Old Cherokee Path

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Scots-Irish (that is Ulster-Irish), and German farmers migrating along the [[Great Valley Road]] (sometimes called the Great Wagon Road) through Virginia began settling the counties near the north end of the [[Old_Cherokee_Path|Old Cherokee Path]] in the 1750s. However, during part of the French and Indian War from 1754 to 1763 they decided to leave the Washington County, Virginia area. Some settlers after the war in Johnson County, Tennessee and Watauga County, North Carolina were pushing beyond the Proclamation line protecting Indians from intruders. Many of the re-settlers in the area became involved in the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Watauga_Association Watauga Association] (a semi-automomous government) starting in 1772.<ref>Wikipedia contributors, "Watauga Association," ''Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia'', http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Watauga_Association (accessed 8 April 2011).</ref> In turn this led to the tentative and short-lived [[State of Franklin|State of Franklin]].  
 
Scots-Irish (that is Ulster-Irish), and German farmers migrating along the [[Great Valley Road]] (sometimes called the Great Wagon Road) through Virginia began settling the counties near the north end of the [[Old_Cherokee_Path|Old Cherokee Path]] in the 1750s. However, during part of the French and Indian War from 1754 to 1763 they decided to leave the Washington County, Virginia area. Some settlers after the war in Johnson County, Tennessee and Watauga County, North Carolina were pushing beyond the Proclamation line protecting Indians from intruders. Many of the re-settlers in the area became involved in the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Watauga_Association Watauga Association] (a semi-automomous government) starting in 1772.<ref>Wikipedia contributors, "Watauga Association," ''Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia'', http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Watauga_Association (accessed 8 April 2011).</ref> In turn this led to the tentative and short-lived [[State of Franklin|State of Franklin]].  
  
From the first contact with Europeans the [[Cherokee Indians|Cherokee Indians]] had settlements called the [http://sciway3.net/scgenweb/pickens-county/images/sheriff-01.pdf Lower Cherokee Villages] in the northwest part of [[South Carolina|South Carolina]] and part of [[Georgia|Georgia]]. The most prominent was the town of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keowee Keowee]. Another important town was [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tugaloo Tugaloo] near what became Toccoa, Georgia. Several important Indian trails converged on these villages. The Cherokee resisted most European settlement near their villages. However, the Cherokee sided with the British during the American Revolutionary War. By 1777 Patriot forces attacked and drove the Cherokee from South Carolina, and Tugaloo, Georgia. Patriot veterans soon began to settle on former Cherokee lands. Eventually the old Indian trails in the area were improved into migration routes for European settlers.  
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From the first contact with Europeans the [[Cherokee Indians|Cherokee Indians]] had settlements called the [http://sciway3.net/scgenweb/pickens-county/images/sheriff-01.pdf Lower Cherokee Villages] in the northwest part of [[South Carolina|South Carolina]] and part of [[Georgia|Georgia]]. The most prominent was the town of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keowee Keowee] in what became [[Oconee County, South Carolina|Oconee County, South Carolina]]. Another important town was [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tugaloo Tugaloo] near what became Toccoa, Georgia. Several important Indian trails converged on these villages, including the south end of the [[Old_Cherokee_Path|Old Cherokee Path]]. The Cherokee resisted most European settlement near their villages. However, the Cherokee sided with the British during the American Revolutionary War. By 1777 Patriot forces attacked and drove the Cherokee from South Carolina, and Tugaloo, Georgia. Patriot veterans soon began to settle on former Cherokee lands. Eventually the old Indian trails in the area were improved into migration routes for European settlers.  
  
 
As roads developed in America settlers were attracted to nearby communities because the roads provided access to markets. They could sell their products at distant markets, and buy products made far away. If an ancestor settled near a road, you may be able to trace back to a place of origin on a connecting highway.
 
As roads developed in America settlers were attracted to nearby communities because the roads provided access to markets. They could sell their products at distant markets, and buy products made far away. If an ancestor settled near a road, you may be able to trace back to a place of origin on a connecting highway.
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The migration routes connected at the ''south'' end in [[Oconee County, South Carolina]], or in Tugaloo, [[Stephens County, Georgia|Stephens, Georgia]] included:  
 
The migration routes connected at the ''south'' end in [[Oconee County, South Carolina]], or in Tugaloo, [[Stephens County, Georgia|Stephens, Georgia]] included:  
  
:*Savannah River pre-historic
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:*Savannah River  
:*[[Old_Cherokee_Path|Old Cherokee Path]] pre-historic  
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:*[[Lower Cherokee Traders' Path]] a pre-historic trail connecting the [http://sciway3.net/scgenweb/pickens-county/images/sheriff-01.pdf Lower Cherokee Villages] to the Catawba Indians ([[Charlotte, North Carolina]])
:*[[Lower Cherokee Traders' Path]] pre-historic  
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:*[[Old_Cherokee_Path]] a pre-historic trail from the [http://sciway3.net/scgenweb/pickens-county/images/sheriff-01.pdf Lower Cherokee Villages] to [[Washington County, Virginia]] on the [[Great Valley Road]] (also known as the [[Great Indian Warpath]])
:*[[Coosa-Tualoo Indian Warpath]]  
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:*[[Coosa-Tugaloo Indian Warpath]] was a pre-historic path that went toward [[Birmingham, Alabama]]  
:*[[Tugaloo-Apalachie Bay Trail]]  
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:*[[Tugaloo-Apalachee Bay Trail]] was a pre-historic trail headed for the Florida panhandle and probably [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mission_San_Luis_de_Apalachee Mission San Luis de Apalachee]  
:*[[Augusta and Cherokee Trail]] about 1777
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:*[[Augusta and Cherokee Trail]] was a pre-historic trail from [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tugaloo Tugaloo] originally to [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Savannah_Town,_South_Carolina Savannah Town, South Carolina] and later [[Augusta, Georgia]]
:*[[Fort Charlotte and Cherokee Old Path|Fort Charlotte and Cherokee Old Path]] about 1777
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:*[[Old South Carolina State Road|Old South Carolina State Road]] 1747 a fork of this road apparently connected [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tugaloo Tugaloo], Georgia to [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fort_Prince_George_(South_Carolina) Fort Prince George], to [[Columbia, South Carolina|Columbia]] and to [[Charleston, South Carolina]].
:*[[Upper Road]] about 1783  
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:*[[Fort Charlotte and Cherokee Old Path|Fort Charlotte and Cherokee Old Path]] after 1765 followed the northeast side of the Savannah River from the [[Old_Cherokee_Path]] in [[Oconee County, South Carolina|Oconee County]] down to old [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fort_Charlotte_(South_Carolina) Fort Charlotte] in northwest [[McCormick County, South Carolina]]
:*[[Unicoi Trail]] or Turnpike 1813<ref>William E. Myer, ''Indian Trails of the Southeast''. (Nashville, Tenn.: Blue and Gray Press, 1971). ({{FHL|54678|item|disp=FHL Book 970.1 M992i}}) [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/1523234 WorldCat entry].</ref>
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:*[[Upper Road]] about 1783 (overlapping the Lower Cherokee Traders' Path) connecting [[Fredericksburg, Virginia]] to [[Macon, Georgia]]
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:*[[Unicoi Trail|Unicoi Turnpike]] opened to a few European traders 1690, but the wagon road was not opened to settlers until 1813 from near [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tugaloo Tugaloo] headed northwest to the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Overhill_Cherokee Overhill Cherokee villages] and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knoxville,_Tennessee Knoxville] in [[Tennessee]]<ref>Lowell Kirk, "The Unicoi Turnpike" at http://www.telliquah.com/unicoi.htm (accessed 3 May 2011).</ref><ref>William E. Myer, ''Indian Trails of the Southeast''. (Nashville, Tenn.: Blue and Gray Press, 1971). ({{FHL|54678|item|disp=FHL Book 970.1 M992i}}) [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/1523234 WorldCat entry].</ref>
  
 
''Between'' those two ends the [[Old_Cherokee_Path|Old Cherokee Path]] was also crossed by several other important routes:  
 
''Between'' those two ends the [[Old_Cherokee_Path|Old Cherokee Path]] was also crossed by several other important routes:  
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*[http://gaz.jrshelby.com/cherokee-lower.htm Cherokee Lower Towns] has maps of town locations, a link to a Revolutionary War battle database, sources, and list of Revolutionary War battles involving Cherokees.  
 
*[http://gaz.jrshelby.com/cherokee-lower.htm Cherokee Lower Towns] has maps of town locations, a link to a Revolutionary War battle database, sources, and list of Revolutionary War battles involving Cherokees.  
*[http://files.usgwarchives.org/ga/history/earlytrails.txt Georgia History Early Trails] describes westward migration on and route of the Lower Cherokee Traders' Path and other routes through Georgia.  
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*[http://files.usgwarchives.net/ga/history/earlytrails.txt Georgia History Early Trails] describes westward migration on and route of the Lower Cherokee Traders' Path and other routes through Georgia.  
 
*Wikipedia contributors, "Tugaloo," ''Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia'', http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tugaloo (accessed 5 April 2011).  
 
*Wikipedia contributors, "Tugaloo," ''Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia'', http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tugaloo (accessed 5 April 2011).  
 
*Wikipedia contributors, "Great Wagon Road," ''Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia'', http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Wagon_Road (accessed 7 April 2011).
 
*Wikipedia contributors, "Great Wagon Road," ''Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia'', http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Wagon_Road (accessed 7 April 2011).

Revision as of 06:28, 30 January 2013

United States  Gotoarrow.png  Migration  Gotoarrow.png  Trails and Roads  Gotoarrow.png  Old Cherokee Path

Old Cherokee Path.png
The Old Cherokee Path connected the Lower Cherokee Indian villages, in particular Tugaloo just southwest of the Savannah River in what is now Georgia (but also villages in South Carolina), with several Indian trails, especially the Great Indian Warpath or Great Valley Road as it was called in Virginia. Tugaloo, Georgia was at a nexus of several other Indian trails. The Great Valley Road was one of the most significant settler migration routes in America. The Old Cherokee Path was not fully opened to European settlers until the Cherokee were forced out of South Carolina and part of Georgia in 1777 during the American Revolutionary War after the Cherokee sided with the British in that war. The Old Cherokee Path began in Stephens County, Georgia and ended in Washington County, Virginia. The length of the trail was about 150 miles (241 km).[1]

Contents

Historical Background

Scots-Irish (that is Ulster-Irish), and German farmers migrating along the Great Valley Road (sometimes called the Great Wagon Road) through Virginia began settling the counties near the north end of the Old Cherokee Path in the 1750s. However, during part of the French and Indian War from 1754 to 1763 they decided to leave the Washington County, Virginia area. Some settlers after the war in Johnson County, Tennessee and Watauga County, North Carolina were pushing beyond the Proclamation line protecting Indians from intruders. Many of the re-settlers in the area became involved in the Watauga Association (a semi-automomous government) starting in 1772.[2] In turn this led to the tentative and short-lived State of Franklin.

From the first contact with Europeans the Cherokee Indians had settlements called the Lower Cherokee Villages in the northwest part of South Carolina and part of Georgia. The most prominent was the town of Keowee in what became Oconee County, South Carolina. Another important town was Tugaloo near what became Toccoa, Georgia. Several important Indian trails converged on these villages, including the south end of the Old Cherokee Path. The Cherokee resisted most European settlement near their villages. However, the Cherokee sided with the British during the American Revolutionary War. By 1777 Patriot forces attacked and drove the Cherokee from South Carolina, and Tugaloo, Georgia. Patriot veterans soon began to settle on former Cherokee lands. Eventually the old Indian trails in the area were improved into migration routes for European settlers.

As roads developed in America settlers were attracted to nearby communities because the roads provided access to markets. They could sell their products at distant markets, and buy products made far away. If an ancestor settled near a road, you may be able to trace back to a place of origin on a connecting highway.

Route

The first European colonists settled in counties along this trail (north to south) as follows:[3]

Connecting trails. The Old Cherokee Path linked to other trails at each end. Other trails also crossed it in the middle.[6]

The migration pathways connected at the north end in Washington County, Virginia included:

The migration routes connected at the south end in Oconee County, South Carolina, or in Tugaloo, Stephens, Georgia included:

Between those two ends the Old Cherokee Path was also crossed by several other important routes:

  • Jonesboro Road after 1769 crossed the Old Cherokee Path near the Burke/McDowell county border, NC. The Jonesboro Road connected New Bern, North Carolina to Jonesborough and Knoxville, Tennessee.
  • Rutherford's War Trace opended in 1776 through the same place because it overlapped the Jonesboro Road there.
  • Catawba Trail a pre-historic route met the Old Cherokee Path near the North Carolina/South Carolina border. The Catawba Trail connected the Lower Cherokee villages with the Cumberland Gap and Wilderness Road into Kentucky.
  • Old South Carolina State Road opened in 1747 and met the Old Cherokee Path near the North Carolina/South Carolina border. The Old South Carolina State Road made its way to Columbia and Charleston, South Carolina. A branch of the Old State Road also may have followed the Old Cherokee Path to Fort Prince George, Keowee, and Tugaloo.

Modern parallels. The modern roads that roughly match the old Old Cherokee Path start in Toccoa, Georgia. From Toccoa, take US-123 east to Easley, South Carolina, then east on US-124 to Greenville. Go north on US-25 to SC-11. Turn east on SC-11 to Gowensville. Take SC-14 north to Landrum, then northwest on US-176/Asheville Highway to Tryon, North Carolina. Turn north and then east onto NC-108 to Rutherfordton. Take US-64 north to Lenoir, then go north on US-321 to Boone. Take US-421 to Mountain City, then turn northeast onto NC-91 to Damascus, Tennessee. From Damascus take US-58 northwest to I-81, the Interstate version of the Great Valley Road.

Settlers and Records

The Great Valley Road was the trail leading to the north end of the Old Cherokee Path. A few colonists settled in Washington County Virginia in the early 1750s but decided to leave for safety reasons during the French and Indian War. The Lower Cherokee Villages on the South Carolina and Georgia part of the Old Cherokee Path inhibited most European settlements until the American Revolutionary War. Settlers prior to 1777 were most likely using trails other than the Old Cherokee Path to reach their new homes.

No complete list of settlers who used the Old Cherokee Path is known to exist. Nevertheless, local and county histories along that trail may reveal pioneer settlers who arrived after 1777 and therefore who were the most likely candidates to have traveled the Old Cherokee Path.

For partial lists of early settlers who may  have used the Old Cherokee Path, see histories like:

in Washington County, VA:

in Oconee County, SC:

  • Frederick Van Clayton, Settlement of Pendleton District, 1777-1800 (Easley, S.C.: Southern Historical Press, c1988) (FHL Book 975.72 W2c) WorldCat entry. The old Pendleton District embraced the present counties of Anderson, Oconee, and Pickens. Includes plats and their owners taken from the "State Record of Plat Books."

in Stephens County, GA:

External Links

Sources

  1. Handybook for Genealogists: United States of America, 10th ed. (Draper, Utah: Everton Pub., 2002), 852. (FHL Book 973 D27e 2002). WorldCat entry.
  2. Wikipedia contributors, "Watauga Association," Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Watauga_Association (accessed 8 April 2011).
  3. North Carolina - The Counties, http://www.carolana.com/NC/Counties/nc_counties_alphabetical_order.html (accessed 7 April 2011), and South Carolina - The Counties, http://www.carolana.com/SC/Counties/sc_counties_alphabetical_order.html (accessed 7 April 2011).
  4. "County History" in Historical Society of Washington County, Va. at http://hswcv.org/history.html (accessed 7 April 2011).
  5. "Johnson County History" in The Original Johnson County, Tennessee Genealogy Page at http://jctcuzins.org/history/johnhist.html (accessed 7 April 2011).
  6. Handybook for Genealogists: United States of America, 10th ed. (Draper, Utah: Everton Pub., 2002), 847-61. (FHL Book 973 D27e 2002) WorldCat entry., and William E. Myer, Indian Trails of the Southeast. (Nashville, Tenn.: Blue and Gray Press, 1971), 12-14, and the book's pocket map "The Trail System of the Southeastern United States in the early Colonial Period" (1923). (FHL Book 970.1 M992i) WorldCat entry.
  7. Lowell Kirk, "The Unicoi Turnpike" at http://www.telliquah.com/unicoi.htm (accessed 3 May 2011).
  8. William E. Myer, Indian Trails of the Southeast. (Nashville, Tenn.: Blue and Gray Press, 1971). (FHL Book 970.1 M992i) WorldCat entry.