Northumberland County, Virginia

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*[http://www.nplva.org/ Northumberland Public Library]  
 
*[http://www.nplva.org/ Northumberland Public Library]  
 
*[[Tidewater Genealogical Society|Tidewater Genealogical Society]]  
 
*[[Tidewater Genealogical Society|Tidewater Genealogical Society]]  
*[http://www.northumberlandvahistory.org/ Northumberland County Historical Society]
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*[http://www.northumberlandvahistory.org/ Northumberland County Historical Society]
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*[http://mpaagenealogicalsociety.org/ Middle Peninsula African-American Genealogical & Historical Society]
  
 
== Websites  ==
 
== Websites  ==

Revision as of 01:30, 27 September 2012

Northumberland County, Virginia
Map
Boundary map of Northumberland County, Virginia
Map of Virginia highlighting Northumberland County
Location in the state of Virginia
Map of the U.S. highlighting Virginia
Location of Virginia in the U.S.
Facts
Founded 1648
County Seat Heathsville
Courthouse
United States  go to  Virginia  go to  Northumberland County

Tidewater county in the Northern Neck region of Virginia.

Contents

County Courthouse

Northumberland County Courthouse
P O Box 217
Heathsville, Virginia 22473-0217
Phone: 804-580-3777

Clerk Circuit Court has marriage, divorce, probate, court and land records[1]

Beginning Dates for Northumberland County, Virginia Government Records
Birth Marriage Death Census Land Probate
1853 1735 1853 1810 1650 1652

History

Parent County

1648--Northumberland County was created 12 October 1648 from Indian District of Chickacoan.
County seat: Heathsville [2]

Boundary Changes

Northumberland County and Westmoreland County were temporarily joined in 1662.[3]

Record Loss

  • Lost censuses: 1790, 1800, 1890

Places/Localities

Part of the Northern Neck region

Populated Places

Neighboring Counties

Resources

Getting Started

Compiled genealogies are a good place to start research for this area, see Northumberland County, Virginia Genealogy.

If you are researching families who lived in Northumberland County, Virginia between the 1650s and 1710s, the Sparacios' books are a great time saver. They comprehensively index several publications covering that period:

  • Sparacio, Ruth Trickey and Sam Sparacio. Surname Index of Antient Press Publications. 14+ vols. McLean, Va.: R. & S. Sparacio, Antient Press, 1993-. FHL Collection 975.5 P22s v. 1-2; publisher's website: Antient Press. (Some of the index volumes have not been printed and it is necessary to contact the publishers to search them.)

Research Guides

  • Davis, Virginia Lee Hutcheson. "Records of Tidewater Virginia Counties," Tidewater Virginia Families: A Magazine of History and Genealogy, Vol. 1, No. 2 (May-June 1992):53-66. FHL Collection 975.51 D25t [For Northumberland County, see p. 63]
  • Dorman, John Frederick. "A Guide to the Counties of Virginia: Northumberland County," The Virginia Genealogist, Vol. 19, No. 3 (Jul.-Sep. 1975):205-208. Digital version at American Ancestors ($).

African American

  • Virginia Freedmen's Bureau Letters or Correspondence, 1865-1872
  • Heinegg, Paul. "Northumberland County Personal Property Tax List, 1782-1813," Free African Americans.com. [Heinegg abstracted free blacks listed in these records.]
  • Heinegg, Paul. Free African Americans of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Maryland and Delaware. 2005-present. - free online book. Baker, Beckett, Bee, Bell, Bolling, Bolton, Booth, Boughan (see introduction), Boyd, Bryant, Carpenter, Cassidy, Causey, Craney, Credit, Day, Gregory, Griffin, Haws, Hitchens, Kelly, Key (see introduction), Lawson, Lewin, Mason, Moore, Moses, Mozingo, Murrow, Nickens, Oats, Oliver, Oxendine, Peters, Phillips, Pinn, Pitts, Ranger, Rich, Shoecraft, Smith, Sorrell, Spriddle, Stewart, Tate, Thomas, Toulson, Vena, Venners, Vina, Watkins, Weaver, Webb, Wiggins, Wood, and Young families of pre-1820 Northumberland County, Virginia.
  • Kegley, Mary B. Free People of Colour: Free Negroes, Indians, Portuguese and Freed Slaves. Wytheville, Virginia: Kegley Books, 2003. Available at FHL; digital version at Family History Archives. [Includes information about Northumberland County free people of color.]
  • Sutton, K.E. Black, Red and Revolutionary: Free African Americans of Lancaster and Northumberland Counties, Virginia in the Era of the American Revolution. K.E. Sutton, 1997.
  • Sutton, Karen E. Northumberland County, Virginia Registers of Free Blacks. Maryland: Heritage Books, 1999.

Bible Records

Images of the Virginia Historical Society's family Bible collection have been digitized:

Additional Bible records include:


Cemeteries

  • "Early Tombs in Westmoreland, Richmond, and Northumberland Counties," The William and Mary Quarterly, Vol. 11, No. 2 (Oct. 1902):123-130; Vol. 11, No. 3 (Jan. 1903):191-195. Available at JSTOR ($).
  • "Early Tombstones in Northumberland County," The William and Mary Quarterly, Vol. 8, No. 1 (Jul. 1899):42-47. Available at JSTOR ($).
  • "Inscriptions on Old Tombstones in Westmoreland and Northumberland Counties," The William and Mary Quarterly, Vol. 9, No. 1 (Jul. 1900):25-31. Available at JSTOR ($).
  • Virginia Daughters of the American Revolution, Daughters of the American Revolution. Freedom Hill Chapter (McLean, Va.). Virginia DAR Genealogical Records Committee Report: Tombstone Inscriptions of Northumberland County, Virginia. Virginia DAR, 1996.
  • Northumberland County Cemeteries

Census

For tips on accessing Northumberland County, Virginia census records online, see: Virginia Census.


Historical populations
Census Pop.  %±
1790 9,163
1800 7,803 −14.8%
1810 8,308 6.5%
1820 8,016 −3.5%
1830 7,953 −0.8%
1840 7,924 −0.4%
1850 7,346 −7.3%
1860 7,531 2.5%
1870 6,863 −8.9%
1880 7,929 15.5%
1890 7,885 −0.6%
1900 9,486 20.3%
1910 10,777 13.6%
1920 11,518 6.9%
1930 11,081 −3.8%
1940 10,463 −5.6%
1950 10,012 −4.3%
1960 10,185 1.7%
1970 9,239 −9.3%
1980 9,828 6.4%
1990 10,524 7.1%
2000 12,259 16.5%
Source: "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau.

1782 Enumeration

1784 Enumeration

1890 Union Veterans

Church Records

  • Hall, Addison. The Glory of the Latter House: Sermon, Dedication of Coan Meeting House, County of Northumberland, Va.,Oct. 3, 1847. 1848.
Baptist

Early Baptist churches (with years constituted):

  • Coan aka Coan. A history of the early years has been published: Northumberland County Historical Society Bulletin, Vol. 6, No. 1 (1969) and Vol. 29 (1992). An 1811 register was published there in Vol. 3, No. 1 (Jul. 1966). Another history was published in 1987:
  • Coan Baptist Church (Heathsville, Virginia). Church History Committee. Stop and Look: The History of the Coan Baptist Church, 1804-1979 : Heathsville, Northumberland County, Virginia. Barbour Print., 1987.

The 10,000 name petition (dated 16 October 1776) has been digitized at the Library of Congress website. It was signed by people from all over Virginia who wanted an end to persecution of Baptists by the Established Church. Baptists and Baptist sympathizers alike signed the petition. To find your ancestor in this record, first check Hall's transcription in the Magazine of Virginia Genealogy (Vols. 35-38, with annotations in Vol. 39), which is available online at Ancestry ($). It is also available in book form at the Family History Library: FHL Book 975.5 B2vs v. 35-39. Then proceed to the Library of Congress website to see the original images.


  • Semple, Robert Baylor and Clarissa Hall. The Faithful Servant of God Exemplied in the Life and Death of Samuel L. Straughan: Late Minister of the Gospel, Northumberland County, Va. Shepherd & Pollard, printers, 1822.
Church of England

go to See also Boutracy Parish
go to See also Chickacoan Parish
go to See also Fairfield Parish
go to See also Lee Parish
go to See also Nomini Parish
go to See also St. Stephen's Parish
go to See also Wicomico Parish

  • Mason, George Carrington. "The Colonial Churches of Northumberland and Lancaster Counties, Virginia," The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. 54, No. 2 (Apr. 1946):137-151; Vol. 54, No. 3 (Jul. 1946):233-243. Available at JSTOR ($).
Presbyterian

There was a Presbyterian congregation and meeting house in the 1750s and 1760s.[4]

  • Toler, Henry, Clarissa Pollard and Eliza Steptoe. The Faithful Minister's Work and Course Pursued and Finished: Being the Substance of Two Sermons Occasioned by the Death of Elder Lewis Lunsford, Late of Northumberland, in the State of Virginia, Who Departed this Life at Mr. Abraham Gregory['s] in Essex, October 26, 1793, about the Fortieth ... Ormond & Ormond & Conrad, no. 41, Old Sign of Franklin's Head, Chestnut-Street, 1795.
Quaker

Early monthly meetings (with years of existence):

  • Northumberland Monthly Meeting (1650s-1660s)[5]

Court

County Court

  • Duvall, Lindsay O. Virginia Colonial Abstracts. Series II, Volume I. Northumberland County, 1678-1713. [Abstracts of order books 1678-1713.]
  • Fleet, Beverley. Northumberland County Records, 1652-1655: Containing Abstracts from Court Order Book No. 2, 20th Sept. 1652-20th Oct. 1655, Record Book No. 14, 20th Sept. 1652-20th Aug. 1655. Baltimore: Genealogical Pub. Co., 1961. Available at FHL US/CAN Book 975.5 N2fb 1988 v. 1 also 3 volumes in 1 FHL US/CAN Film 908178 Item 1; digital version at Ancestry ($); and World Vital Records has ($) Volume 2 and Volume 3.
  • Herman, Lawrence George. Presentments of the Grand Jury of Northumberland County, Virginia, 1744-1770. College of William and Mary, 1976.
  • "Revolutionary Proceedings in Northumberland County, 1765, 1776-1778," The William and Mary Quarterly, Vol. 20, No. 2, (Labeled issue 1) (Oct. 1911):127-132. Available at JSTOR ($).

Superior Court of Chancery

The Superior Court of Chancery of Fredericksburg (1802-1831) had jurisdiction over certain Northumberland County court cases. An index has been compiled:

  • Indexes of Court Records in the Clerk's Office, Fredericksburg, Virginia, 1782-1904. Original records, Fredericksburg City Courthouse, Fredericksburg, Va., microfilmed reproduction available at FHL. [Indexes the following records: District Court law book v. 8, 1782-1792; District Court law books 1790-1793, v. A-F 1789-1811; Superior Court of Law law order books v. G-H 1812-1831; Superior Court of Chancery chancery order books 1814-1831; Hustings Court orders v. A-O 1782-1871; Circuit Superior Court of Law and Chancery law order books v. A-E 1831-1875; Circuit Superior Court of Law and Chancery chancery order books v. A-D 1831-1872; Circuit Court chancery order books v. A2, B-C 1875-1904; Fredericksburg District Court (1789-1808) had jurisdiction over the following counties: Spotsylvania (including Fredericksburg), Caroline, King George, Stafford, Orange, and Culpeper; Superior Court of Chancery (1802-1831) had jurisdiction over the following localities: city of Fredericksburg and the counties of Caroline, Culpeper, Fauquier, Fairfax, Lancaster, Northumberland, Madison, King George, Orange, Prince William, Richmond, Spotsylvania, Stafford, Essex, and Westmoreland.]

Gazetteers

  • Wilson, John C. Creek Peek Collection: From the Piankatank to the Potomac: Locations of 195 Creeks, Coves, Bays, Branches, Prongs, Ponds and Rivers in Lancaster, Middlesex, Northumberland, Richmond and Westmoreland Counties of Virginia. Rappahannock Press, 199-?.

Genealogy

More than 225 genealogies have been published about Northumberland County families. To view a list, visit Northumberland County, Virginia Genealogy.

Immigration

Headright grants identify many Northumberland County, Virginia immigrants who arrived before 1720.[6] The Virginia Immigration article provides tips about using this source.

Additional resources include:


  • Coldham, Peter Wilson. North American Wills Registered in London 1611-1857. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 2007. [Includes will of a resident of Cherry Point, Bow Tracy, Northumberland County proved in London. These records often help establish an immigrant's place of origin.]
  • List of imported servants and transported convicts from Europe who served labor terms in Colonial Northumberland County, Virginia (work in progress), courtesy: Immigrant Servants Database.
  • Ljungstedt, Milnor. "Items from Southern Records" [Showing Family and Trade Connections with Northern Colonies and the Home Countries], The American Genealogist, Vol. 15 (1938):95-104. Digital version at American Ancestors ($). [Northumberland Co., VA record surname: Lord.]

Land

Grants and Patents

  • Davey. 253 patents dated 1651-1911 in what is now Fairfax, Fauquier, Northumberland, Prince William, Stafford, and Westmoreland Counties, Virginia placed on a map. DeedMapper. [Names of those who received land patents, dates, land descriptions, and references may be viewed free of charge (click "Index" next to the county listing, which is "Nova" in this instance); however, in order to view the maps, it is necessary to purchase Direct Line Software's DeedMapper product.]
  • Gray, Gertrude E. Virginia Northern Neck Land Grants 1694-1742. Vol. I. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1987. Available at [1]. [Includes Northumberland County.]
  • Nugent, Nell Marion. Cavaliers and Pioneers: Abstracts of Virginia Land Patents and Grants 1623-1666. Vol. I (1934; reprint, Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1991). Available at FHL; digital version at Ancestry ($). [Includes Northumberland County. N.B. If Ancestry's search engine fails, try checking the printed index at the end of the book.]

Local Histories

  • Scott, Steven, University of New Orleans, University of New Orleans. Dept. of History. Social Networking in Seventeenth-century Virginia: Northumberland County, 1651-1665. University of New Orleans, 2005.

Maps

Military

English Civil War
  • Hackley, Woodford B. "The Northumberland Oath 1652," [Oath of Allegiance to Oliver Cromwell's government during Commonwealth Period] The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. 49, No. 1 (Jan. 1941):33-36. Available at JSTOR ($). [Identifies many local residents.]
Colonial Militia
  • Bockstruck, Lloyd DeWitt. Virginia's Colonial Soldiers. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1988. Available at FHL. [Identifies some Northumberland County militia officers and/or soldiers; see place name index.]
  • Crozier, William Armstrong. Virginia Colonial Militia 1651-1776. Baltimore: Southern Book Co., 1954. Available at FHL; digital book at Ancestry ($). [Identifies some Northumberland County militia officers; see place name index.]
French and Indian War
  • Bockstruck, Lloyd DeWitt. Virginia's Colonial Soldiers. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1988. Available at FHL. [Identifies some Northumberland County militia officers, soldier enlistments, and veterans; see place name index.]
  • Boogher, William F. Gleanings of Virginia History: An Historical and Genealogical Collection, Largely from Original Sources. Washington: n.p., 1903. Available at FHL; digital version at Google Books. [Includes a chapter titled "Legislative Enactments connecting the preceding historic sketch [French and Indian War, Lord Dunmore's War] with the adjudication of the resulting accounts that follow; with the list of officers, soldiers and civilians entitled to compensation for military and other services rendered." For Northumberland County, see p. 96.]
  • Crozier, William Armstrong. Virginia Colonial Militia 1651-1776. Baltimore: Southern Book Co., 1954. Available at FHL; digital book at Ancestry ($). [Identifies some Northumberland County militia officers; see place name index.]
Revolutionary War

Regiments. Service men in Northumberland County served in various regiments. Men often joined a company (within a regiment) that originated in their county. Northumberland County supplied soldiers for the:

- 5th Virginia Regiment
- 15th Virginia Regiment (7th Company)[7]

Additional resources:

  • "Revolutionary Proceedings in Northumberland County, 1765, 1776-1778," The William and Mary Quarterly, Vol. 20, No. 2, (Labeled issue 1) (Oct. 1911):127-132. Available at JSTOR ($).
  • Sutton, K.E. Black, Red and Revolutionary: Free African Americans of Lancaster and Northumberland Counties, Virginia in the Era of the American Revolution. K.E. Sutton, 1997.
  • Revolutionary Pension Applications
War of 1812

Northumberland County men served in the 37th Regiment.[8]

  • List of Pensioners on the Roll, January 1, 1883; Giving the Name of Each Pensioner, the Cause for Why Pensioned, the Post-Office Address, the Rate of Pension Per Month, and the Date of Original Allowance... Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1883. FHL Collection 973 M2Lp v. 5; digital versions at Google Books and Internet Archive. [See Vol. 5, Virginia, Northumberland County, p. 96. Identifies War of 1812 veterans living in this county in 1883.]
Civil War

Regiments. Service men in Northumberland County, Virginia served in various regiments. Men often joined a company (within a regiment) that originated in their county. Listed below are companies that were specifically formed in Northumberland County, Virginia:


Virginia, Civil War Service Records of Confederate Soldiers 1861-1865

Virginia, Civil War ServiceRecords of Union Soldiers 1861-1865

Native Americans

The Wickacomico Tribe lived in the area in the late 1600s.[9]

  • Potter, Stephen R. An Ethnohistorical Examination of Indian Groups in Northumberland County, Virginia: 1608-1719. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1976.

Naturalization

Newspapers

Indexed images of the Virginia Gazette (1736-1780) are available online through the Colonial Williamsburg website. In addition, Professor Tom Costa and The Rector and Visitors of the University of Virginia have created a database of all runaway advertisements for slaves, indentured servants, transported convicts, and ship deserters listed in this source and other Virginia newspapers (1736-1803), see: The Geography of Slavery in Virginia. These newspapers are valuable resources for all regions of Virginia.

Occupations

  • Doggett, Barbara Lynn. Parish Apprenticeship in Colonial Virginia: A Study of Northumberland County, 1680-1695 and 1750-1765. College of William and Mary, 1981.
  • "Northumberland County," [List of Burgesses from the County Levy (1658-1719)] The William and Mary Quarterly, Vol. 4, No. 3 (Jan. 1896):179-180. Available at JSTOR ($).

Poor Records

  • Doggett, Barbara Lynn. Parish Apprenticeship in Colonial Virginia: A Study of Northumberland County, 1680-1695 and 1750-1765. College of William and Mary, 1981.

Private Papers

Virginia, Historical Society Papers, 1607-2007

  • [Galloway] Nickson, James, David Galloway and Thomas Lee. Title Account, November 1745 to November 1746, with David Galloway of Northumberland County, Virginia. [Incomplete citation taken from Google Books.]
  • [Jones] Jones Family and Library of Congress. The Papers of the Jones Family of Northumberland, Virginia, 1649-1889. Library of Congress, 1972.

Probate Records

Local Court

  • Lewis, James F. and J. Motley Booker. Wills and Administrations, Northumberland County, Virginia, 1713-1749. J.F. Lewis and J.M. Booker, 1967. Reviewed in The Virginia Genealogist, Vol. 11, No. 3 (Jul.-Sep. 1967):137. Review available at American Ancestors ($).
  • Lewis, James F. and J. Motley Booker. Wills and Administrations, Northumberland County, Virginia, 1750-1770. J.F. Lewis and J.M. Booker, 1964. Reviewed in The Virginia Genealogist, Vol. 8, No. 3 (Jul.-Sep. 1964):137-138. Review available at American Ancestors ($).
  • Photocopy of the Will of Samuel Griffin of Northumberland County, Virginia (1702) and Research Notes. [Incomplete citation from Google Books.]
  • Washington, John A. "Will of Thomas Bushrod, Northumberland County, Virginia, 1698," The Virginia Genealogist, Vol. 18, No. 1 (Jan.-Mar. 1974):55-60. Available at American Ancestors ($).

London Courts

  • Coldham, Peter Wilson. North American Wills Registered in London 1611-1857. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 2007. [Includes will of a resident of Cherry Point, Bow Tracy, Northumberland County proved in London. These records often help establish an immigrant's place of origin.]

Taxation

How can Virginia tax lists help me?

The original personal property tax lists of Northumberland County, Virginia are held at the Library of Virginia, Richmond, Va. FHL has microfilmed Northumberland's personal property tax lists for the years 1782 to 1850.

Additional Northumberland County taxation records available online or in print include:

  • [1664] Horse Owners Pay Bounty on Wolves, 1664, Northumberland County Historical Society Bulletin, Vol. 22 (1985).
  • [1679] Context and Significance of County Tithables List with Records, 1679, Northumberland County Historical Society Bulletin, Vol. 41 (2004).
  • [1782] Land Tax List, 1782, Northumberland County Historical Society Bulletin, Vol. 9, No. 1 (1972).
  • [1782-1813] Heinegg, Paul. "Northumberland County Personal Property Tax List, 1782-1813," Free African Americans.com. [Heinegg abstracted free blacks listed in these records.]
  • [1787] Schreiner-Yantis, Netti and Florene Speakman Love. The 1787 Census of Virginia: An Accounting of the Name of Every White Male Tithable Over 21 Years, the Number of White Males Between 16 & 21 Years, the Number of Slaves over 16 & Those Under 16 Years, Together with a Listing of Their Horses, Cattle & Carriages, and Also the Names of All Persons to Whom Ordinary Licenses and Physician's Licenses Were Issued. 3 vols. Springfield, Va.: Genealogical Books in Print, 1987. Available at FHL. [The source of this publication is the 1787 personal property tax list. Northumberland County is included in Vol. 2.]
  • [1788, 1801] Indexed images of the 1788 and 1801 Personal Property Tax Lists of Northumberland County, Virginia are available online, courtesy: Binns Genealogy.
  • [1800] Tax List, 1800, Virginia Genealogist, Vol. 46, No. 1 (Jan. 2002); Vol. 46, No. 2 (Apr. 2002); Vol. 46, No. 3 (Jul. 2002).
  • [1815] Ward, Roger D. 1815 Directory of Virginia Landowners (and Gazetteer). 6 vols. Athens, Georgia: Iberian Pub. Co., 1997-2000. Available at FHL. [The source for this publication is the 1815 land tax. Northumberland County is included in Vol. 3.]

Vital Records

Indexes to Northumberland County, Virginia births, marriages, and deaths are available online. These collections are incomplete, but are easy to search. Most records can also be ordered electronically online as well. Courtesy: FamilySearch - free. See also How to order Virginia Vital Records


Birth
  • Fleet, Beverley. Northumberland Co. Record of Births, 1661-1810. Baltimore: Genealogical Pub. Co., 1961. Digital book at Ancestry ($).
Marriage
  • Headley, Robert K. Married Well and Often: Marriages of the Northern Neck of Virginia 1649-1800: Marriages and Marriage References for the Counties of Lancaster, Northumberland, Old Rappahannock, Richmond, and Westmoreland. Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Co., 2003. FHL.
  • "Marriage License Records of Northumberland County, Virginia, from 1735 to 1795: As Recorded in Clerk's Fee Books," The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. 47, No. 1 (Jan. 1939):41-47. Available at JSTOR ($).
  • Nottingham, Stratton. The Marriage License Bonds of Northumberland County, Virginia, 1783 - 1850. Onancock, VA: S. Nottingham, 1929. FHL; and World Vital Records ($).
  • "William Forester Marriage Register 1802-1842," The Virginia Genealogist, Vol. 10, No. 1 (Jan.-Mar. 1966):3-10; Vol. 10, No. 2 (Apr.-Jun. 1966):57-65. Digital version at American Ancestors ($). FHL Book 975.5 B2vg v. 10 (1966).
Vital Record Substitutes

The Virginia Historical Society's Marriage and Obituary Index, 1736-1820 (newspaper abstracts) is available for free online. Images of the original index cards are browseable, arranged alphabetically by surname.


Voting

  • Bromley, Richard Franklin and Margaret Payne Bromley. Northumberland County, Virginia Poll List for the Election of Burgesses for the Period 1750-1774. Family Line Publications, 1994.

Societies and Libraries

Websites

Learning How to Edit our Wiki Sites

Hands on keyboard.png Genealogy courses: Learn how to research from an expert in Fun Five Minute Genealogy Videos.


References

  1. Handybook for Genealogists: United States of America, 10th ed. (Draper, Utah: Everton Pub., 2002), Northumberland County, Virginia. Page 718 At various libraries (WorldCat); FHL Book 973 D27e 2002.
  2. The Handybook for Genealogists: United States of America, 10th ed. (Draper, UT:Everton Publishers, 2002).
  3. Milnor Ljungstedt, "Westmoreland and Northumberland Joined," The William and Mary Quarterly, Second Series, Vol. 4, No. 1 (Jan. 1924):46-47. Digital version at JSTOR ($).
  4. Northern Neck Presbyterian Churches, Church History, ca. 1720-1780. FHL Film 1490375 Item 6.
  5. Jay Worrall, The Friendly Virginians: America's First Quakers (Athens, Ga.: Iberian Publishing Company, 1994), 537-539. FHL Book 975.5 K2wj.
  6. John Frederick Dorman, "Review of Cavaliers and Pioneers," in The Virginia Genealogist, Vol. 24, No. 3 (Jul.-Sep. 1980):221. Digital version at American Ancestors ($). FHL Book 975.5 B2vg v. 24 (1980)
  7. E.M. Sanchez-Saavedra, A Guide to Virginia Military Organizations in the American Revolution, 1774-1787 (Richmond, Va.: Virginia State Library, 1978), 72. FHL Book 975.5 M2s.
  8. Stuart Lee Butler, A Guide to Virginia Militia Units in the War of 1812 (Athens, Ga.: Iberian Pub. Co., 1988), 159. FHL Book 975.5 M2bs.
  9. Charles Campbell, History of the Colony and Ancient Dominion of Virginia (Philadelphia, Pa.: J.B. Lippincott and Co., 1860), 267-268. Digitized by Internet Archive.