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Tribes and Bands of New Jersey
The following list of American Indians who have lived in New Jersey has been compiled from Hodge's Handbook of American Indians... and from Swanton's The Indian Tribes of North America. Some may simply be variant spellings for the same tribe.
Delaware or Lenni-Lenape
These tribes are not listed in Swantons: Nanticoke, Unami, Unalachtigo
Tribes Recognized by the State of New Jersey
Nanticoke Lenni-Lenape, Powhatan Renape Nation, Ramapough Lenape Indian Nation (also known as Ramapough Mountain Indians, and Inter-Tribal American Indians of New Jersey
From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.
Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.
The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.
The following list of reservations has been compiled from the National Atlas of the United States of America, the Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America, and other sources. Those reservations named in bold are current federally-recognized reservations, with their associated agency and tribe(s). Others have historically been associated with the state or are not currently recognized by the federal government.
- Edge Pillock Reservation:
- Nanticoke Lenni-Lanape Indians of New Jersey
- Ramapough Mountain Indians
- Rancocas Indian Reservation
- Stuart, Frank H. Indians of Southern New Jersey. Woodbury, New Jersey : Gloucester County Historical Society, 1932. FHL book 970.1 St49i
- Nelson, Wiliam. Personal Names of Indians of New Jersey: Being a List of Six Hundred and Fifty Such Names, Gleaned Mostly from Indian Deeds of the Seventeenth Century. Paterson, N.J.: Paterson History Club, 1904. FHL film 1320706 Item 4; digital version at Internet Archives and Google Books.
- Weslager, C.A.The Nanticoke Indians: Past and Present. Newark, Delaware : University of Delaware Press, 1983. FHL book 970.3 N158w
- Kraft, Herbert C. The Lenape: Archaeology, History, and Ethnography. Newark, New Jersey: New Jersey Historical Society, 1986. FHL book 970.3 D376k
- Nelson, William. The Indians of New Jersey: Their Origin and Development; Manners and Customs; Language, Religion and Government. Paterson, N.J. : The Press Printing and Publishing Company, 1894. Digital version at Internet Archives and Google Books.
- New Jersey Commission on American Indian Affairs - government liaison to the tribes.
- New Jersey Indians - tribes, languages, and cultures
- Nanticoke Lenni-Lenape Indians of New Jersey - tribal website
- Native People of New Jersey - USGenNet's web page about the Lenni-Lenape
- ↑ Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. Available online.
- ↑ Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.
- ↑ National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations Available online.
- ↑ Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.
- "Accompanying Pamphlet for Microcopy 1011", National Archives Microfilm Publications, Appendix.
- American Indians: A Select Catalog of National Archives Microfilm Publications. Washington DC: National Archives Trust Fund Board, National Archives and Records Administration, 1998.
- Gilbert, William Harlen, Jr. Surviving Indian Groups in the Eastern United States. Pp. 407-438 of the Smithsonian Report for 1948. Available online.
- Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981.
- Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches. New York, New York: Clearwater Publishing Company, Inc., 1974.
- Historical Sketches for Jurisdictional and Subject Headings Used for the Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880. National Archives Microcopy T1105.
- Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. Available online.
- Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.
- National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations Available online.
- Preliminary Inventory No. 163: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Services. Available online
- Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.