Old Cherokee Path

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#REDIRECT [[Fort Charlotte and Cherokee Old Path]]
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''[[United States|United States]]  [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]]  [[United States Migration Internal|Migration]]  [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]]  [[US Migration Trails and Roads|Trails and Roads]]  [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]]  [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]]  [[Old_Cherokee_Path|Old Cherokee Path]]''
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[[Image:Old Cherokee Path.png|border|right|380px]]The '''Old Cherokee Path''' connected the [[South Carolina|South Carolina]] colonial British military [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fort_Charlotte_(South_Carolina) Fort Charlotte] near the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Savannah_River Savannah River] with several Indian trails, especially the [[Old Cherokee Path]] and the nearby Indian town of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tugaloo Tugaloo] just across the Savannah River in what is now [[Georgia]]. Fort Charlotte was built 1765-1767 to help protect European settlers from Indian raids. Fort Charlotte was near the place where the [[Middle Creek Trading Path]] crossed the Savannah River from [[Georgia]] into South Carolina. Several other trails also radiated out from this fort. The Old Cherokee Path was probably opened to European '''''traders''''' shortly after 1765. It was not fully open to '''''settlers''''' until the Cherokee were forced out during the American Revolutionary War. It began in [[McCormick County, South Carolina]] and ended in [[Oconee County, South Carolina]]. The length of the trail was about 70 miles (113 km).<ref name="HBG">''Handybook for Genealogists: United States of America, 10th ed.'' (Draper, Utah: Everton Pub., 2002), 849. ({{FHL|1049485|item|disp=FHL Book 973 D27e 2002}}). [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/50140092 WorldCat entry.]</ref>
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=== Historical Background  ===
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Scots-Irish (that is Ulster-Irish), French Huguenots, and German farmers began settling the area near what would become Fort Charlotte in the 1750s. Some of these early colonists near Long Cane Creek were killed by Cherokee Indians in 1760.<ref>"McCormick County" in ''South Carolina State Library'' at http://www.statelibrary.sc.gov/mccormick-county (accessed 24 March 2011).</ref> As a result, the British military constructed Fort Charlotte between 1765 and 1767 to help protect local colonists from hostile Indians. The fort was then turned over to South Carolina. The Old Cherokee Path probably followed older Indian trails. Fort Charlotte was built at or became the nexus of several trails along the Savannah River in South Carolina and Georgia.
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The north end of the [[Old_Cherokee_Path|Old Cherokee Path]] was in [[Oconee County, South Carolina]] at the convergence of several Indian trails and settler roads mostly leading to the lower [[Cherokee Indians|Cherokee Indian]] village of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tugaloo Tugaloo] across the Savannah River in [[Stephens County, Georgia]]. Tugaloo was built at or became the nexus of several trails along the Savannah River in Georgia and South Carolina. The Cherokee Indians were forced to abandon Tugaloo during the American Revolution. The [[Old Cherokee Path]] seems to have begun in Tugaloo, crossed the river into South Carolina, and worked its way north up to [[Watauga County, North Carolina]], through [[Johnson County, Tennessee]], and [[Washington County, Virginia]]. There it connected to the [[Great Indian Warpath]] or [[Great Valley Road]] as it was called in that area.
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As roads developed in America settlers were attracted to nearby communities because the roads provided access to markets. They could sell their products at distant markets, and buy products made far away. If an ancestor settled near a road, you may be able to trace back to a place of origin on a connecting highway.
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=== Route  ===
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The first European colonists settled in counties along this trail (south to north) as follows:<ref>South Carolina - The Counties, http://www.carolana.com/SC/Counties/sc_counties_alphabetical_order.html (accessed 5 April 2011).</ref>
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:*[[McCormick County, South Carolina]] 1750s by Scots-Irish
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:*[[Abbeville County, South Carolina]] 1750 by French [[Huguenot Church in the United States|Huguenots]]
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:*[[Anderson County, South Carolina]] 1777 by Scots-Irish, and Revolutionary War Veterans
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:*[[Oconee County, South Carolina]] 1784 by Germans, and Revolutionary War Veterans
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:*[[Stephens County, Georgia]] about 1777 by Revolutionary War Veterans
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'''Connecting trails.''' The Old Cherokee Path links to other trails at each end. The migration pathways connecting in Fort Charlotte, McCormick, South Carolina included:
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:*Savannah River pre-historic
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:*[[Middle Creek Trading Path]] pre-historic
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:*[[Augusta and Cherokee Trail]] via Fort Charlotte, but mostly in Georgia 1740s
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:*[[Charleston-Ft. Charlotte Trail|Charleston-Ft. Charlotte Trail]] about 1765
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:*[[Old_Cherokee_Path|Old Cherokee Path]] shortly after 1765
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The migration routes connecting in [[Oconee County, South Carolina]], or in Tugaloo, Stephens, Georgia included:
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:*Savannah River pre-historic
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:*[[Old Cherokee Path]] pre-historic
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:*[[Lower Cherokee Traders' Path]] pre-historic
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:*[[Coosa-Tualoo Indian Warpath]]
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:*[[Tugaloo-Apalachie Bay Trail]]
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:*[[Old_Cherokee_Path|Old Cherokee Path]] about 1777
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:*[[Upper Road]] about 1783
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:*[[Unicoi Trail]] or Turnpike 1813<ref>William E. Myer, ''Indian Trails of the Southeast''. (Nashville, Tenn.: Blue and Gray Press, 1971). ({{FHL|54678|item|disp=FHL Book 970.1 M992i}}) [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/1523234 WorldCat entry].</ref>
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'''Modern parallels.''' The modern roads that roughly match the old Old Cherokee Path start in Mount Carmel. Go north on SC-81 to a little north of Iva where it forks left onto Good Hope Church Road. Follow that road onto SC-187/SC-24. Continue to follow SC-24 and it will eventually become the West Oak Highway. Follow it north to Westminster and the Toccoa Highway. That Highway will take you southwest to the Savannah River near where the old village of Tugaloo was at the confluence of Toccoa Creek and the Tugaloo River.
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=== Settlers and Records  ===
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The first colonists in the two southern counties along what became the Old Cherokee Path arrived before the fort or trail existed, usually by way of the Savannah River, the [[Middle Creek Trading Path]], or the [[Augusta and Cherokee Trail]]. The northern three counties were Cherokee Indian areas until the American Revolution when the Cherokees were expelled as a result of siding with the British.
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No complete list of settlers who used the '''Old Cherokee Path''' is known to exist. Nevertheless, local and county histories along that trail may reveal pioneer settlers who arrived after 1765 and who were candidates to have traveled the Old Cherokee Path from the Fort Charlotte area.
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For partial lists of early settlers who '''''may&nbsp;''''' have used the Old Cherokee Path, see histories like:
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'''''in McCormick County, SC:'''''
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*Bobby F. Edmonds, ''The Huguenots of New Bordeaux'' (McCormick, SC: Cedar Hill, 2005) (({{FHL|1317791|item|disp=FHL Book 975.736 F2e}}) [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/63189507 WorldCat entry].
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*Bobby F. Edmonds, ''The Making of McCormick County [South Carolina]'' (McCormick, SC: Cedar Hill, 1999) ({{FHL|834738|item|disp=FHL Book 975.736 H2e}}) [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/42047218 WorldCat entry].
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*[Willie Mae Wood], ''Old Families of McCormick County, South Carolina and Dorn families of Edgefield, Greenwood and McCormick counties'' ([S.l.&nbsp;: s.n.], 1982) ({{FHL|634329|item|disp=FHL Book 975.736 D2w; Film 2056008 Item 2-3}}) [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/21493707 WorldCat entry].
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'''''in Abbeville County, SC:'''''
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*Ninety-six District (South Carolina), District Surveyor, ''Plat books, 1784-1803'' ([Charleston, S.C.]: S.C. Dept. of Archives and History, 1973) ({{FHL|381692|item|disp=on 4 FHL Films 1023684-87}}). No circulation to family history centers.
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'''''in Anderson County, SC:'''''
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*Frederick Van Clayton, ''Settlement of Pendleton District, 1777-1800'' (Easley, S.C.: Southern Historical Press, c1988) ({{FHL|397544|item|disp=FHL Book 975.72 W2c}}) [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/18802872 WorldCat entry]. The old Pendleton District embraced the present counties of Anderson, Oconee, and Pickens. Includes plats and their owners taken from the "State Record of Plat Books."
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'''''in Oconee County, SC:'''''
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*Frederick Van Clayton, ''Settlement of Pendleton District, 1777-1800'' (Easley, S.C.: Southern Historical Press, c1988) ({{FHL|397544|item|disp=FHL Book 975.72 W2c}}) [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/18802872 WorldCat entry]. The old Pendleton District embraced the present counties of Anderson, Oconee, and Pickens. Includes plats and their owners taken from the "State Record of Plat Books."
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'''''in Stephens County, GA:'''''
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*Katheryn Curtis Trogdon, ''History of Stephens County, Georgia'' (Toccoa, Ga.: Toccoa Womans Club, [c1973]). ({{FHL|160782|item|disp=FHL Book 975.813 H2t}}) [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/623349 WorldCat entry].
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=== External Links  ===
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*[http://gaz.jrshelby.com/cherokee-lower.htm Cherokee Lower Towns] has maps of town locations, a link to a Revolutionary War battle database, sources, and list of Revolutionary War battles involving Cherokees.
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*[http://files.usgwarchives.org/ga/history/earlytrails.txt Georgia History Early Trails] describes westward migration on and route of the Lower Cherokee Traders' Path and other routes through Georgia.
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*Wikipedia contributors, "Tugaloo," ''Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia'', http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tugaloo (accessed 5 April 2011).
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=== Sources  ===
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{{reflist}} {{Georgia|Georgia}}{{South Carolina|South Carolina}}{{North Carolina}}{{Tennessee}}{{Virginia}}
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<div></div>
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[[Category:Migration_Routes]] [[Category:US_Migration_Trails_and_Roads]] [[Category:South_Carolina]] [[Category:McCormick_County,_South_Carolina]] [[Category:Abbeville_County,_South_Carolina]] [[Category:Anderson_County,_South_Carolina]] [[Category:Oconee_County,_South_Carolina]] [[Category:Georgia]] [[Category:Stephens_County,_Georgia]]

Revision as of 12:07, 7 April 2011

United States  Gotoarrow.png  Migration  Gotoarrow.png  Trails and Roads  Gotoarrow.png  Gotoarrow.png  Old Cherokee Path

Old Cherokee Path.png
The Old Cherokee Path connected the South Carolina colonial British military Fort Charlotte near the Savannah River with several Indian trails, especially the Old Cherokee Path and the nearby Indian town of Tugaloo just across the Savannah River in what is now Georgia. Fort Charlotte was built 1765-1767 to help protect European settlers from Indian raids. Fort Charlotte was near the place where the Middle Creek Trading Path crossed the Savannah River from Georgia into South Carolina. Several other trails also radiated out from this fort. The Old Cherokee Path was probably opened to European traders shortly after 1765. It was not fully open to settlers until the Cherokee were forced out during the American Revolutionary War. It began in McCormick County, South Carolina and ended in Oconee County, South Carolina. The length of the trail was about 70 miles (113 km).[1]

Contents

Historical Background

Scots-Irish (that is Ulster-Irish), French Huguenots, and German farmers began settling the area near what would become Fort Charlotte in the 1750s. Some of these early colonists near Long Cane Creek were killed by Cherokee Indians in 1760.[2] As a result, the British military constructed Fort Charlotte between 1765 and 1767 to help protect local colonists from hostile Indians. The fort was then turned over to South Carolina. The Old Cherokee Path probably followed older Indian trails. Fort Charlotte was built at or became the nexus of several trails along the Savannah River in South Carolina and Georgia.

The north end of the Old Cherokee Path was in Oconee County, South Carolina at the convergence of several Indian trails and settler roads mostly leading to the lower Cherokee Indian village of Tugaloo across the Savannah River in Stephens County, Georgia. Tugaloo was built at or became the nexus of several trails along the Savannah River in Georgia and South Carolina. The Cherokee Indians were forced to abandon Tugaloo during the American Revolution. The Old Cherokee Path seems to have begun in Tugaloo, crossed the river into South Carolina, and worked its way north up to Watauga County, North Carolina, through Johnson County, Tennessee, and Washington County, Virginia. There it connected to the Great Indian Warpath or Great Valley Road as it was called in that area.

As roads developed in America settlers were attracted to nearby communities because the roads provided access to markets. They could sell their products at distant markets, and buy products made far away. If an ancestor settled near a road, you may be able to trace back to a place of origin on a connecting highway.

Route

The first European colonists settled in counties along this trail (south to north) as follows:[3]

Connecting trails. The Old Cherokee Path links to other trails at each end. The migration pathways connecting in Fort Charlotte, McCormick, South Carolina included:

The migration routes connecting in Oconee County, South Carolina, or in Tugaloo, Stephens, Georgia included:

Modern parallels. The modern roads that roughly match the old Old Cherokee Path start in Mount Carmel. Go north on SC-81 to a little north of Iva where it forks left onto Good Hope Church Road. Follow that road onto SC-187/SC-24. Continue to follow SC-24 and it will eventually become the West Oak Highway. Follow it north to Westminster and the Toccoa Highway. That Highway will take you southwest to the Savannah River near where the old village of Tugaloo was at the confluence of Toccoa Creek and the Tugaloo River.

Settlers and Records

The first colonists in the two southern counties along what became the Old Cherokee Path arrived before the fort or trail existed, usually by way of the Savannah River, the Middle Creek Trading Path, or the Augusta and Cherokee Trail. The northern three counties were Cherokee Indian areas until the American Revolution when the Cherokees were expelled as a result of siding with the British.

No complete list of settlers who used the Old Cherokee Path is known to exist. Nevertheless, local and county histories along that trail may reveal pioneer settlers who arrived after 1765 and who were candidates to have traveled the Old Cherokee Path from the Fort Charlotte area.

For partial lists of early settlers who may  have used the Old Cherokee Path, see histories like:

in McCormick County, SC:

in Abbeville County, SC:

  • Ninety-six District (South Carolina), District Surveyor, Plat books, 1784-1803 ([Charleston, S.C.]: S.C. Dept. of Archives and History, 1973) (on 4 FHL Films 1023684-87). No circulation to family history centers.

in Anderson County, SC:

  • Frederick Van Clayton, Settlement of Pendleton District, 1777-1800 (Easley, S.C.: Southern Historical Press, c1988) (FHL Book 975.72 W2c) WorldCat entry. The old Pendleton District embraced the present counties of Anderson, Oconee, and Pickens. Includes plats and their owners taken from the "State Record of Plat Books."

in Oconee County, SC:

  • Frederick Van Clayton, Settlement of Pendleton District, 1777-1800 (Easley, S.C.: Southern Historical Press, c1988) (FHL Book 975.72 W2c) WorldCat entry. The old Pendleton District embraced the present counties of Anderson, Oconee, and Pickens. Includes plats and their owners taken from the "State Record of Plat Books."

in Stephens County, GA:

External Links

  • Cherokee Lower Towns has maps of town locations, a link to a Revolutionary War battle database, sources, and list of Revolutionary War battles involving Cherokees.
  • Georgia History Early Trails describes westward migration on and route of the Lower Cherokee Traders' Path and other routes through Georgia.
  • Wikipedia contributors, "Tugaloo," Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tugaloo (accessed 5 April 2011).

Sources

  1. Handybook for Genealogists: United States of America, 10th ed. (Draper, Utah: Everton Pub., 2002), 849. (FHL Book 973 D27e 2002). WorldCat entry.
  2. "McCormick County" in South Carolina State Library at http://www.statelibrary.sc.gov/mccormick-county (accessed 24 March 2011).
  3. South Carolina - The Counties, http://www.carolana.com/SC/Counties/sc_counties_alphabetical_order.html (accessed 5 April 2011).
  4. William E. Myer, Indian Trails of the Southeast. (Nashville, Tenn.: Blue and Gray Press, 1971). (FHL Book 970.1 M992i) WorldCat entry.