"Not a Death Camp"
Castle Pinckney, located on the small island of Shutes Folly in Charleston Harbor, SC was named for the Revolutionary War hero, Charles C. Pinckney.

A brick and mortar fortress originally built by the Federal Government in 1797 to protect Charleston, it was later to become a Civil War Prison.

When South Carolina seceded from the Union on December 20, 1860, South Carolina Confederate militia took control of Castle Pinckney. Being the first Federal Fort taken by Confederates, It was then used to protect Charleston Harbor from Union attacks and for a short time, it held Union Civil War prisoners.

Castle Pinckney was one of the Civil War's first POW camps and one of the few not remembered as a "death camp" The first prisoners were captured at the 1st Battle of Bull Run. Make shift barracks were created for the prisoners. Notwithstanding the fact that it WAS a prison, Castle Pinckney inmates experienced comfortable and clean conditions. There are no existing records of prison escapes from Castle Pinckney and prison life within it's walls was relatively peaceful.

After the prisoners were removed, the small fort standing on this tiny island stood guard against attacks on Charleston by Federal ships. Earth embankments created and used during the Civil War, can still be seen around the historic fort.

Castle Pinckney was declared as a National Monument in 1924. Visitors can see the island and fort by boat but cannot land on the island. Due to irresponsible relic seekers, It has become a protected monument where only qualified researchers are allowed to visit.

Newspaper article On Sept 25, 1997: Castle Pinckney to receive dredge spoil.

Castle Pinckney in Charleston Harbor may be used as a spoil site for harbor dredging. It is hoped that surrounding the fort with dredge spoil will protect it from erosion. Environmentalist apparently hope to turn the surrounding island into a bird sanctuary.

Many efforts to preserve the island and fort (such as above) have been made. Funding has been an issue in developing the plans made by many and Castle Pinckney has long been in danger. The Port Authority, who has control of the island has constructed a breakwater to protect this National Monument.

START REVISION HERE:

Castle Thunder

http://www.censusdiggins.com/prison_castlethunder.html
Operated between ?? with a maximum capacity of ?? but the most it held was ?? Prisoners. Those who escaped were ?? and ? died while there. It was a type ?? prison rated as a ?? Barren Stockade.

Danville Prison

http://www.censusdiggins.com/prison_danville.html
Operated between ?? with a maximum capacity of ?? but the most it held was ?? Prisoners. Those who escaped were ?? and ? died while there. It was a type ?? prison rated as a ?? Barren Stockade.

Gratiot Street Gratiot Street Prison

housed Confederate Soldiers by the Union
Operated between ?? with a maximum capacity of ?? but the most it held was ?? Prisoners. Those who escaped were ?? and ? died while there. It was a type ?? prison rated as a ?? Barren Stockade.

Libby Prison

http://www.censusdiggins.com/prison_libby.html
Operated between ?? with a maximum capacity of ?? but the most it held was ?? Prisoners. Those who escaped were ?? and ? died while there. It was a type ?? prison rated as a ?? Barren Stockade.

http://www.mdgorman.com/Prisons/Libby/libby_prison.htm
Montgomery http://www.mycivilwar.com/pow/al-montgomery.htm
Montgomery
Operated between ?? with a maximum capacity of ?? but the most it held was ?? Prisoners. Those who escaped were ?? and ? died while there. It was a type ?? prison rated as a ?? Barren Stockade.

In 1861, prisoners from Richmond, Virginia were sent to other various camps throughout the South. A number of those prisoners were originally supposed to go to Tuscaloosa, but an old, abandoned paper mill purchased by the Confederacy there was found to be too dilapidated to use.
Attempts were made to lease the old legislative buildings, abandoned since 1846 when the State capital was moved to Montgomery, and the lunatic asylum in Tuscaloosa, but authorities finally had to settle on leasing a number of old downtown hotels, including the well known Drish building, and confining the prisoners on the upper floors.
The Montgomery prisoners were moved to Tuscaloosa on December 14, 1861.

St. Augustine or http://www.mycivilwar.com/pow/fl.htm#top
(Castle San Marcos)

St. Augustine (Castle San Marcos)
St. Augustine was in operations for one year in 1861. The Maximum Capacity, Most Prisoners held, Escapes, and Deaths were not known. It was a type 2 prison list as a coastal fortification.


Salisbury Prison

http://www.censusdiggins.com/prison_salisbury.html
Operated between ?? with a maximum capacity of ?? but the most it held was ?? Prisoners. Those who escaped were ?? and ? died while there. It was a type ?? prison rated as a ?? Barren Stockade.

Smith Factory

http://www.mdgorman.com/Prisons/smith_factory_prison.htm
Operated between ?? with a maximum capacity of ?? but the most it held was ?? Prisoners. Those who escaped were ?? and ? died while there. It was a type ?? prison rated as a ?? Barren Stockade.

UNION PRISONS

Alton Prison

http://www.censusdiggins.com/prison_alton.html
Operated between ?? with a maximum capacity of ?? but the most it held was ?? Prisoners. Those who escaped were ?? and ? died while there. It was a type ?? prison rated as a ?? Barren Stockade.

Camp Chase

http://www.censusdiggins.com/prison_campchase.html
Operated between ?? with a maximum capacity of ?? but the most it held was ?? Prisoners. Those who escaped were ?? and ? died while there. It was a type ?? prison rated as a ?? Barren Stockade.

Camp Douglas

http://www.censusdiggins.com/prison_camp_douglas.html
Operated between ?? with a maximum capacity of ?? but the most it held was ?? Prisoners. Those who escaped were ?? and ? died while there. It was a type ?? prison rated as a ?? Barren Stockade.

Camp Randall

http://www.censusdiggins.com/prison_camp_randall.html
Operated between ?? with a maximum capacity of ?? but the most it held was ?? Prisoners. Those who escaped were ?? and ? died while there. It was a type ?? prison rated as a ?? Barren Stockade.

Elmira

http://www.censusdiggins.com/prison_elmira.html
Operated between ?? with a maximum capacity of ?? but the most it held was ?? Prisoners. Those who escaped were ?? and ? died while there. It was a type ?? prison rated as a ?? Barren Stockade.

Fort Delaware

http://www.censusdiggins.com/fort_delaware.html
Operated between ?? with a maximum capacity of ?? but the most it held was ?? Prisoners. Those who escaped were ?? and ? died while there. It was a type ?? prison rated as a ?? Barren Stockade.

Fort Jefferson

http://www.censusdiggins.com/prison_fort_jefferson.html
Operated between ?? with a maximum capacity of ?? but the most it held was ?? Prisoners. Those who escaped were ?? and ? died while there. It was a type ?? prison rated as a ?? Barren Stockade.

Fort McHenry

http://www.censusdiggins.com/prison_fort_mchenry.html
Operated between ?? with a maximum capacity of ?? but the most it held was ?? Prisoners. Those who escaped were ?? and ? died while there. It was a type ?? prison rated as a ?? Barren Stockade.

Gratiot Street

http://www.worldlingo.com/ma/enwiki/en/Gratiot_Street_Prison
Operated between ?? with a maximum capacity of ?? but the most it held was ?? Prisoners. Those who escaped were ?? and ? died while there. It was a type ?? prison rated as a ?? Barren Stockade.

http://www.prairieghosts.com/mcdowell.html
http://www.civilwarstlouis.com/gratiot/gratiot.htm
http://www.mycivilwar.com/pow/mo-gatriot_street.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gratiot_street_prison
http://www.footnote.com/page/773_gratiot_street_prison/

Old Capitol Prison

http://www.censusdiggins.com/prison_oldcapitol.html
Operated between ?? with a maximum capacity of ?? but the most it held was ?? Prisoners. Those who escaped were ?? and ? died while there. It was a type ?? prison rated as a ?? Barren Stockade.

Point Lookout

http://www.censusdiggins.com/prison_ptlookout.html
Operated between ?? with a maximum capacity of ?? but the most it held was ?? Prisoners. Those who escaped were ?? and ? died while there. It was a type ?? prison rated as a ?? Barren Stockade.

http://www.plpow.com/PrisonHistory.htm

Rock Island

http://www.censusdiggins.com/prison_rock_island.html
Operated between ?? with a maximum capacity of ?? but the most it held was ?? Prisoners. Those who escaped were ?? and ? died while there. It was a type ?? prison rated as a ?? Barren Stockade.

  • This page was last modified on 18 October 2011, at 02:37.
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