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United States  Gotoarrow.png  Migration  Gotoarrow.png  Trails and Roads  Gotoarrow.png  Natchez Trace

The Natchez Trace started as a footpath before 1742 to connect Nashville, Tennessee with Natchez, Mississippi. This sunken section is near Port Gibson, Mississippi.
Farmers from Tennessee, Kentucky, Ohio, and Indiana could float their goods down the Mississippi River to market in New Orleans, and then return home on the Natchez Trace risking gangs of robbers.
The Natchez Trace, or "Old Natchez Trace" was a 450 mile (725 km) long trail connecting what were originally American Indian settlements on the Cumberland River (Nashville, Tennessee) and Tennessee River ("Wawmanona" Indian site near Florence, Alabama) with settlements near the Mississippi River (Natchez, Mississippi, Grand Villiage of the Natchez Indians). European colonists had used the old Indian trail since 1742. In 1796 the trace was extended 275 miles (440 km) from Nashville, Tennessee to Maysville, Kentucky where it connected with Zane's Trace which continued through Ohio to Wheeling, West Virginia. This made it possible to go overland from the east coast to the Mississippi River. After the trace was upgraded to a road in 1801, the same could be done in a wagon for the first time. The Trace declined in importance after 1816 when rival roads and steamboats grabbed much of its traffic.


Route

Original trace south to north:

  • Natchez, Adams, Mississippi
  • Port Gibson, Claiborne, Mississippi
  • Jackson, Hinds, Mississippi
  • Williamsville, Attala, Mississippi
  • Tupelo, Lee, Mississippi
  • Tishomingo, Tishomingo, Mississippi
  • Florence, Lauderdale, Alabama
  • Collinwood, Wayne, Tennessee
  • Duck River, Hickman, Tennessee
  • Leipers Fork, Williamson, Tennessee
  • Nashville, Davidson, Tennessee

1796 extension:

  • Tompkinsville, Monroe, Kentucky
  • Harrodsburg, Mercer, Kentucky
  • Lexington, Fayette, Kentucky
  • Maysville, Mason, Kentucky

Contents

Historical Background

The "trace" was first created by animals like bison to reach salt licks in the Nashville area, and their grazing areas near the Mississippi River. American Indians, developed the trace further for trading mostly, and also as a warpath. An unknown Frenchman was the first European to write about traveling the full Natchez Trace in 1742.[1] But earlier Europeans such as Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto may have come across parts of the trace in 1540 while being guided by Choctaw and Chickasaw Indians. The trace followed a natural ridge and, at first, was only a narrow footpath or horse trail unsuitable for wagons because of trees.

In 1801 the United States signed a treaty with the Choctaw Indians allowing construction of a mail road by the side the the old footpath. The new road soon became important to settlers. Eventually inns known as "stands" were built every few miles to offer travelers a room and refreshment.

Midwestern farmers called Kaintucks often used flatboats to float their agricultural goods, coal, or livestock down the Ohio-Mississippi River to market in Natchez, or New Orleans. Once downriver, their boats were of little use, so they often sold them as well, and the boats were dismantled for their lumber. One of the ways they could return to Tennessee, Kentucky, Ohio, or Indiana was by way of the Natchez Trace. An estimated 10,000 Kaintucks used the Natchez Trace in 1810.[2] However, because their pockets were loaded with money they were frequently preyed upon by gangs of robbers along the trail.[3]

The road not only carried settlers, but also their ministers. Methodist circuit riders were working the Trace as early as 1800 with many converts. Baptists and Presbyterians soon joined them. The Presbyterians worked their way from the south end, and the Cumberland Presbyterians from the north extension of the Trace.[1]

Meriwether Lewis, Governor of the Upper Louisiana Territory, and a former leader of the Lewis and Clark Expedition was traveling on the Natchez Trace in 1809 when he died at Grinder's Stand [near Hohenwald], Tennessee.[4] During the War of 1812 the ferryman at the Tennessee River, George Colbert, charged Andrew Jackson $75,000 to ferry his army across the river.[5]

The rise of steamboats that could easily return upriver, and rival roads such as Jackson's Military Road, built during the War of 1812, resulted in the decline of the Natchez Trace after 1816.[1]

Settlers and Records

There is no known list of settlers who travelled the Natchez Trace. However, some of the early residents of Tennessee may have used the Natchez Trace to reach their destination, as well as several other routes like the Great Valley Road, Wilderness Road, Avery's Trace, or Georgia Road. For early Tennessee settlers see:

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has more about this subject: Natchez Trace

Internet Sites

Sources

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Wikipedia contributors, "Natchez Trace," Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natchez_Trace (accessed 24 July 2010).
  2. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, "Natchez Trace Parkway-Kaintucks" in nps.gov at http://www.nps.gov/natr/kaintuck.htm (accessed 1 August 2010).
  3. The Story of the Historic Natchez Trace at http://library.thinkquest.org/6270/story_index.html (accessed 1 August 2010).
  4. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, "Natchez Trace Parkway-Park Home" in nps.gov at http://www.nps.gov/natr/index.htm (accessed 1 August 2010).
  5. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, "Natchez Trace Parkway-Photos and Multimedia" in nps.gov at http://www.nps.gov/natr/photosmultimedia/index.htm (accessed 1 August 2010).

 

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