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Indians of Montana > Kalispel Indians
Indians of Washington > Kalispel Indians

Alternate Names: Pend d'Oreille, Kalispel Indian Community of the Kalispel Reservation, Washington (the official federally-recognized name)

Kalispel (also known as Pend'd Oreilles) home of the Kalispel.jpg
1990 210 
1905 837 
1805 abt. 1,600 
1780 abt. 1,200 

Regions with significant populations
Ancestral Homelands: Northwestern Montana and northeastern Washington

Kalispel Reservation in Washington and the Flathead Reservation in Montana.


Federally recognized

Linguistic Group


Cultural Group

not yet researched

Other Related Ethnic Groups

Flathead, Pend d'Oreilles,



Tribal Groups: The Upper Kalispel, Lower Kalispel and Chewelah (who live west of the Chewelah Mountains in Upper Colville Valley) are collectively known as Pend d'Oreille Indians.

The Kalispel Tribe acquired horses early, from the Spanish or other tribes.

For over twenty years 1760-1780 the Kalispel Indians were in conflict with the Blackfeet, Apsaroke, and Sioux tribes. Their raids for horses against the Nez Perce and Yakima increased the conflict. They sought allies with the Spokan Tribe during this time.

The Jesuits established a mission among the tribe in 1841.

In 1855 the tribe ceded land and moved to Jocko Reservation in Montana Territory. Later the tribe was assigned to Kalispel Reservation in Washington.

Brief Timeline

  • 1730: acquired horses
  • 1760-1781: conflict with the Blackfeet, Apsaroke and Sioux - allies with the Spokan Tribe
  • raids for horses - Nez Perce and Yakima
  • 1841: Jesuits establish a mission
  • 1855-1856: Yakima War
  • 1855: July 16, Treaty
  • 1858: Coeur d'Alene War
  • 1872: reservation established for the Coeur d'Alene, Kalispel
  • 1880: encroachments of non-Indians
  • 1884: Chief Victor sought compensation of lost land and a separate reservation for the Lower Kalispel
  • 1895: Indian Commissioner ordered Kalispel lands surveyed
  • 1914: Kalispel Reservation was established

Additional References to the History of the Tribe

Frederick Webb Hodge, in his Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, gave a more complete history of the Kalispel tribe, with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods.

Tribal Headquarters

Kalispel Tribal Headquarters
P.O. Box 39
Usk, WA 99180
Phone: (509) 445-1147
Fax: (509) 445-1705



The following agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs were responsible for the Kalispel Tribe:

Census Records

Tribe Agency Location of Original Records

Post -1885 Census

M 595 RG 75 Roll

Roll Number

FHL Film Number
Pend d'Oreille (Kalispel)

Flathead Agency, 1875-1960

Seattle 703-13 575799-470

Enrollment Records

In 1905, the Commissioner of Indian Affairs assigned Special Agent Thomas Downs to investigate the enrollment of the Indians of the Flathead Reservation. The National Archives has microfilmed the resulting documents as their Microcopy M1350, consisting of 3 rolls of microfilm. These records are available at the National Archives and their Regional Archives, and at other research institutions, including the Family History Library in Salt Lake City. The records include census rolls for 1903, 1905, and 1908, as well as applications for enrollment and Agent Downs' field notes. It includes members of all tribes then living on the Flathead Reservation, including the Flathead, Kootenai, Pend d'Oreille, Kalispel, and Spokane tribes.


  • 1855 October 17, with the Blackfeet
  • 1855 July 16, at Hell Gate, with the Flatheads, Etc.,

Vital Records

  • Flathead Agency, M595, births and deaths and some marriages 1924-1934, FHL Film: 576469 and 1927-1937, FHL Film: 576470 and 1938-1939, FHL Film: 576471

Important Web Sites





  • Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
  • Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 Available online.
  • Klein, Barry T., ed. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat 317923332; FHL book 970.1 R259e.
  • Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. WorldCat 37475188; FHL book 970.1 G131g.
Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean
Vol. 2 -- Great Basin, Southwest, Middle America
Vol. 3 -- Arctic, Subarctic, Great Plains, Plateau
Vol. 4 -- California, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Islands
  • Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .
Volume 1 -- Not yet published
Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- WorldCat 234303751
Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- WorldCat 255572371
Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- WorldCat 19331914; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4.
Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- WorldCat 299653808; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5.
Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat 247493742; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6.
Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- WorldCat 247493311
Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 13240086; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8.
Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- WorldCat 26140053; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9.
Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- WorldCat 301504096; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10.
Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- WorldCat 256516416; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11.
Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- WorldCat 39401371; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12.
Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- WorldCat 48209643
Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- WorldCat 254277176
Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 356517503; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15.
Volume 16 -- Not yet published
Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- WorldCat 43957746
Volume 18 -- Not yet published
Volume 19 -- Not yet published
Volume 20 -- Not yet published


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