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Some of the first non-Indians among the Sioux were Jesuit explorers and missionaries during the 1600's.
The Sioux migrated westward to the Missouri River area and beyond pushed by inter tribal conflict with the Chippewa and encroaching settlers.
During the mid 1860's the federal government wanted to establish the Bozeman Trail, the military began establishing forts, these actions were the spark for Red Cloud's War. Chief Red Cloud lead his warriors, they were joined by other tribes in their fight against the fort and troops the Indians were successful in blocking the establishments of the Trail.
Many Sioux stayed in the Midwest, some moved further west in to the Rocky Mountain area and Montana.
- 1600's Jesuit explorers
- 1700's: Sioux were migrating westward to Missouri River and beyond. Pushed by the Chippewa and encroaching settlers
- 1837: Ceeded land between the Saint Croix and Mississippi rivers
- 1846: At the invitation of Chief Little Crow Dr. Thomas S. Williamson came to Kaposia and established a school
- 1851: Treaty at Fort Laramie
- 1854: Removed to Lower Sioux or Redwood Reservation
- 1854-55: Grattan Affair
- 1857: Spirit Lake Massacre
- 1862-64: Minnesota Uprising or Little Crow's War
- 1866-68: Bozeman Trail or Red Cloud's War
- 1876-77: War for the Black Hills or Sitting Bull's and Crazy Horse's War
- 1890: Wounded Knee
- 1850-1890: Sioux Wars
Additional References to the History of the Tribe
Leaders: Red Cloud, Red Fox, Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse
Bands and Groups of the Sioux Tribe and Their Reservations/Localities
The term or designation of Sioux Indians is a very broad categorization of several bands and/or federally recognized tribes within the group so named. For the most part, they have historically lived in the Northern Plains area, and have ranged from the Canadian border and even into Canada on the north to Oklahoma on the south, and from Wyoming and Montana on the west to the Mississippi River and beyond on the east. Some of the tribes, bands, or groups of Sioux, with their colonies or reservations,include:
- Cheyenne River Sioux -- Cheyenne River Reservation (South Dakota)
- Crow Creek Sioux -- Crow Creek Reservation (South Dakota)
- Flandreau Santee Sioux -- (Montana)
- Fort Peck Sioux -- Fort Peck Reservation (Montana)
- Hunkpapa Sioux -- majority on the Standing Rock Reservation
- Lower Brule Sioux -- Lower Brule Reservation (South Dakota)
- Lower (Mdewakanton) Sioux Indian Community -- Lower Sioux Indian Community (Minnesota)
- Miniconjou Sioux --
- Oglala Sioux -- Pine Ridge Reservation (South Dakota)
- Prairie Island (Mdewakanton Sioux) Indian Community -- Prairie Island Reservation (Minnesota)
- Rosebud Sioux -- Rosebud Reservation (South Dakota)
- Sans Arc Sioux --
- Santee Sioux -- Santee Reservation (Nebraska)
- Shakopee (Mdewakanton Sioux) Community -- (Minnesota)
- Sihasapa Sioux --
- Sisseton-Wahpeton Sioux -- Lake Traverse Reservation (South Dakota)
- Standing Rock Sioux -- Standing Rock Reservation (North and South Dakota)
- Wahpekute Sioux --
- Upper Sioux -- Upper Sioux Reservation (Minnesota)
- Yankton Sioux -- Yankton Sioux Reservation (South Dakota)
- Yanktonai Sioux --
Correspondence and Census
|Tribe||Agency||Location of Original Records||
M234 RG 75 -- 962 Rolls
M595 RG 75 -- 692 Rolls
|FHL Film Number|
|Sioux||Fort Peck Agency, 1885-1939||Seattle||-||-||11, 150-60||FHL Films 576840-576849|
|Brule Sioux||Lower Brule/Whetstone (Rosebud), 1875-1966||Washington D.C. and Kansas City||401, 925-27||-||427-30||FHL Films 581421-581440|
|Brule Sioux||Spotted Tail (Rosebud),Grand River, 1875-1966||Washington D.C. and Kansas City||840-45, 305-06||-||427-45||FHL Film 581421-581440|
|Cuthead Sioux||Upper Missouri Agency, 1824-66||Washington D.C.||883-88||-||-||-|
|Lower Brule Sioux||
Upper Missouri Agency to 1874
|Lower Brule Sioux||Crow Creek Agency, 1874-1955||Washington D.C. and Kansas City||249||-||87-92||FHL Films 575771-575784|
|Lower Brule Sioux||Lower Brule Agency, 1875-76||Washington D.C. and Kansas City||401||-||87-92, 252||FHL Films 575771-575784|
|Mdewakanton Sioux||Birch Colley (Pipestone), 1895-1954||Kansas City||-||2, 35, 385||FHL Films 573848 and 580764|
|Miniconjou Sioux||Upper Missouri and Upper Platte, 1824-74||Washington D.C.||883-96||-||-||-|
|Miniconjou Sioux||Cheyenne River Agency, 1869-1956||Kansas City||-||-||-||FHL Films 574192-574199|
|Oglala Sioux||Upper Missouri/Upper Platte, 1824-74||Washington D.C.||Roll 883-96||-||-||-|
|Oglala Sioux||Red Cloud / Whetstone/ Spotted Tail, 1871-80||Washington D.C.||Rolls 715-26, 925-27, 840-45||-||-||-|
|Oglala Sioux||Grand River (Standing Rock), 1871-1957||Washington D.C. and Kansas City||Rolls 305-06||-||_||FHL Films 583006-583022|
|Oglala Sioux||Pine Ridge Agency, 1913-1943 with gaps||Kansas City||-||-||Rolls 370-84||FHL Films 580741-580763|
|Sioux,Oglala||Pine Ridge Agency, 1886-1943||Washington D.C. and Kansas City||-||-||Rolls 361-84||FHL Films 580741-580763|
|Santee Sioux||Saint Peters Agency, to 1870||Washington D.C.||Rolls 757066||-||-||-|
|Santee Sioux||Santee Sioux Agency, 1871-76||Washington D.C. and Kansas City||Rolls 768-69||-||Rolls 474-77||FHL Films 581485-581487|
|Santee Sioux||Nebraska Agencies, 1876-80||Washington D.C.||Rolls 518-29||-||-||-|
|Santee Sioux||Flandreau School, 1873-1951||Washington D.C. and Kansas City||Roll 285||-||Rolls 105-06||-|
|Santee Sioux||Winnebago and Yankton, 1867-1955||Washington D.C. and Kansas CIty||Rolls 930-47, 959-62||-||Rolls 660-70, 684-88||FHL Films 583122-583129 and FHL Films 583139-583147|
|Sioux, Mississippi||Saint Peters Agency, 1824-70||Washington D.C.||Rolls 756-66||-||-|
|Sioux, Mississippi||Prairie du Chien and Winnegabo Agencies||Washington D.C. and Kansas City||Rolls 695-702, 930-47||-||-||-|
|Sioux, Missouri/Platte River||Upper Missouri Agency, 1824-74||Washington D.C.||Rolls 883-88||-||-||-|
|Sioux, Missouri/Platte River||Upper Platte Agency, 1846-70||Washington D.C.||Rolls 889-96||-||-||-|
|Sioux, Missouri/ Platte River||Yankton Agency, 1859-76||Washington D.C.||Rolls 959-62||-||-||FHL Films 583139-583147|
|Sioux, Missouri/Platte River||Upper Arkansas Agency, 1855-74||Washington D.C.||Rolls 878-82||-||-||-|
|Sioux, Missouri/Platte River||Whetstone Agency, 1871-74||Washington D.C.||Rolls 925-27||-||-||-|
|Sioux, Missouri/Platte River||SpottedTail Agency, 1875-80||Washington D.C.||Rolls 840-45||-||-||-|
|Sioux, Missouri/ Platte River||Red Cloud Agency, 1871-80||Washington D.C.||Rolls 715-26||-||-||-|
|Sioux, Missouri/Platte River||Grand River Agency, 1871-75||Washington D.C.||Rolls 305-06||-||-||-|
|Sioux, Missouri/Platte River||Standing Rock Agency, 1871-80||Washington D.C.||Rolls 846-52||-||-||FHL Films 583006-583002|
|Sioux, Missouri/Platte River||Crow Creek Agency, 1871-76||Washington D.C.||Roll 249||-||-||FHL Films 575779-575784|
|Sioux, Missouri/Platte River||Lower Brule Agency, 1875-76||Washington D.C.||401||-||-||FHL Films 571779-571781|
|Sioux-Fort Totten||Fort Totten Agency, 1875-1950||Kansas City||-||-||Rolls 161-64||FHL Films 576850-576853|
|Sioux-Cheyenne River||Cheyenne River Agency, 1869-1956||Washington D.C. and Kansas City||-||-||Rolls 33-40||FHL Films 574192-574199|
|Sioux-Spotted Tail||Rosebud Agency, 1860-1966||Kansas City and Denver||-||-||427-45||FHL Films 581421-581440|
|Sioux-Standing Rock||Standing Rock Agency, 1885-1939||Washington D.C. and Kansas City||Rolls 845-52||-||547-63||FHL Films 583006-583022|
|Sioux-Sisseton||Saint Peters Agency, 1824-70||Washington D.C.||756-66||-||Rolls 507-17||-|
|Sioux-Sisseton||Devil's Lake Agency, 1871-80||Washington D.C. and Kansas City||280-84||-||-||-|
|Sioux-Sisseton||Devil's Lake Agency, 1885-90, 1892-1905||Washington D.C. and Kansas City||-||-||94-97||-|
|Sioux-Sisseton||Sisseton Agency, 1886-1929 with gaps||Kansas City||-||-||507-17||FHL Film 581882-581891|
|Wahkepute Sioux||SEE Sisseton Sioux||-||-||-||-||-|
During the latter part of the 18th Century and most of the 19th Century, treaties were negotiated between the federal government and individual Indian tribes. The treaties provide helpful information about the history of the tribe, but usually only include the names of those persons who signed the treaty. For more information about treaties, click here.
Treaties to which the Sioux Indians were a part were:
- 1805 September 23, unratified
- 1815 June 19, with the Sioux of The Lakes
- 1815 July 19, with the Sioux of St. Peter's River
- 1815 July 19, with the Yakton Sioux
- 1816 June 1, at St. Louis
- 1825 , with the Huknpapa Band of Sioux
- 1825 June 22, at Fort Look out, with the Teton, Yancton, and Yanctonies bands of Sioux.
- 1830 July 15, at Prairie du Chien
- 1836 September 10, land ceded to the United States
- 1836 October 15, at Bellevue
- 1836 November 30, at St. Peters, with Wahpaakootah, Susseton, and Upper Medawakanton tribes of Sioux
- 1837 September 29, at Washington,
- 1837 October 21, at Washington
- 1851 July 23,
- 1851 August 5, at Mendota
- 1851 September 17, at Fort Laramie
- 1858 June 19, with Mendawakanton and Wahpahoota bands of Sioux
- 1858 June 19, Sisseeton and Wahpaton Bands of the Dakota or Sioux
- 1858 April 19, with the Yankton Sioux
- 1865 October 10, at Fort Sully
- 1865 October 14, at Fort Sully
- 1865 October 19, at Fort Sully
- 1865 October 20, at Fort Sully
- 1865 October 20, with the Hunkpapa Band
- 1865 October 20, at Fort Sully
- 1865 October 28,
- 1865 October 28, at Fort Sully
- 1867 February 19,
- 1868 April 29, at Fort Lariamie
- 1872 September 20, Sisseton and Wahpeton Bands - unratified
- 1873 May 2, Lac Traverse Agency, Dakota Territory
- 1882-83 October 17 1882-January 3, 1883 - unratified
Prior to the Indian Reorganization Act, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, through their agencies, may have recorded some vital events. Some were recorded on health forms, such as the "Sanitary Record of Sick, Injured, Births, Deaths, etc." Others were recorded as supplements to the "Indian Census Rolls." Some were included in the unindexed reports and other correspondence of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
Some vital records for the Sioux Indians include:
- Fort Totten Agency, M595, births and deaths 1935-36 and 1938 some marriages, FHL Film: 576853
- Fort Peck Agency, M595, births and deaths 1924-1932, FHL Film: 576847 and births and deaths 1935-1939, FHL Film: 576849
- Rosebud Agency, M595, births and deaths 1924-1931, FHL Film: 581435 and births and deaths 1929-1936, FHL Film: 581439
- Cheyenne River Agency, M595, births and deaths 1925-1932, FHL Film: 574198 and births and deaths 1933-1942, FHL Film: 574199
- Crow Creek Agency, M595, births and deaths 1925-1932, FHL Film: 575776 and births and deaths and some marriages 1935-1936, FHL Film: 575777
- Lower Burle Sioux Agency, M595, births and deaths 1929, FHL Film: 575782 and births and deaths 1924-1931, FHL Film: 575783 and births and deaths 1935-39, 1942, FHL FIlm: 575784
- Standing Rock Agency, M595, births and deaths 1924-1932, FHL Film: 583017
- Pine Ridge Agency, M595, births and deaths 1924-1932, FHL Film: 580758
- Winnebago Agency, M595, births and deaths 1924-1931, FHL Film: 583126;births and deaths 1932-1933, FHL Film 583127 and births and deaths 1922-1938, FHL Film: 583129
Important Web Sites
- The Constitution and By-Laws of the Crow Creek Sioux Tribe of Fort Thompson South Dakota
- Constitution and By-Laws for the Flandreau Santee Sioux Tribe South Dakota
- Constitution and Bylaws of the Lower Brulé Sioux Tribe
- Constitution of the Oglala Sioux Tribe, Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, Pine Ridge, South Dakota
- Constitution and By-laws of the Rosebud Sioux Tribe of South Dakota
- Constitution and By-Laws of the Devils Lake Sioux Tribe North Dakota. Approved February 14, 1946.
- Constitution of the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe
- Constitution and By-laws of the Yankton Sioux Tribal Business and Claims Committee
- State Office of Indian Affairs article on the Fort Peck Tribes
- Carlson, Paul H. The Plains Indians. College Station, Texas: Texas A&M University Press, c1998. FHL Book 970.1 C197p
- Denig, Edwin Thompson. Five Indian Tribes of the Upper Missouri: Sioux, Arickaras, Assiniboines, Crees, Crows. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, c1981. The Civilization of American Indian Series:059. FHL Book 970.1 D415f.
- Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
- Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 Available online.
- Klein, Barry T., ed. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat 317923332; FHL book 970.1 R259e.
- Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. WorldCat 37475188; FHL book 970.1 G131g.
- Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean
- Vol. 2 -- Great Basin, Southwest, Middle America
- Vol. 3 -- Arctic, Subarctic, Great Plains, Plateau
- Vol. 4 -- California, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Islands
- Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .
- Volume 1 -- Not yet published
- Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- WorldCat 234303751
- Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- WorldCat 255572371
- Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- WorldCat 19331914; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4.
- Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- WorldCat 299653808; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5.
- Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat 247493742; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6.
- Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- WorldCat 247493311
- Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 13240086; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8.
- Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- WorldCat 26140053; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9.
- Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- WorldCat 301504096; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10.
- Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- WorldCat 256516416; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11.
- Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- WorldCat 39401371; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12.
- Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- WorldCat 48209643
- Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- WorldCat 254277176
- Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 356517503; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15.
- Volume 16 -- Not yet published
- Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- WorldCat 43957746
- Volume 18 -- Not yet published
- Volume 19 -- Not yet published
- Volume 20 -- Not yet published
- Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.
- Waldman, Carl. Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. New York, New York: Facts on File, 2006. 3rd ed. WorldCat 14718193; FHL book 970.1 W146e 2006.