Maryland History

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[[Image:{{TheDove}}]]''[[United States]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Maryland]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] '''History'''''  
 
[[Image:{{TheDove}}]]''[[United States]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Maryland]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] '''History'''''  
  
=== Brief History  ===
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===            Brief History  ===
  
 
The following important events in the history of [[Maryland|Maryland]] affected political jurisdictions, record keeping, and family movements.  
 
The following important events in the history of [[Maryland|Maryland]] affected political jurisdictions, record keeping, and family movements.  
  
'''1632''' The King of England granted a charter for a colony where British Roman Catholics could settle in North America between [[Virginia]] and what would become [[Pennsylvania]]. The charter was granted to Cecilius Calvert, (Lord Baltimore). <ref>James McSherry, ''History of Maryland from Its First Settlement in 1634 to the Year 1848'' (Balitmore: John Murphy, 1849), 22-25. Digitized in 2006 by [http://books.google.com/books?id=K7AcFOAF_9cC Google Book].</ref>  
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'''1632''' The King of England granted a charter for a colony where British Roman Catholics could settle in North America between [[Virginia]] and what would become [[Pennsylvania]]. The charter was granted to Cecilius Calvert, (Lord Baltimore). <ref>James McSherry, ''History of Maryland from Its First Settlement in 1634 to the Year 1848'' (Baltimore: John Murphy, 1849), 22-25. Digitized in 2006 by [http://books.google.com/books?id=K7AcFOAF_9cC Google Book].</ref>  
  
'''1632-1691''', and '''1715-1776''' Maryland was a [[P genealogical glossary terms|proprietary]] colony. The Calvert family proprietors (and Governor's Council) issued land grants to entice settlers to the colony before 1680. Starting in 1680 they changed to a [[United States. United-States - Land and Property- Land Terms & Definitions|headrights]] system. <ref>John Leeds Bozman, ''History of Maryland from Its First Settlement in 1633 to the Restoration in 1660'' (Baltimore: James Lucas and E.K. Deaver, 1837) {{FHL|187462|item}} book 975.2 H2bj, 2: 9-22. Digitized in 2007 by [http://books.google.com/books?id=VMULAAAAYAAJ Google Book]. </ref>For more details see the [[Maryland Land and Property|Maryland Land and Property]] page.  
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'''1632-1691''', and '''1715-1776''' Maryland was a [[P genealogical glossary terms|proprietary]] colony. The Calvert family proprietors (and Governor's Council) issued land grants to entice settlers to the colony before 1680. Starting in 1680 they changed to a [[United States. United-States - Land and Property- Land Terms & Definitions|headrights]] system. <ref>John Leeds Bozman, ''History of Maryland from Its First Settlement in 1633 to the Restoration in 1660'' (Baltimore: James Lucas and E.K. Deaver, 1837) {{FHL|187462|item|disp=FHL Book 975.2 H2bj, 2: 9-22}}. Digitized in 2007 by [http://books.google.com/books?id=VMULAAAAYAAJ Google Book]. </ref>For more details see the [[Maryland Land and Property|Maryland Land and Property]] page.  
  
 
'''1634:''' The ships ''Ark'' and ''Dove'' brought about 200 Catholic and a few Protestant [[England|English settlers]] to the Western Shore of the Chesapeake Bay, where [[St. Mary's County, Maryland|St. Mary's County]] was established. <ref>McSherry, 25-33.</ref>  
 
'''1634:''' The ships ''Ark'' and ''Dove'' brought about 200 Catholic and a few Protestant [[England|English settlers]] to the Western Shore of the Chesapeake Bay, where [[St. Mary's County, Maryland|St. Mary's County]] was established. <ref>McSherry, 25-33.</ref>  
  
'''1634-:''' Virginia leaders refused to recognize the Maryland charter and continued to sell-off Maryland land on the Delmarva_Peninsula Delmarva Peninsula.&nbsp; This resulted in decades of border conflicts and uncertain land and tax claims, and attempts by Virginians to incite Indians against Maryland.<ref>Reginald V. Truitt, and Millard G. Les Callette, ''{{WorldCat|3016672}} Worcester County Maryland’s Arcadia]'' (Snow Hill, Md.: Worcester County Historical Society, 1977), 23-24, 33. ▲ {{FHL|258278|item}} book 975.221 H2t; fiche 6087644.</ref> <ref>Bozman, 2:33-35.</ref>  
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'''1634-:''' Virginia leaders refused to recognize the Maryland charter and continued to sell-off Maryland land on the {{wpd|Delmarva_Peninsula|Delmarva Peninsula}}. This resulted in decades of border conflicts and uncertain land and tax claims, and attempts by Virginians to incite Indians against Maryland.<ref>Reginald V. Truitt, and Millard G. Les Callette, ''{{WorldCat|3016672}} Worcester County Maryland’s Arcadia]'' (Snow Hill, Md.: Worcester County Historical Society, 1977), 23-24, 33. ▲ {{FHL|258278|item|disp=FHL Book 975.221 H2t; fiche 6087644}}.</ref> <ref>Bozman, 2:33-35.</ref>  
  
 
'''1649''' Maryland passed the {{wpd|Maryland_Toleration_Act|Religious Toleration Act}} to protect Catholics and immigrating Puritans from each other and create an environment to attract more immigrants. <ref>{{MDTol}}</ref> Eight years of religious wars followed anyway.  
 
'''1649''' Maryland passed the {{wpd|Maryland_Toleration_Act|Religious Toleration Act}} to protect Catholics and immigrating Puritans from each other and create an environment to attract more immigrants. <ref>{{MDTol}}</ref> Eight years of religious wars followed anyway.  
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Maryland was also one of the key destinations of tens of thousands of {{wpd|Penal_transportation| transported British convicts}}. <ref>{{MDHist}} </ref>Prior to 1776 three-fourths of immigrants were convicts, slaves, {{wpd|Indentured_servants|indentured servants}}, or became indentured servants to pay for their passage to America. For information about convicts and indentured servants see the works of Peter Wilson Coldham indexed in [http://www.ancestry.com/search/rectype/default.aspx?rt=40 Ancestry.com], a subscription web site. [[Image:{{MDcolony}}]]  
 
Maryland was also one of the key destinations of tens of thousands of {{wpd|Penal_transportation| transported British convicts}}. <ref>{{MDHist}} </ref>Prior to 1776 three-fourths of immigrants were convicts, slaves, {{wpd|Indentured_servants|indentured servants}}, or became indentured servants to pay for their passage to America. For information about convicts and indentured servants see the works of Peter Wilson Coldham indexed in [http://www.ancestry.com/search/rectype/default.aspx?rt=40 Ancestry.com], a subscription web site. [[Image:{{MDcolony}}]]  
  
'''1682''' Pennsylvania began to assert ownership of what became [[Delaware]] and northern parts of Maryland. The Maryland citizens resisted including the murder of a pushy Pennsylvania tax collector. These border conflicts would not be fully resolved until the drawing of the Mason-Dixon line between 1763 and 1767. <ref>Richard Wilson, and Jack Bridner, ''{{WorldCat|8530259}} Maryland: Its Past and Present'' (Lanham, Md.: Maryland Historical Press, 1981) ▲ {{FHL|549692|item}} book 975.2 H2wi]], 83-84.</ref>  
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'''1682''' Pennsylvania began to assert ownership of what became [[Delaware]] and northern parts of Maryland. The Maryland citizens resisted including the murder of a pushy Pennsylvania tax collector. These border conflicts would not be fully resolved until the drawing of the Mason-Dixon line between 1763 and 1767. <ref>Richard Wilson, and Jack Bridner, ''{{WorldCat|8530259}} Maryland: Its Past and Present'' (Lanham, Md.: Maryland Historical Press, 1981) ▲ {{FHL|549692|item|disp=FHL Book 975.2 H2wi}}, 83-84.</ref>  
  
'''1691-1715''' Maryland became a {{wpd|Crown colony}}. <ref>Richard Walsh, and William Lloyd Fox, ''{{wpd|1217352}} Maryland: A History 1632-1974]'' (Baltimore: Maryland Historical Society, 1974) ▲ {{FHL|231377|item}} FHL book H2wr, 24-28.</ref>  
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'''1691-1715''' Maryland became a {{wpd|Crown colony}}. <ref>Richard Walsh, and William Lloyd Fox, ''{{wpd|1217352}} Maryland: A History 1632-1974]'' (Baltimore: Maryland Historical Society, 1974) ▲ {{FHL|231377|item|disp=FHL book H2wr, 24-28}}.</ref>  
  
 
'''1706:''' Baltimore port was founded. It soon became a major port and commercial center. <ref>{{MDBalti}}</ref>  
 
'''1706:''' Baltimore port was founded. It soon became a major port and commercial center. <ref>{{MDBalti}}</ref>  
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'''1802:''' The property qualification for voting in local elections was removed.  
 
'''1802:''' The property qualification for voting in local elections was removed.  
  
As tobacco and later cotton farming grew in the South (including Maryland) so did the [[African American Slavery and Bondage|African slave trade]]. After '''1808''', when importation of slaves was banned, the {{wpd|Slavery_in_the_United_States#Second_Middle_Passage}} internal slave trade resulted in many slaves from Maryland being moved to more western states like [[Tennessee]] and [[Kentucky]]. <ref>{{MDSlave}}</ref> At the start of the Civil War the slave trade was the second largest money making enterprise in Maryland.  
+
As tobacco and later cotton farming grew in the South (including Maryland) so did the [[African American Slavery and Bondage|African slave trade]]. After '''1808''', when importation of slaves was banned, the {{wpd|Slavery_in_the_United_States#Second_Middle_Passage|Slavery in the United States (Second Middle Passage)}} internal slave trade resulted in many slaves from Maryland being moved to more western states like [[Tennessee]] and [[Kentucky]]. <ref>{{MDSlave}}</ref> At the start of the Civil War the slave trade was the second largest money making enterprise in Maryland.  
  
 
'''1812-1815:''' The [[War of 1812, 1812 to 1815|War of 1812]] involved many Maryland residents, and some battles were fought in Maryland.  
 
'''1812-1815:''' The [[War of 1812, 1812 to 1815|War of 1812]] involved many Maryland residents, and some battles were fought in Maryland.  
  
'''1818:''' The {{wpd|National_Road National Road}} section was completed from Cumberland, Maryland to Wheeling, [[West Virginia|(West) Virginia]] on the Ohio River. <ref>Wilson and Bridner, 113-16.</ref>  
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'''1818:''' The [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Road; National Road] section was completed from Cumberland, Maryland to Wheeling, [[West Virginia|(West) Virginia]] on the Ohio River. <ref>Wilson and Bridner, 113-16.</ref>  
  
'''1818-1850:''' {{wpd|Chesapeake_and_Ohio_Canal}} was built along the Potomac River from Georgetown to Cumberland, Maryland mainly by Irish workers. <ref>Wilson and Bridner, 117-19.</ref>  
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'''1818-1850:''' {{wpd|Chesapeake and Ohio Canal}} was built along the Potomac River from Georgetown to Cumberland, Maryland mainly by Irish workers. <ref>Wilson and Bridner, 117-19.</ref>  
  
'''1834-1853:''' {{wpd|Baltimore_and_Ohio_Railroad}}, the oldest common carrier railroad in America, in 1834 reached Harper's Ferry, (West) Virginia. In 1853 it was extended to Wheeling (West) Virginia on the Ohio River. <ref>Wilson and Bridner, 120-22.</ref>  
+
'''1834-1853:''' {{wpd|Baltimore and Ohio Railroad}}, the oldest common carrier railroad in America, in 1834 reached Harper's Ferry, (West) Virginia. In 1853 it was extended to Wheeling (West) Virginia on the Ohio River. <ref>Wilson and Bridner, 120-22.</ref>  
  
'''1850s:''' Miners from [[Scotland]], [[Ireland]], [[Germany]], and [[Wales]] immigrated to work western Maryland's coal deposits. The Nativist "{{wpd|Know_Nothing_Party}} was formed to resist this wave of immigration. <ref>Wilson and Bridner, 126-27.</ref>  
+
'''1850s:''' Miners from [[Scotland]], [[Ireland]], [[Germany]], and [[Wales]] immigrated to work western Maryland's coal deposits. The Nativist "{{wpd|Know Nothing Party}} was formed to resist this wave of immigration. <ref>Wilson and Bridner, 126-27.</ref>  
  
'''1850s:''' Former slaves like Harriet Tubman and Fredrick Douglas escaped from and through Maryland across the Mason-Dixon Line into Pennsylvania or Delaware. Quakers and others who lived in these states helped runaways on the "[http://ww2.mdslavery.net/ Underground Railroad]," a series of safe-houses leading farther north into Canada. The Underground Railroad helped runaways avoid being re-enslaved as a result of {{wpd|Fugitive_slave_act fugitive slave laws}}. <ref>Wilson and Brinder, 136-42.</ref> [[Image:{{Antietam}}]]  
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'''1850s:''' Former slaves like Harriet Tubman and Fredrick Douglas escaped from and through Maryland across the Mason-Dixon Line into Pennsylvania or Delaware. Quakers and others who lived in these states helped runaways on the "[http://ww2.mdslavery.net/ Underground Railroad]," a series of safe-houses leading farther north into Canada. The Underground Railroad helped runaways avoid being re-enslaved as a result of {{wpd|Fugitive slave act}}. <ref>Wilson and Brinder, 136-42.</ref> [[Image:{{Antietam}}]]  
  
 
By the start of the Civil War 49 percent of [[African American Research|African Americans]] in Maryland were already free. <ref>Wilson and Brinder, 142.</ref>  
 
By the start of the Civil War 49 percent of [[African American Research|African Americans]] in Maryland were already free. <ref>Wilson and Brinder, 142.</ref>  
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'''1865-1875:''' [[African American Research|African Americans]], often former slaves from the South, flooded into the [[District of Columbia|District of Columbia]] and Baltimore looking for work at the end of the Civil War.  
 
'''1865-1875:''' [[African American Research|African Americans]], often former slaves from the South, flooded into the [[District of Columbia|District of Columbia]] and Baltimore looking for work at the end of the Civil War.  
  
'''1904:''' {{wpd|Great_Baltimore_Fire}} left 35,000 without jobs. <ref>{{BaltFire}}</ref>  
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'''1904:''' {{wpd|Great Baltimore Fire}} left 35,000 without jobs. <ref>{{BaltFire}}</ref>  
  
 
=== State Histories Useful to Genealogists  ===
 
=== State Histories Useful to Genealogists  ===
  
Good genealogists strive to understand the life and times of their ancestors. In this sense, any history is useful.  
+
Good genealogists strive to understand the life and times of their ancestors. In this sense, any history is useful.<br>
  
 
But certain kinds of state, county, and local histories, especially older histories published between 1845 and 1945, often include biographical sketches of prominent individuals. The sketches usually tend toward the lauditory, but may include some genealogical details. If these histories are indexed or alphabetical, check for an ancestor's name. Some examples for the State of Maryland are:  
 
But certain kinds of state, county, and local histories, especially older histories published between 1845 and 1945, often include biographical sketches of prominent individuals. The sketches usually tend toward the lauditory, but may include some genealogical details. If these histories are indexed or alphabetical, check for an ancestor's name. Some examples for the State of Maryland are:  
  
*Ethan Allen, ''History of Maryland: to Which Are Added Brief Biographies of Distinguished Statesmen, Philanthropists, Theologians, etc.'' (1866; Reprint Fort Wayne, Ind.: Allen County Public Library, 1988?) {{FHL|497808|item}} book 975.2 H2aL; fiche 6125065. [http://books.google.com/books?id=ZlwVAAAAYAAJ Google Book]. Includes 18 biographical sketches of prominent citizens.  
+
*Ethan Allen, ''History of Maryland: to Which Are Added Brief Biographies of Distinguished Statesmen, Philanthropists, Theologians, etc.'' (1866; Reprint Fort Wayne, Ind.: Allen County Public Library, 1988?) {{FHL|497808|item|disp=FHL Book 975.2 H2aL; Fiche 6125065}}. [http://books.google.com/books?id=ZlwVAAAAYAAJ Google Book]. Includes 18 biographical sketches of prominent citizens.  
*Matthew Page Andrews, and Henry Fletcher Powell, {{WorldCat|1655587}} ''Tercentenary History of Maryland''], 4 vols. (Chicago: S.J. Clarke Pub., 1925). ▲ {{FHL|232274|item}} book 975.2 H2t. Volumes 2-4 contain biographical sketches.  
+
*Matthew Page Andrews, and Henry Fletcher Powell, {{WorldCat|1655587}} ''Tercentenary History of Maryland''], 4 vols. (Chicago: S.J. Clarke Pub., 1925). ▲ {{FHL|232274|item|disp=FHL Book 975.2 H2t}}. Volumes 2-4 contain biographical sketches.  
*Ronald Hoffman, and Sally D. Mason, {{WorldCat|42649800}} ''Princes of Ireland, Planters of Maryland: a Carroll Saga, 1500-1782''] (Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press, c2000). {{FHL|1055704|item} FHL book 975.2 H2hr. 11 pages of a Carroll family descendancy chart.  
+
*Ronald Hoffman, and Sally D. Mason, {{WorldCat|42649800}} ''Princes of Ireland, Planters of Maryland: a Carroll Saga, 1500-1782''] (Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press, c2000). {{FHL|1055704|item|disp=FHL Book 975.2 H2hr}}. 11 pages of a Carroll family descendancy chart.  
*Francis Sims McGrath, {{WorldCat|1725334}} ''Pillars of Maryland'' (Richmond, Va: Dietz Press, c1950; Reprint, 198-). {{FHL|488742|item}} book 975.2 H2mcg. Almost entirely biographical sketches.  
+
*Francis Sims McGrath, {{WorldCat|1725334}} ''Pillars of Maryland'' (Richmond, Va: Dietz Press, c1950; Reprint, 198-). {{FHL|488742|item|disp=FHL Book 975.2 H2mcg}}. Almost entirely biographical sketches.  
*Harry Wright Newman, {{WorldCat|10552122}} ''The Flowering of the Maryland Palatinate: an Intimate and Objective History of the Province of Maryland to the Overthrow of Proprietary Rule in 1654, with Accounts of Lord Baltimore's Settlement at Avalon''] (Washington, D.C.: H.W. Newman, 1961). {{FHL|231258|item}} FHL book 975.2 H2nh. About half the book is biographical sketches.  
+
*Harry Wright Newman, {{WorldCat|10552122}} ''The Flowering of the Maryland Palatinate: an Intimate and Objective History of the Province of Maryland to the Overthrow of Proprietary Rule in 1654, with Accounts of Lord Baltimore's Settlement at Avalon''] (Washington, D.C.: H.W. Newman, 1961). {{FHL|231258|item|disp=FHL Book 975.2 H2nh}}. About half the book is biographical sketches.  
*Hester Dorsey Richardson, ''Side-lights on Maryland History: with Sketches of Early Maryland Families'', 2 vols. (First published serially in the ''Baltimore Sunday Sun'' from May 17, 1903 to December 25, 1904; Reprint Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1913; Reprint 1967). {{FHL|231274|item}} book 975.2 H2r 1967; {{{FHL|237813|item}} 1697311, which is digitized by BYU Family History Archives. Vol. 1 [http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/u?/FH19,7261] and Vol. 2 [http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/u?/FH19,50058]. Unusually detailed history including lists of settlers and document transcripts mentioning citizens.  
+
*Hester Dorsey Richardson, ''Side-lights on Maryland History: with Sketches of Early Maryland Families'', 2 vols. (First published serially in the ''Baltimore Sunday Sun'' from May 17, 1903 to December 25, 1904; Reprint Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1913; Reprint 1967). {{FHL|231274|item|disp=FHL Book 975.2 H2r 1967}}; {{{FHL|237813|item|disp=FHL Film 1697311}}, which is digitized by BYU Family History Archives. Vol. 1 and Vol. 2 [https://www.familysearch.org/s/catalog/show?uri=http%3A%2F%2Fcatalog.familysearch.org%3A8080%2Fwww-catalogapi-webservice%2Fitem%2F237813&hash=HloWXpZgU9zB10k5M56iYku8TUc%253D; Family History Library]. Unusually detailed history including lists of settlers and document transcripts mentioning citizens.  
*J. Thomas Scharf, {{WorldCat|444161}} ''History of Western Maryland: Being a History of Frederick, Montgomery, Carroll, Washington, Allegany, and Garrett Counties from the Earliest Period to the Present Day; Including Biographical Sketches of Their Representative Men''], 2 vols. (1882; Reprint Baltimore: Regional Pub., 1968). {{FHL|231288|item}} 975.2 H2s 1968; fiche 6046813. Several indexes have been published.  
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*J. Thomas Scharf, {{WorldCat|444161}} ''History of Western Maryland: Being a History of Frederick, Montgomery, Carroll, Washington, Allegany, and Garrett Counties from the Earliest Period to the Present Day; Including Biographical Sketches of Their Representative Men''], 2 vols. (1882; Reprint Baltimore: Regional Pub., 1968). {{FHL|231288|item|disp=FHL Book 975.2 H2s 1968; Fiche 6046813}}. Several indexes have been published.  
*Raphael Thomas Semmes, {{WorldCat|2351809}} ''Captains and Mariners of Early Maryland''] (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1937). {{FHL|258230|item}} book 975.2 H2sr; fiche 6049133.
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*Raphael Thomas Semmes, {{WorldCat|2351809}} ''Captains and Mariners of Early Maryland''] (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1937). {{FHL|258230|item|disp=FHL Book 975.2 H2sr; Fiche 6049133}}.
  
 
To find more books and articles about Maryland history use the Internet [http://www.google.com/ Google] search for phases like "Maryland history."  
 
To find more books and articles about Maryland history use the Internet [http://www.google.com/ Google] search for phases like "Maryland history."  
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:MARYLAND, [COUNTY], [TOWN] - HISTORY
 
:MARYLAND, [COUNTY], [TOWN] - HISTORY
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{{Template:Pros-MD}}
  
 
=== Sources  ===
 
=== Sources  ===
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{{reflist}} {{Maryland|Maryland}} {{Maryland-stub}}  
 
{{reflist}} {{Maryland|Maryland}} {{Maryland-stub}}  
  
{{Featured article}}
 
  
 
[[Category:Maryland|History]]
 
[[Category:Maryland|History]]

Revision as of 21:26, 7 May 2013

The Dove (replica) helped carry the first European colonists to Maryland.
United States Gotoarrow.png Maryland Gotoarrow.png History

           Brief History

The following important events in the history of Maryland affected political jurisdictions, record keeping, and family movements.

1632 The King of England granted a charter for a colony where British Roman Catholics could settle in North America between Virginia and what would become Pennsylvania. The charter was granted to Cecilius Calvert, (Lord Baltimore). [1]

1632-1691, and 1715-1776 Maryland was a proprietary colony. The Calvert family proprietors (and Governor's Council) issued land grants to entice settlers to the colony before 1680. Starting in 1680 they changed to a headrights system. [2]For more details see the Maryland Land and Property page.

1634: The ships Ark and Dove brought about 200 Catholic and a few Protestant English settlers to the Western Shore of the Chesapeake Bay, where St. Mary's County was established. [3]

1634-: Virginia leaders refused to recognize the Maryland charter and continued to sell-off Maryland land on the Delmarva Peninsula. This resulted in decades of border conflicts and uncertain land and tax claims, and attempts by Virginians to incite Indians against Maryland.[4] [5]

1649 Maryland passed the Religious Toleration Act to protect Catholics and immigrating Puritans from each other and create an environment to attract more immigrants. [6] Eight years of religious wars followed anyway.

Maryland was also one of the key destinations of tens of thousands of transported British convicts. [7]Prior to 1776 three-fourths of immigrants were convicts, slaves, indentured servants, or became indentured servants to pay for their passage to America. For information about convicts and indentured servants see the works of Peter Wilson Coldham indexed in Ancestry.com, a subscription web site.
Maryland's disputed border with Pennsylvania 1682-1767.

1682 Pennsylvania began to assert ownership of what became Delaware and northern parts of Maryland. The Maryland citizens resisted including the murder of a pushy Pennsylvania tax collector. These border conflicts would not be fully resolved until the drawing of the Mason-Dixon line between 1763 and 1767. [8]

1691-1715 Maryland became a Crown colony. [9]

1706: Baltimore port was founded. It soon became a major port and commercial center. [10]

1740s Germans from Pennsylvania started moving into central Maryland's Frederick County until it was the second most populous county. [11]

1763-1767: The Maryland-Pennsylvania boundary was established by the surveying of the Mason_Dixon_line. [12]

1776: Maryland adopted a Declaration of Rights and a state constitution.

1788 (April 28) Maryland officially became a state in the Union by ratifying the Constitution.

1791: Maryland ceded sixty square miles for the District of Columbia.

1802: The property qualification for voting in local elections was removed.

As tobacco and later cotton farming grew in the South (including Maryland) so did the African slave trade. After 1808, when importation of slaves was banned, the Slavery in the United States (Second Middle Passage) internal slave trade resulted in many slaves from Maryland being moved to more western states like Tennessee and Kentucky. [13] At the start of the Civil War the slave trade was the second largest money making enterprise in Maryland.

1812-1815: The War of 1812 involved many Maryland residents, and some battles were fought in Maryland.

1818: The National Road section was completed from Cumberland, Maryland to Wheeling, (West) Virginia on the Ohio River. [14]

1818-1850: Chesapeake and Ohio Canal was built along the Potomac River from Georgetown to Cumberland, Maryland mainly by Irish workers. [15]

1834-1853: Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, the oldest common carrier railroad in America, in 1834 reached Harper's Ferry, (West) Virginia. In 1853 it was extended to Wheeling (West) Virginia on the Ohio River. [16]

1850s: Miners from Scotland, Ireland, Germany, and Wales immigrated to work western Maryland's coal deposits. The Nativist "Know Nothing Party was formed to resist this wave of immigration. [17]

1850s: Former slaves like Harriet Tubman and Fredrick Douglas escaped from and through Maryland across the Mason-Dixon Line into Pennsylvania or Delaware. Quakers and others who lived in these states helped runaways on the "Underground Railroad," a series of safe-houses leading farther north into Canada. The Underground Railroad helped runaways avoid being re-enslaved as a result of Fugitive slave act. [18]
The bloodiest 24 hours in Western Hemisphere history were fought in the Civil War, 17 Sep 1862, at Antietam Creek, Maryland.

By the start of the Civil War 49 percent of African Americans in Maryland were already free. [19]

1851: Baltimore City became an independent city and started keeping court, land, and probate records separately from the county.

1861-1865 Maryland soldiers fought on both sides during the Civil War, but the state of Maryland stayed in the Union.

1864: Remaining slaves in Maryland were emancipated.

1865-1875: African Americans, often former slaves from the South, flooded into the District of Columbia and Baltimore looking for work at the end of the Civil War.

1904: Great Baltimore Fire left 35,000 without jobs. [20]

State Histories Useful to Genealogists

Good genealogists strive to understand the life and times of their ancestors. In this sense, any history is useful.

But certain kinds of state, county, and local histories, especially older histories published between 1845 and 1945, often include biographical sketches of prominent individuals. The sketches usually tend toward the lauditory, but may include some genealogical details. If these histories are indexed or alphabetical, check for an ancestor's name. Some examples for the State of Maryland are:

  • Ethan Allen, History of Maryland: to Which Are Added Brief Biographies of Distinguished Statesmen, Philanthropists, Theologians, etc. (1866; Reprint Fort Wayne, Ind.: Allen County Public Library, 1988?) FHL Book 975.2 H2aL; Fiche 6125065. Google Book. Includes 18 biographical sketches of prominent citizens.
  • Matthew Page Andrews, and Henry Fletcher Powell, WorldCat 1655587 Tercentenary History of Maryland], 4 vols. (Chicago: S.J. Clarke Pub., 1925). ▲ FHL Book 975.2 H2t. Volumes 2-4 contain biographical sketches.
  • Ronald Hoffman, and Sally D. Mason, WorldCat 42649800 Princes of Ireland, Planters of Maryland: a Carroll Saga, 1500-1782] (Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press, c2000). FHL Book 975.2 H2hr. 11 pages of a Carroll family descendancy chart.
  • Francis Sims McGrath, WorldCat 1725334 Pillars of Maryland (Richmond, Va: Dietz Press, c1950; Reprint, 198-). FHL Book 975.2 H2mcg. Almost entirely biographical sketches.
  • Harry Wright Newman, WorldCat 10552122 The Flowering of the Maryland Palatinate: an Intimate and Objective History of the Province of Maryland to the Overthrow of Proprietary Rule in 1654, with Accounts of Lord Baltimore's Settlement at Avalon] (Washington, D.C.: H.W. Newman, 1961). FHL Book 975.2 H2nh. About half the book is biographical sketches.
  • Hester Dorsey Richardson, Side-lights on Maryland History: with Sketches of Early Maryland Families, 2 vols. (First published serially in the Baltimore Sunday Sun from May 17, 1903 to December 25, 1904; Reprint Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1913; Reprint 1967). FHL Book 975.2 H2r 1967; {FHL Film 1697311, which is digitized by BYU Family History Archives. Vol. 1 and Vol. 2 Family History Library. Unusually detailed history including lists of settlers and document transcripts mentioning citizens.
  • J. Thomas Scharf, WorldCat 444161 History of Western Maryland: Being a History of Frederick, Montgomery, Carroll, Washington, Allegany, and Garrett Counties from the Earliest Period to the Present Day; Including Biographical Sketches of Their Representative Men], 2 vols. (1882; Reprint Baltimore: Regional Pub., 1968). FHL Book 975.2 H2s 1968; Fiche 6046813. Several indexes have been published.
  • Raphael Thomas Semmes, WorldCat 2351809 Captains and Mariners of Early Maryland] (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1937). FHL Book 975.2 H2sr; Fiche 6049133.

To find more books and articles about Maryland history use the Internet Google search for phases like "Maryland history."

The Place Search of the Family History Library Catalog lists many more histories under topics like:

MARYLAND - HISTORY
MARYLAND, [COUNTY] - HISTORY
MARYLAND, [COUNTY], [TOWN] - HISTORY


Sources

  1. James McSherry, History of Maryland from Its First Settlement in 1634 to the Year 1848 (Baltimore: John Murphy, 1849), 22-25. Digitized in 2006 by Google Book.
  2. John Leeds Bozman, History of Maryland from Its First Settlement in 1633 to the Restoration in 1660 (Baltimore: James Lucas and E.K. Deaver, 1837) FHL Book 975.2 H2bj, 2: 9-22. Digitized in 2007 by Google Book.
  3. McSherry, 25-33.
  4. Reginald V. Truitt, and Millard G. Les Callette, WorldCat 3016672 Worcester County Maryland’s Arcadia] (Snow Hill, Md.: Worcester County Historical Society, 1977), 23-24, 33. ▲ FHL Book 975.221 H2t; fiche 6087644.
  5. Bozman, 2:33-35.
  6. Wikipedia contributors, "Maryland Toleration Act," Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Maryland_Toleration_Act&oldid=269468219 (accessed February 17, 2009).
  7. Wikipedia contributors, "Maryland—History," Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Maryland&oldid=271243474 (accessed February 17, 2009).
  8. Richard Wilson, and Jack Bridner, WorldCat 8530259 Maryland: Its Past and Present (Lanham, Md.: Maryland Historical Press, 1981) ▲ FHL Book 975.2 H2wi, 83-84.
  9. Richard Walsh, and William Lloyd Fox, 1217352 Maryland: A History 1632-1974] (Baltimore: Maryland Historical Society, 1974) ▲ FHL book H2wr, 24-28.
  10. Wikipedia contributors, "Baltimore," Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Baltimore&oldid=271615328 (accessed February 18, 2009).
  11. Wilson and Brinder, 81-82.
  12. Wikipedia contributors, "Mason-Dixon Line," Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mason-Dixon_Line&oldid=270916560 (accessed February 18, 2009).
  13. Wikipedia contributors, "Slavery in the United States," Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Slavery_in_the_United_States&oldid=271360102 (accessed February 18, 2009).
  14. Wilson and Bridner, 113-16.
  15. Wilson and Bridner, 117-19.
  16. Wilson and Bridner, 120-22.
  17. Wilson and Bridner, 126-27.
  18. Wilson and Brinder, 136-42.
  19. Wilson and Brinder, 142.
  20. Wikipedia contributors, "Great Baltimore Fire," Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Great_Baltimore_Fire&oldid=269520358 (accessed February 18, 2009).