Butterfield Overland Mail

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=== Historical Background  ===
 
=== Historical Background  ===
  
In 1853 the [[United States|United States]] bought the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gadsden_Purchase Gadsden Purchase] from [[Mexico|Mexico]]. This was land in what is now [[Portal:New Mexico|New Mexico]] and [[Arizona|Arizona]] south of the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gila_River Gila River]. It was purchased in order to have a snow-free route from the rest of the United States to [[California|California]].<ref>Wikipedia contributors, "Gadsden Purchase" in ''Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia'' at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gadsden_Purchase (accessed 4 July 2009).</ref>  
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In 1853 the [[United States|United States]] bought the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gadsden_Purchase Gadsden Purchase] from [[Mexico|Mexico]]. This was land in what is now [[New Mexico|New Mexico]] and [[Arizona|Arizona]] south of the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gila_River Gila River]. It was purchased in order to have a snow-free route from the rest of the United States to [[California|California]].<ref>Wikipedia contributors, "Gadsden Purchase" in ''Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia'' at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gadsden_Purchase (accessed 4 July 2009).</ref>  
  
From 1857 to 1861 a mail and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stage_coach stage coach] route was used called the '''Butterfield Overland Mail''', or '''Oxbow Route''', or '''Butterfield Overland Stage'''. The route went from eastern terminals at St. Louis, [[Portal:Missouri|Missouri]]&nbsp;and Memphis, [[Tennessee|Tennessee]]&nbsp;and joined at Fort Smith, [[Arkansas|Arkansas]]. From there it went through Indian Territory ([[Portal:Oklahoma|Oklahoma]]), El Paso&nbsp;([[Portal:Texas|Texas]]),&nbsp;[[Portal:New Mexico|New Mexico]], Yuma ([[Arizona|Arizona]]), Los Angeles, and&nbsp;San Francisco, [[California|California]]. The [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Wells_Fargo Wells Fargo] and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Express#History American Express] companies operated this stage coach and mail service contract.<ref>Wikipedia contributors, "Butterfield Overland Mail" in ''Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia'' at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Butterfield_Overland_Mail (accessed 4 July 2009).</ref>  
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From 1857 to 1861 a mail and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stage_coach stage coach] route was used called the '''Butterfield Overland Mail''', or '''Oxbow Route''', or '''Butterfield Overland Stage'''. The route went from eastern terminals at St. Louis, [[Portal:Missouri|Missouri]]&nbsp;and Memphis, [[Tennessee|Tennessee]]&nbsp;and joined at Fort Smith, [[Arkansas|Arkansas]]. From there it went through Indian Territory ([[Portal:Oklahoma|Oklahoma]]), El Paso&nbsp;([[Portal:Texas|Texas]]),&nbsp;[[New Mexico|New Mexico]], Yuma ([[Arizona|Arizona]]), Los Angeles, and&nbsp;San Francisco, [[California|California]]. The [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Wells_Fargo Wells Fargo] and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Express#History American Express] companies operated this stage coach and mail service contract.<ref>Wikipedia contributors, "Butterfield Overland Mail" in ''Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia'' at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Butterfield_Overland_Mail (accessed 4 July 2009).</ref>  
  
 
In 1861 Congress discontinued this mail route&nbsp;in favor of the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_Overland_Route Central Overland Route] ([http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pony_Express Pony Express] and telegraph) to California (St. Joseph, [[Portal:Missouri|Missouri]] to Placerville, California).<ref>Wikipedia contributors, "Butterfield Overland Mail" in ''Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia'' at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Butterfield_Overland_Mail (accessed 4 July 2009), and Wikipedia contributors, "Central Overland Route" in ''Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia'' at http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Central_Overland_Route (accessed 4 July 2009). </ref>In 1881 a route like the old Butterfield Overland Mail was followed by the [[Southern Pacific Railroad|Southern Pacific Railroad]] from Los Angeles to El Paso.  
 
In 1861 Congress discontinued this mail route&nbsp;in favor of the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_Overland_Route Central Overland Route] ([http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pony_Express Pony Express] and telegraph) to California (St. Joseph, [[Portal:Missouri|Missouri]] to Placerville, California).<ref>Wikipedia contributors, "Butterfield Overland Mail" in ''Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia'' at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Butterfield_Overland_Mail (accessed 4 July 2009), and Wikipedia contributors, "Central Overland Route" in ''Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia'' at http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Central_Overland_Route (accessed 4 July 2009). </ref>In 1881 a route like the old Butterfield Overland Mail was followed by the [[Southern Pacific Railroad|Southern Pacific Railroad]] from Los Angeles to El Paso.  

Revision as of 22:56, 21 January 2010

United States  >  Migration  >  Trails and Roads  >  Butterfield Overland Mail

Butterfield Overland Mail map.jpg
Concord stagecoach 1869.png

Contents

Historical Background

In 1853 the United States bought the Gadsden Purchase from Mexico. This was land in what is now New Mexico and Arizona south of the Gila River. It was purchased in order to have a snow-free route from the rest of the United States to California.[1]

From 1857 to 1861 a mail and stage coach route was used called the Butterfield Overland Mail, or Oxbow Route, or Butterfield Overland Stage. The route went from eastern terminals at St. Louis, Missouri and Memphis, Tennessee and joined at Fort Smith, Arkansas. From there it went through Indian Territory (Oklahoma), El Paso (Texas), New Mexico, Yuma (Arizona), Los Angeles, and San Francisco, California. The Wells Fargo and American Express companies operated this stage coach and mail service contract.[2]

In 1861 Congress discontinued this mail route in favor of the Central Overland Route (Pony Express and telegraph) to California (St. Joseph, Missouri to Placerville, California).[3]In 1881 a route like the old Butterfield Overland Mail was followed by the Southern Pacific Railroad from Los Angeles to El Paso.

Route

Settlers and Records

Most of the settlers who used this stage line would have settled in California. Missouri, Illinois, and Tennessee are the most likely origins of people who used this route.

No known passenger lists are available.

Internet Links

Sources 

  1. Wikipedia contributors, "Gadsden Purchase" in Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gadsden_Purchase (accessed 4 July 2009).
  2. Wikipedia contributors, "Butterfield Overland Mail" in Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Butterfield_Overland_Mail (accessed 4 July 2009).
  3. Wikipedia contributors, "Butterfield Overland Mail" in Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Butterfield_Overland_Mail (accessed 4 July 2009), and Wikipedia contributors, "Central Overland Route" in Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia at http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Central_Overland_Route (accessed 4 July 2009).
  4. Wikipedia contributors, "Butterfield Overland Mail" in Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Butterfield_Overland_Mail (accessed 4 July 2009).


Migration Routes