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Alternate Names: Pend d'Oreille, Kalispel Indian Community of the Kalispel Reservation, Washington (the official federally-recognized name)
Ancestral Homeland: Northwestern Montana and northeastern Washington
Tribal Groups: The Upper Kalispel, Lower Kalispel and Chewelah (who live west of the Chewelah Mountains in Upper Colville Valley) are collectively known as Pend d'Oreille Indians.
The Kalispel Tribe acquired horses early, from the Spanish or other tribes.
For over twenty years 1760-1780 the Kalispel Indians were in conflict with the Blackfeet, Apsaroke, and Sioux tribes. Their raids for horses against the Nez Perce and Yakima increased the confict. They sought allies with the Spokan Tribe during this time.
The Jesuits established a mission among the tribe in 1841.
In 1855 the tribe ceded land and moved to Jocko Reservation in Montana Territory. Later the tribe was assigned to Kalispel Reservation in Washington.
The population of the Kalispel in 1780 was estimated to be about 1,200; in 1805 about 1600. In 1905 their population was 837. In1990 the population of the tribe was 210, based on the US census at the Flathead and Kalispel Reservation in northwestern Montana
- 1730: acquired horses
- 1760-1781: conflict with the Blackfeet, Apsaroke and Sioux - allies with the Spokan Tribe
- raids for horses - Nez Perce and Yakima
- 1841: Jesuits establish a mission
- 1855-1856: Yakima War
- 1855: July 16, Treaty
- 1858: Coeur d'Alene War
- 1872: reservation established for the Coeur d'Alene, Kalispel
- 1880: encroachments of non-Indians
- 1884: Chief Victor sought compensation of lost land and a separate reservation for the Lower Kalispel
- 1895: Indian Commissioner ordered Kalispel lands surveyed
- 1914: Kalispel Reservation was established
This tribe is primarily associated with the Kalispel Reservation in Washington.
Additional References to the History of the Tribe
Frederick Webb Hodge, in his Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, gave a more complete history of the Kalispel tribe, with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods.
Kalispel Tribal Headquarters
P.O. Box 39
Usk, WA 99180
Phone: (509) 445-1147
Fax: (509) 445-1705
The following agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs were responsible for the Kalispel Tribe:
Corrrespondence and Census
|Tribe||Agency||Location of Original Records||
Pre-1880 Correspondence M234 RG 75 Rolls
Post -1885 Census M 595 RG 75 Roll
|FHL Film Number|
|Pend d'Oreille (Kalispel)||Flathead Agency, 1875-1960||Seattle||-||-||703-13||575799-470|
- 1855 October 17, with the Blackfeet
- 1855 July 16, at Hell Gate, with the Flatheads, Etc.,
- Flathead Agency, M595, births and deaths and some marriages 1924-1934, FHL Film: 576469 and 1927-1937, FHL Film: 576470 and 1938-1939, FHL Film: 576471
Important Web Sites
- Corporate Charter of the Kalispel Indian Community of the Kalispel Reservation Washington
- Official web site of the Kalispel Tribe
- Pend d'Oreilles Tribe Wikipedia
- Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
- Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 Available online.
- Klein, Barry T., ed. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat 317923332; FHL book 970.1 R259e.
- Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. WorldCat 37475188; FHL book 970.1 G131g.
- Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean
- Vol. 2 -- Great Basin, Southwest, Middle America
- Vol. 3 -- Arctic, Subarctic, Great Plains, Plateau
- Vol. 4 -- California, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Islands
- Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .
- Volume 1 -- Not yet published
- Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- WorldCat 234303751
- Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- WorldCat 255572371
- Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- WorldCat 19331914; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4.
- Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- WorldCat 299653808; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5.
- Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat 247493742; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6.
- Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- WorldCat 247493311
- Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 13240086; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8.
- Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- WorldCat 26140053; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9.
- Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- WorldCat 301504096; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10.
- Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- WorldCat 256516416; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11.
- Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- WorldCat 39401371; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12.
- Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- WorldCat 48209643
- Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- WorldCat 254277176
- Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 356517503; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15.
- Volume 16 -- Not yet published
- Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- WorldCat 43957746
- Volume 18 -- Not yet published
- Volume 19 -- Not yet published
- Volume 20 -- Not yet published
- Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.
- Waldman, Carl. Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. New York, New York: Facts on File, 2006. 3rd ed. WorldCat 14718193; FHL book 970.1 W146e 2006.
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