Tennessee History

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Your family research will be more effective and interesting when you understand the history of their times. Learning about wars, governments, laws, migrations, and religious trends may help you understand political boundaries, family movements, and settlement patterns. Your ancestors may become more interesting to you if you also use histories to learn about the events that were of interest to them or that they may have been involved in.  
 
Your family research will be more effective and interesting when you understand the history of their times. Learning about wars, governments, laws, migrations, and religious trends may help you understand political boundaries, family movements, and settlement patterns. Your ancestors may become more interesting to you if you also use histories to learn about the events that were of interest to them or that they may have been involved in.  
  
County and town histories often include biographical sketches of local residents, or mention military units in which they served. This may be one of the best sources of information for some families.  
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County and town histories often include biographical sketches of local residents, or mention military units in which they served. This may be one of the best sources of information for some families. {{Adoption TNGenWeb}}  
{{Adoption TNGenWeb}}  
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== Brief History  ==
 
== Brief History  ==
  
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*'''1803: '''The Louisiana Purchase increased settlement in the state and migration through it.  
 
*'''1803: '''The Louisiana Purchase increased settlement in the state and migration through it.  
 
*'''1812–1815: ''' The War of 1812 involved many soldiers from Tennessee.  
 
*'''1812–1815: ''' The War of 1812 involved many soldiers from Tennessee.  
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*'''1815–1860'''<nowiki>:&nbsp; Tennessee settlers benefitted from improvements in transportation on rivers (using steamboats), canals, and railroads.</nowiki>  
 
*'''1815–1860'''<nowiki>:&nbsp; Tennessee settlers benefitted from improvements in transportation on rivers (using steamboats), canals, and railroads.</nowiki>  
 
*'''1817–1838'''<nowiki>:&nbsp; American Indian claims to land in Tennessee were greatly reduced by land cession treaties, until most Indian tribes were finally exiled in 1838. This became known as the “Trail of Tears.”</nowiki>  
 
*'''1817–1838'''<nowiki>:&nbsp; American Indian claims to land in Tennessee were greatly reduced by land cession treaties, until most Indian tribes were finally exiled in 1838. This became known as the “Trail of Tears.”</nowiki>  
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*'''1964–1972:''' Over 8.7 million American men and women served in the [http://www.vietnamwar.com/ Vietnam War]. The Vietnam War cost the lives of 1,289 Tennesseans.
 
*'''1964–1972:''' Over 8.7 million American men and women served in the [http://www.vietnamwar.com/ Vietnam War]. The Vietnam War cost the lives of 1,289 Tennesseans.
  
A useful chronology can also be found in:<br>
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A useful chronology can also be found in:<br>  
  
 
*''Tennessee: A Guide to the State''. Compiled and Written by the Federal Writers' Project of the Work Projects Administration for the State of Tennessee. American Guide Series. (No Place: New Deal Network, 1996) Original published: Tennessee: State of Tennessee. Department of Conservation, Division of Information, 1939. [http://newdeal.feri.org/guides/tnguide/chron.htm Available online].<br>
 
*''Tennessee: A Guide to the State''. Compiled and Written by the Federal Writers' Project of the Work Projects Administration for the State of Tennessee. American Guide Series. (No Place: New Deal Network, 1996) Original published: Tennessee: State of Tennessee. Department of Conservation, Division of Information, 1939. [http://newdeal.feri.org/guides/tnguide/chron.htm Available online].<br>
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Histories are great sources of genealogical information. Many contain biographical information about individuals who lived in the area, including:  
 
Histories are great sources of genealogical information. Many contain biographical information about individuals who lived in the area, including:  
  
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Local histories are extensively collected by the [[Family History Library|Family History Library]], public and university libraries, and state and local historical societies. [[United States History|United States History]]&nbsp;cites nationwide bibliographies of local histories which include histories of Tennessee.  
 
Local histories are extensively collected by the [[Family History Library|Family History Library]], public and university libraries, and state and local historical societies. [[United States History|United States History]]&nbsp;cites nationwide bibliographies of local histories which include histories of Tennessee.  
  
*''Tennessee History: A Bibliography'' <ref>Smith, Sam B., 1929. ''Tennessee History: A Bibliography''. Knoxville, Tennessee: University of Tennessee Press, [1974]. (Family History Library book http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;ampcolumns=*,0,0 976.8 A3s
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*''Tennessee History: A Bibliography'' <ref>Smith, Sam B., 1929. ''Tennessee History: A Bibliography''. Knoxville, Tennessee: University of Tennessee Press, [1974]. {{FHL|220719|item|disp=FHL book 976.8 A3s}} </ref>This resource is a comprehensive guide to state and country history sources and manuscripts.  
{{dead link}}). </ref>This resource is a comprehensive guide to state and country history sources and manuscripts.  
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*''A Bibliography of American County Histories'' <ref>Filby, P. William. ''A Bibliography of American County Histories''. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1985. {{FHL|299450|item|disp=FHL book 973 H23bi}} </ref>  
*''A Bibliography of American County Histories'' <ref>Filby, P. William. ''A Bibliography of American County Histories''. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1985. (http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titlehitlist&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amptitle=A+Bibliography+of+American+County+Histories&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;pretitle=A+Bibliography+of+American+County+Histories FHL book 973 H23bi
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*''United States Local Histories in the Library of Congress'' <ref>Kaminkow, Marion J. ''United States Local Histories in the Library of Congress''. 5 vols. Baltimore: Magna Charta Book, 1975-76. {{FHL|252458|item|disp=FHL book 973 A3ka}}</ref>  
{{dead link}})</ref> <ref>[http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/12356760&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;ampreferer=brief_results Worldcat] </ref>
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*''United States Local Histories in the Library of Congress'' <ref>Kaminkow, Marion J. ''United States Local Histories in the Library of Congress''. 5 vols. Baltimore: Magna Charta Book, 1975-76. (http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;disp=United+States+local+histories+in+the+Lib%20%20&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;columns=*,0,0 FHL book 973 A3ka
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{{dead link}}.) </ref><ref>[http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=United+States+Local+Histories+in+the+Library+of+Congress&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;qt=results_page Worldcat] </ref>
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*''Tennessee, Old and New. Sesquicentennial Edition. 1796 - 1946.'' The Tennessee Historical Commission. Nashville, Tennessee. Digital versions available at [http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=24761 Ancestry] ($) and [http://worldvitalrecords.com/indexinfo.aspx?ix=qcdtn10039_oldnew World Vital Records] ($). Contains historical information as well as biographies about some of Tennessee's most prominent citizens.
 
*''Tennessee, Old and New. Sesquicentennial Edition. 1796 - 1946.'' The Tennessee Historical Commission. Nashville, Tennessee. Digital versions available at [http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=24761 Ancestry] ($) and [http://worldvitalrecords.com/indexinfo.aspx?ix=qcdtn10039_oldnew World Vital Records] ($). Contains historical information as well as biographies about some of Tennessee's most prominent citizens.
  
 
Additional resources for Tennessee local histories include:  
 
Additional resources for Tennessee local histories include:  
  
*''Counties of Tennessee.'' <ref>Foster, Austin Powers. ''Counties of Tennessee.'' 1923. Reprint, Greenville, South Carolina: Southern Historical Press, 1990. (Family History Library book http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;columns=*,0,0 976.8 E2fa
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*''Counties of Tennessee.'' <ref>Foster, Austin Powers. ''Counties of Tennessee.'' 1923. Reprint, Greenville, South Carolina: Southern Historical Press, 1990. {{FHL|221412|item|disp=FHL film 896777 Item 4}}</ref>The record is arranged alphabetically by county, followed by a brief description of how each county was formed. It includes ''A Guide to the U.S. Federal Censuses — Tennessee, 1790–1920'' by William Thorndale and William Dollarhide, and it is indexed.  
{{dead link}}).&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;nbsp; </ref>The record is arranged alphabetically by county, followed by a brief description of how each county was formed. It includes ''A Guide to the U.S. Federal Censuses — Tennessee, 1790–1920'' by William Thorndale and William Dollarhide, and it is indexed.  
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*McClung, Calvin Morgan and McClung Historical Collection. ''Calvin Morgan McClung Historical Collection.'' (1921). Contains books, maps, pamphlets, historical documents and genealogies relating to Tennessee and other southern states. Digital versions available at [http://search.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?rank=0&f2=Calvin+Morgan+McClung+Historical+Collection&gskw=&f21=&f30=&f11=&rg_f10__date=&rs_f10__date=0&f26=&ctx=%2FMercury%2FPages%2FCardCatListBoolean.aspx&ccType=search&db=dbatitles&ti=0&ti.si=0&gl=&gss=ERROR&gst=&so=3&_F0003A49=1 Ancestry] ($), [http://cmdc.knoxlib.org/ Knox County Public Library] (free),&nbsp;and [http://www.worldvitalrecords.com/indexinfo.aspx?ix=qcdtn4000_calvin World Vital Records] ($).
 
*McClung, Calvin Morgan and McClung Historical Collection. ''Calvin Morgan McClung Historical Collection.'' (1921). Contains books, maps, pamphlets, historical documents and genealogies relating to Tennessee and other southern states. Digital versions available at [http://search.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/sse.dll?rank=0&f2=Calvin+Morgan+McClung+Historical+Collection&gskw=&f21=&f30=&f11=&rg_f10__date=&rs_f10__date=0&f26=&ctx=%2FMercury%2FPages%2FCardCatListBoolean.aspx&ccType=search&db=dbatitles&ti=0&ti.si=0&gl=&gss=ERROR&gst=&so=3&_F0003A49=1 Ancestry] ($), [http://cmdc.knoxlib.org/ Knox County Public Library] (free),&nbsp;and [http://www.worldvitalrecords.com/indexinfo.aspx?ix=qcdtn4000_calvin World Vital Records] ($).
  
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The Draper Manuscript Collection is a significant regional source that includes records of Tennessee.  
 
The Draper Manuscript Collection is a significant regional source that includes records of Tennessee.  
  
*''[http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/dictionary/index.asp?Submit=Search&action=search&keyword=Libraries Draper Manuscript Collection]''<ref> Draper, Lyman Copeland. ''[http://frontierfolk.org/draper.htm Draper Manuscript Collection]'' Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Library, 197–?. (On 147 Family History Library films beginning with http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;columns=*,0,0 889098
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*''[http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/dictionary/index.asp?Submit=Search&action=search&keyword=Libraries Draper Manuscript Collection]''<ref name="null">Draper, Lyman Copeland,Draper manuscript collection Chicago, Illinois : Filmed by the University of Chicago Library, [197-?] {{FHL|218462|item|disp=FHL Film 889097 (first of 147 films)}} </ref> The collection consists of nearly 500 volumes of manuscripts, papers, and books collected by Lyman Copeland Draper about the history of the trans-Allegheny West, a region including the western areas of the Carolinas and Virginia, all the Ohio River Valley, and part of the upper Mississippi Valley from the 1740s to 1830. The collection is divided into 50 series. Some series are titled by geographic area, some by the names of prominent frontier leaders, and some by topic. The bulk of the collection consists of notes from interviews, questionnaires, and letters gathered during Draper’s extensive travels and research to learn about frontier history. Personal papers are much more rare than government or military records.
{{dead link}}.)</ref> The collection consists of nearly 500 volumes of manuscripts, papers, and books collected by Lyman Copeland Draper about the history of the trans-Allegheny West, a region including the western areas of the Carolinas and Virginia, all the Ohio River Valley, and part of the upper Mississippi Valley from the 1740s to 1830. The collection is divided into 50 series. Some series are titled by geographic area, some by the names of prominent frontier leaders, and some by topic. The bulk of the collection consists of notes from interviews, questionnaires, and letters gathered during Draper’s extensive travels and research to learn about frontier history. Personal papers are much more rare than government or military records.
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The collection includes many items of a genealogical or biographical nature. For an inventory and partial indexes, see:  
 
The collection includes many items of a genealogical or biographical nature. For an inventory and partial indexes, see:  
  
*''Guide to the Draper Manuscripts'' <ref>Harper, Josephine L. ''Guide to the Draper Manuscripts''. Madison, Wisconsin: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1983. (Family History Library book {{FHL|977.583%2FM1 A3h|disp=977.583/M1 A3h}}.) </ref>This guide gives series and volume descriptions for some of the Draper manuscripts. There are several indexes at the end of the book, including a name and subject index, an additional personal data index, and a list of references to Illinois.
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*''Guide to the Draper Manuscripts'' <ref>Harper, Josephine L. ''Guide to the Draper Manuscripts''. Madison, Wisconsin: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1983. {{FHL|147518|item|disp=FHL book 977.583/M1 A3h}} </ref>This guide gives series and volume descriptions for some of the Draper manuscripts. There are several indexes at the end of the book, including a name and subject index, an additional personal data index, and a list of references to Illinois.
  
*''Index to Lyman C. Draper Manuscripts.'' <ref>Wolfe, Barbara Schull. ''Index to Lyman C. Draper Manuscripts.'' Logansport, Indiana: B.S. Wolfe, 197–?. (Family History Library book {{FHL|977.583%2FM1 A3w|disp=977.583/M1 A3w}}.) </ref>The name index gives the series and volume numbers, but is not complete.
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*''Index to Lyman C. Draper Manuscripts.'' <ref>Wolfe, Barbara Schull. ''Index to Lyman C. Draper Manuscripts.'' Logansport, Indiana: B.S. Wolfe, 197–?. {{FHL|446497|item|disp=FHL book 977.583/M1 A3w}} </ref>The name index gives the series and volume numbers, but is not complete.
  
 
== State Histories Useful to Genealogists  ==
 
== State Histories Useful to Genealogists  ==
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*Goodspeed firm, publishers, Chicago. ''[http://www.archive.org/details/historyoftenness00good History of Tennessee, from the Earliest Time to the Present; Together with an Historical and a Biographical Sketch of Giles, Lincoln, Franklin and Moore Counties]. ''Nashville, Tenn., The Goodspeed Publishing Company, 1886. Free digital copy.  
 
*Goodspeed firm, publishers, Chicago. ''[http://www.archive.org/details/historyoftenness00good History of Tennessee, from the Earliest Time to the Present; Together with an Historical and a Biographical Sketch of Giles, Lincoln, Franklin and Moore Counties]. ''Nashville, Tenn., The Goodspeed Publishing Company, 1886. Free digital copy.  
*''Goodspeed History of Tennessee <ref>''Goodspeed History of Tennessee''. [Nashville, Tennessee]: Restoration and Reproduction Section, Library and Archives Division, Tennessee Dept. of Education, 1965. Micro-reproduction of county sections of: ''History of Tennessee from the Earliest Time to the Present''. Nashville, Tennessee: Goodspeed Publishing, 1886–1887. {{FHL|899865|film}}</ref>''This source contains histories of Tennessee counties, including a military history and an appendix of biographies.
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*''Goodspeed History of Tennessee <ref>''Goodspeed History of Tennessee''. [Nashville, Tennessee]: Restoration and Reproduction Section, Library and Archives Division, Tennessee Dept. of Education, 1965. Micro-reproduction of county sections of: ''History of Tennessee from the Earliest Time to the Present''. Nashville, Tennessee: Goodspeed Publishing, 1886–1887. {{FHL|55122|item|disp=FHL Film 899865; book 55122}}</ref>''This source contains histories of Tennessee counties, including a military history and an appendix of biographies.
  
 
Here is a list of some Tennessee state histories:  
 
Here is a list of some Tennessee state histories:  
  
*Carpenter, W.H. ''The History of Tennessee from Its EarliestSettlement to the Present Time''. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott &amp; Co., 1856. Digital version at [http://www.archive.org/stream/historyoftenness00carpiala Internet Archive].  
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*Carpenter, W.H. ''The History of Tennessee from Its EarliestSettlement to the Present Time''. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott and Co., 1856. Digital version at [http://www.archive.org/stream/historyoftenness00carpiala Internet Archive].  
 
*Hale, Will T. and Merritt, Dixon L. ''A History of Tennessee and Tennesseans - The Leaders and Representative Men in Commerce, Industry and Modern Activities''. The Lewis Publishing Company, Chicago and New York, 1913. Digital versions at [http://search.ancestry.com/iexec/Default.aspx?htx=BookList&dbid=30088 Ancestry] ($); [http://www.archive.org/details/ahistorytenness01merrgoog Internet Archive].  
 
*Hale, Will T. and Merritt, Dixon L. ''A History of Tennessee and Tennesseans - The Leaders and Representative Men in Commerce, Industry and Modern Activities''. The Lewis Publishing Company, Chicago and New York, 1913. Digital versions at [http://search.ancestry.com/iexec/Default.aspx?htx=BookList&dbid=30088 Ancestry] ($); [http://www.archive.org/details/ahistorytenness01merrgoog Internet Archive].  
*Hamer, Philip M. ''Tennessee, a History, 1673-1932,'' 4 volumes. New York: American Historical Society, 1935.  
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*Hamer, Philip M. ''Tennessee, a History, 1673-1932,'' 4 volumes. New York: American Historical Society, 1935. {{FHL|8619|item|disp=FHL film 1000311 Items 1-4}}
*Haywood, John.[http://www.archive.org/details/civilpoliticalhi00hayw ''The Civil and Political History of the State of Tennessee from its Earliest Settlement up to the Year 1796, including the Boundaries of the State'']'''''.'''Nashville, Tennessee: Publishing House of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 1891.&nbsp; Free ditigal copy.''
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*Haywood, John.[http://www.archive.org/details/civilpoliticalhi00hayw ''The Civil and Political History of the State of Tennessee from its Earliest Settlement up to the Year 1796, including the Boundaries of the State'']. Nashville, Tennessee: Publishing House of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 1891. Free ditigal copy.  
*Garrett, William Robertson and Goodpasture, Albert Virgil. ''[http://www.archive.org/details/historyoftenness00garr History of Tennessee, its People and its Institutions.] ''The Brandon Co., Nashville, Tenn.: 1900.&nbsp; Includes the 1870 Constitution of Tennessee (pp.321-338) and "Bibliography of Tennessee History and Biography" (pp.338-341).  
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*Garrett, William Robertson and Goodpasture, Albert Virgil. ''[http://www.archive.org/details/historyoftenness00garr History of Tennessee, its People and its Institutions.]'' The Brandon Co., Nashville, Tenn.: 1900. Includes the 1870 Constitution of Tennessee (pp.321-338) and ''Bibliography of Tennessee History and Biography'' (pp.338-341).  
*''History of Tennessee'' <ref>Folmsbee, Stanley John. ''History of Tennessee''. New York, New York: Lewis Historical Publishing, 1960. (Family History Library book {{FHL|221417|title-id|disp=976.8 H2fs}}.) </ref>This is a basic history of Tennessee, not indexed.  
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*''History of Tennessee'' <ref>Folmsbee, Stanley John. ''History of Tennessee''. New York, New York: Lewis Historical Publishing, 1960. {{FHL|221417|item|disp=FHL book 976.8 H2fs}} </ref>This is a basic history of Tennessee, not indexed.  
 
*Putnam, Albigence Waldo. ''History of Middle Tennessee: or, Life and Times of Gen. James Robertson''. Nashville, Tenn.: A.A. Stitt, Southern Methodist Publishing House, 1859. Digital version at [http://books.google.com/books?id=9DjMSsxUR_UC Google Books].  
 
*Putnam, Albigence Waldo. ''History of Middle Tennessee: or, Life and Times of Gen. James Robertson''. Nashville, Tenn.: A.A. Stitt, Southern Methodist Publishing House, 1859. Digital version at [http://books.google.com/books?id=9DjMSsxUR_UC Google Books].  
*''The Annals of Tennessee to the End of the Eighteenth Century:'' <ref>Ramsey, James Gettys McGready. ''The Annals of Tennessee to the End of the Eighteenth Century:'' Comprising Its Settlement as the Watauga Association, from 1769–1777; a Part of North Carolina, from 1777 to 1784; the State of Franklin, from 1788 to 1790; the Territory of the U.S. South of the Ohio, from 1790 to 1796; the State of Tennessee, from 1790 to 1800''. 1853. Reprint, Not published: 1967. (Family History Library book {{FHL|221607|title-id|disp=976.8 H2r; film 24525}}.) </ref>This extensive history of the early settlement era includes a map, a few biographical sketches, and an index.  
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*''The Annals of Tennessee to the End of the Eighteenth Century:'' <ref>Ramsey, James Gettys McGready. ''The Annals of Tennessee to the End of the Eighteenth Century: Comprising Its Settlement as the Watauga Association, from 1769–1777; a Part of North Carolina, from 1777 to 1784; the State of Franklin, from 1788 to 1790; the Territory of the U.S. South of the Ohio, from 1790 to 1796; the State of Tennessee, from 1790 to 1800''. 1853. Reprint, Not published: 1967. {{FHL|221607|item|disp=FHL Book 976.8 H2r}}; digital version at [http://books.google.com/books?id=RXMOAAAAIAAJ Google Books].</ref> This extensive history of the early settlement era includes a map, a few biographical sketches, and an index.  
*Smith, Daniel. ''[http://www.archive.org/details/shortdescription00smit A Short Description of the State of Tennessee&nbsp;]: lately called the Territory of the United States, South of the River Ohio&nbsp;; to accompany and explain a map of that country.'' (A very early history.) Philadelphia: Printer for Mathew Carey by Lang and Ustick, 1796. Free digital copy.  
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*Smith, Daniel. ''[http://www.archive.org/details/shortdescription00smit A Short Description of the State of Tennessee]: lately called the Territory of the United States, South of the River Ohio; to accompany and explain a map of that country.'' (A very early history.) Philadelphia: Printer for Mathew Carey by Lang and Ustick, 1796. Free digital copy.  
*''The Tennessee Encyclopedia of History &amp; Culture'' <ref>West, Carroll Van. ''The Tennessee Encyclopedia of History &amp;amp;amp;amp;amp; Culture''. Nashville, Tennessee: Rutledge Hill Press, 1998. (Family History Library book http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;disp=The+Tennessee+encyclopedia+of+history+an%20%20&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;columns=*,0,0 976.8 H2tefckLR {{dead link}}.) </ref>This comprehensive alphabetical work contains topics, biographies, and events representing aspects and disciplines of Tennessee’s history.  
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*''The Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture'' <ref>West, Carroll Van. ''The Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture''. Nashville, Tennessee: Rutledge Hill Press, 1998. {{FHL|30661|item|disp=FHL book 976.8 H2te}}</ref>This comprehensive alphabetical work contains topics, biographies, and events representing aspects and disciplines of Tennessee’s history.  
*Moore, John Trotwood and Austin P. Foster, editors. ''Tennessee: The Volunteer State, 1769-1923''. 4 vols. Nashville: S.J.Clarke Publishing Co., 1923. (Family History Library Book 976.8 D3m v. 1-4.) This indexed four-volume set includes church information and Tennessee history in addition to three volumes of biographies. <br>
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*Moore, John Trotwood and Justin P. Foster, editors. ''Tennessee: The Volunteer State, 1769-1923'', 4 vols. Nashville: S.J.Clarke Publishing Co., 1923. This indexed four-volume set includes church information and Tennessee history in addition to three volumes of biographies.<ref>{{FHL|220742|item|disp=FHL book 976.8 D3m v. 1-4}} Free online digital copy at the FamilySearch link {{WorldCat|1616538|disp=at various libraries (WorldCat)}}</ref> This indexed four-volume set includes church information and Tennessee history in addition to three volumes of biographies. <br>
  
 
== United States History  ==
 
== United States History  ==
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The following are only a few of the many sources that are available:  
 
The following are only a few of the many sources that are available:  
  
*''The Almanac of American History'', <ref>Schlesinger, Jr., Arthur M. ''The Almanac of American History.'' Greenwich, Conn.: Bison Books, 1983. ({{FHL|The Almanac of American History.|title|disp=FHL book 973 H2alm}}) </ref><ref>[http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/9392978&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;referer=brief_results Worldcat] </ref>This provides brief historical essays and chronological descriptions of thousands of key events in United States history.
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*''The Almanac of American History'', <ref>Schlesinger, Jr., Arthur M. ''The Almanac of American History.'' Greenwich, Conn.: Bison Books, 1983. {{FHL|531408|item|disp=FHL book 973 H2alm}} </ref> This provides brief historical essays and chronological descriptions of thousands of key events in United States history.
  
*''Dictionary of American History, Revised ed'' <ref>'' Dictionary of American History, Revised ed., 8 vols''. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1976. ({{FHL|76529|title-id|disp=FHL book 973 H2ad}}.)</ref> <ref>[http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/2507380&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;referer=brief_results Worldcat] </ref>This includes historical sketches on various topics in U.S. history, such as wars, people, laws, and organizations. A snippet view is available at [http://books.google.com/books?id=Lz9WC9EyF08C&q=9780684138565&dq=9780684138565&ei=F4GxSbisHpDMlQSW3Z36BQ&pgis=1 Google books].
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*''Dictionary of American History, Revised ed'' <ref>'' Dictionary of American History, Revised ed., 8 vols''. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1976. {{FHL|76529|item|disp=FHL book 973 H2ad}} </ref> This includes historical sketches on various topics in U.S. history, such as wars, people, laws, and organizations. A snippet view is available at [http://books.google.com/books?id=Lz9WC9EyF08C&q=9780684138565&dq=9780684138565&ei=F4GxSbisHpDMlQSW3Z36BQ&pgis=1 Google books].
  
*''Webster's Guide to American History: A Chronological, Geographical, and Biographical Survey and Compendium'' <ref>'' Webster's Guide to American History: A Chronological, Geographical, and Biographical Survey and Compendium''. Springfield, Mass.: G&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;C Merriam, 1971. ({{FHL|Webster%27s Guide to American History%3A A Chronological%2C Geographical%2C and Biographical Survey and Compendium|title|disp=FHL book 973 H2v}}) </ref><ref>Limited view at [http://books.google.com/books?id=MVU6DS6Re8gC&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;printsec=frontcover&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;dq=Webster%27s+Guide+to+American+History:+A+Chronological,+Geographical,+and+Biographical+Survey+and+Compendium%27&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;ei=Vn-xSeS6FJDUlQSby81v#PPP13,M1 Google Books] </ref><ref>[http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=Webster%27s+Guide+to+American+History&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;qt=owc_search Worldcat] </ref>This includes a history, some maps, tables, and other historical information.
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*''Webster's Guide to American History: A Chronological, Geographical, and Biographical Survey and Compendium'' <ref>'' Webster's Guide to American History: A Chronological, Geographical, and Biographical Survey and Compendium''. Springfield, Mass.: G and C Merriam, 1971. {{FHL|280192|title|disp=FHL book 973 H2v}} </ref><ref>Limited view at [http://books.google.com/books?id=MVU6DS6Re8gC Google Books] </ref> This includes a history, some maps, tables, and other historical information.
  
*''Writings on American History'' <ref>''Writings on American History'' By American Historical Association, Library of Congress, United States National Historical Publications Commission, Published by KTO Press, 1921 {{FHL|244514|title-id|disp=FHL book 973 H23w}} </ref><ref>[http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=Writings+on+American+History&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;qt=owc_search Worldcat] </ref>Has the full text available at [http://books.google.com/books?id=mgEPAAAAYAAJ&dq=United+States+Local+Histories+in+the+Library+of+Congress&ei=N3yxSd6pI4K0kATC-qRu Google Books]
+
*''Writings on American History'' <ref>''Writings on American History'' By American Historical Association, Library of Congress, United States National Historical Publications Commission, Published by KTO Press, 1921 {{FHL|244514|item|disp=FHL book 973 H23w}} </ref> Has the full text available at [http://books.google.com/books?id=mgEPAAAAYAAJ Google Books]
  
 
The [[Family History Library|Family History Library]] has a sizable history collection for Tennessee consisting of two main types of records:  
 
The [[Family History Library|Family History Library]] has a sizable history collection for Tennessee consisting of two main types of records:  
Line 151: Line 147:
 
*Copies of documents on microfilm and in published form broaden a genealogist’s understanding of the times and places in which ancestors lived. Many of the documents include names of individuals involved in the event being documented.
 
*Copies of documents on microfilm and in published form broaden a genealogist’s understanding of the times and places in which ancestors lived. Many of the documents include names of individuals involved in the event being documented.
  
== See Also<br> ==
+
== See Also<br> ==
  
*Griffey, Irene, compiler. ''The Preemptors: Middle Tennessee's First Settlers''. Clarksville: P.p., 1989. (Family History Library Book&nbsp;976.8 R2g.) Notes if grants were made to the resident (at the time that the commissioners visited in 1782-3) or to an assignee.'''<br>'''
+
*Griffey, Irene, compiler. ''The Preemptors: Middle Tennessee's First Settlers''. Clarksville: P.p., 1989. {{FHL|507875|item|disp=FHL book 976.8 R2g}} Notes if grants were made to the resident (at the time that the commissioners visited in 1782-3) or to an assignee.'''<br>'''  
 
*''Tennessee: A Guide to the State''. Compiled and Written by the Federal Writers' Project of the Work Projects Administration for the State of Tennessee. American Guide Series. (No Place: New Deal Network, 1996) Original published: Tennessee: State of Tennessee. Department of Conservation, Division of Information, 1939. [http://newdeal.feri.org/guides/tnguide/cont.htm Available online.]&nbsp;This book has chapters dealing with several topics of particular interest to genealogists, including: “Historic Indians,” "Negroes in Tennessee," “Chronology,” “Religion,” “History and Government,” and chapters relating to occupations.
 
*''Tennessee: A Guide to the State''. Compiled and Written by the Federal Writers' Project of the Work Projects Administration for the State of Tennessee. American Guide Series. (No Place: New Deal Network, 1996) Original published: Tennessee: State of Tennessee. Department of Conservation, Division of Information, 1939. [http://newdeal.feri.org/guides/tnguide/cont.htm Available online.]&nbsp;This book has chapters dealing with several topics of particular interest to genealogists, including: “Historic Indians,” "Negroes in Tennessee," “Chronology,” “Religion,” “History and Government,” and chapters relating to occupations.
  
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::TENNESSEE, BIBLIOGRAPHY
 
::TENNESSEE, BIBLIOGRAPHY
  
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== Web Sites  ==
 
== Web Sites  ==
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<references />{{Tennessee|Tennessee}}  
 
<references />{{Tennessee|Tennessee}}  
  
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[[Category:Tennessee|History]]
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[[Category:Tennessee|History]] [[Category:History|Tennessee]]

Revision as of 23:03, 9 July 2012

United States  Gotoarrow.png  Tennessee  Gotoarrow.png  History
Solomon Conn’s fiddle with names of places served during the American Civil War while in the Union Army's 87th Indiana Volunteers, Company B. Purchased in Nashville in 1863 it lists several Tennessee and Georgia places and battles.

Your family research will be more effective and interesting when you understand the history of their times. Learning about wars, governments, laws, migrations, and religious trends may help you understand political boundaries, family movements, and settlement patterns. Your ancestors may become more interesting to you if you also use histories to learn about the events that were of interest to them or that they may have been involved in.

County and town histories often include biographical sketches of local residents, or mention military units in which they served. This may be one of the best sources of information for some families.
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Contents

Brief History

The following important events in the history of Tennessee affected political boundaries, record keeping, and family movements.

  • 1584:  The region of Tennessee was included in the English land grant to Sir Walter Raleigh.
  • 1763: France surrendered all claims to the land east of the Mississippi River to England.
  • 1769:  The first permanent settlement was established in Watauga Valley by North Carolina and Virginia settlers.
  • 1776:  The Territory of Tennessee was designated by North Carolina as the Washington District.
  • 1777:  Washington County, North Carolina was established to provide governmental jurisdiction over the Watauga settlement. Its boundaries included most of present-day Tennessee.
  • 1779: Nashborough (Nashville) was organized and the settlement of Middle Tennessee was begun.
  • 1784: North Carolina ceded Tennessee to the federal government. Watauga settlers organized a short-lived “State of Franklin.”
  • 1790: The federal government created the “Territory of the United States South of the River Ohio,” also known as the “Southwest Territory.”
  • 1791: The Knoxville Gazette was founded as the first newspaper in Tennessee.
  • 1796:  Tennessee was admitted to the Union as the 16th state.
  • 1803: The Louisiana Purchase increased settlement in the state and migration through it.
  • 1812–1815:  The War of 1812 involved many soldiers from Tennessee.
  • 1815–1860:  Tennessee settlers benefitted from improvements in transportation on rivers (using steamboats), canals, and railroads.
  • 1817–1838:  American Indian claims to land in Tennessee were greatly reduced by land cession treaties, until most Indian tribes were finally exiled in 1838. This became known as the “Trail of Tears.”
  • 1818: (October 19,) General Andrew Jackson negotiated a treaty with the Chickasaw Indians for the purchase of western Tennessee, opening that area to white settlers.
  • 1825: (December) Cherokee exodus began
  • 1835: The treaty of New Ecota was signed, exiling most Indian tribes. A few Cherokees hid in the Great Smoky Mountains until their right to remain was recognized much later.
  • 1839: Chickasaw and remaining Cherokee removed to Oklahoma
  • 1861:  Tennessee seceded from the Union.
  • 1861–1865:  During the Civil War, Tennessee fought for the Confederate States; however, its soldiers served on both sides—180,000 Confederate and 30,000 Union mostly from East Tennessee.
  • 1866:  Tennessee was readmitted to the Union.
  • 1878:  The yellow fever epidemic struck Tennessee.
  • 1898: Over 300,000 men were involved in the Spanish-American War which was fought mainly in Cuba and the Philippines.
  • 1908:  The statewide registration of birth and death statistics began.
  • 1917–1918: More than 26 million men from the United States ages 18 through 45 registered with the Selective Service. World War I over 4.7 million American men and women served during the war. During World War I, 61,000 soldiers served from Tennessee; 17,000 were African American. 4,000 soldiers died.
  • 1930's: The Great Depression closed many factories and mills. Many small farms were abandoned, and many families moved to cities.
  • 1933–1951:  Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), a federal program that brought hydro-electric power to the Tennessee River Valley, displaced communities and flooded some of the best farmland in the state, affecting nearly all Tennessee residents and involving Alabama, Kentucky, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, and Virginia.
  • 1940–1945: Over 50.6 million men ages 18 to 65 registered with the Selective Service. Over 16.3 million American men and women served in the armed forces during World War II. 7,000 Tennessee soldiers were killed in World War II
  • 1945–1960's:  The population shifted from rural to urban, making Tennessee by 1963 the 16th most industrial state.
  • 1950–1953: Over 5.7 million American men and women served in the Korean War. 10,500 Tennesseans served in the Korean War; 843 died in combat.
  • 1950's–1960's The building of interstate highways made it easier for people to move long distances.
  • 1960:  Nashville was the first major Southern city to integrate its public facilities.
  • 1964–1972: Over 8.7 million American men and women served in the Vietnam War. The Vietnam War cost the lives of 1,289 Tennesseans.

A useful chronology can also be found in:

  • Tennessee: A Guide to the State. Compiled and Written by the Federal Writers' Project of the Work Projects Administration for the State of Tennessee. American Guide Series. (No Place: New Deal Network, 1996) Original published: Tennessee: State of Tennessee. Department of Conservation, Division of Information, 1939. Available online.

Historical Content

Histories are great sources of genealogical information. Many contain biographical information about individuals who lived in the area, including:

  • Parents' names
  • Maiden names of women
  • Place of birth, death, or marriage
  • Occupation
  • Migration
  • Military service
  • Descendants

Local Histories

Some of the most valuable sources for family history research are local histories. Published histories of towns, counties, and states usually contain accounts of families. It was popular to publish such histories in commemoration of the nation's centennial anniversary. Unfortunately, compared to the North, fewer Tennessee county histories were published in the late nineteenth century, as the state was still recovering from heavy economic losses resulting from the Civil War.[1]  An exception is Goodspeed's multi-volume History of Tennessee, which contains histories for the majority of the state's counties and biographies of many prominent citizens. Much of the content found in these books is now available for free online, courtesy: TNGenWeb. Publishers expected to sell these "Who's Who"-type publications to successful local residents.

In more recent times, particularly after the nation's bicentennial anniversary and the television series Roots, print houses such as Turner Publishing Company (New York and Nashville), have published dozens of Tennessee county histories packed with compiled family histories targeted at genealogists with interests in the chosen areas. Because the market has changed, families selected for inclusion in these books are no longer only prominent citizens. One of the only detectable biases is that most of the individuals discussed left descendants, and at least one of them was an active genealogist at the time of publication. Many of the articles submitted to these publishers lack source citations and researchers should remember to verify the information.

Content

Many local histories include biographies and compiled genealogies. They describe the settlement of the area and the founding of churches, schools, and businesses. You can also find lists of pioneers, soldiers, and civil officials. Even if your ancestor is not listed, information on other relatives may be included that will provide important clues for locating your ancestor. A local history may also suggest other records to search.

Access

Local histories are extensively collected by the Family History Library, public and university libraries, and state and local historical societies. United States History cites nationwide bibliographies of local histories which include histories of Tennessee.

  • Tennessee History: A Bibliography [2]This resource is a comprehensive guide to state and country history sources and manuscripts.
  • A Bibliography of American County Histories [3]
  • United States Local Histories in the Library of Congress [4]
  • Tennessee, Old and New. Sesquicentennial Edition. 1796 - 1946. The Tennessee Historical Commission. Nashville, Tennessee. Digital versions available at Ancestry ($) and World Vital Records ($). Contains historical information as well as biographies about some of Tennessee's most prominent citizens.

Additional resources for Tennessee local histories include:

  • Counties of Tennessee. [5]The record is arranged alphabetically by county, followed by a brief description of how each county was formed. It includes A Guide to the U.S. Federal Censuses — Tennessee, 1790–1920 by William Thorndale and William Dollarhide, and it is indexed.
  • McClung, Calvin Morgan and McClung Historical Collection. Calvin Morgan McClung Historical Collection. (1921). Contains books, maps, pamphlets, historical documents and genealogies relating to Tennessee and other southern states. Digital versions available at Ancestry ($), Knox County Public Library (free), and World Vital Records ($).

The Draper Manuscript Collection

The Draper Manuscript Collection is a significant regional source that includes records of Tennessee.

  • Draper Manuscript Collection[6] The collection consists of nearly 500 volumes of manuscripts, papers, and books collected by Lyman Copeland Draper about the history of the trans-Allegheny West, a region including the western areas of the Carolinas and Virginia, all the Ohio River Valley, and part of the upper Mississippi Valley from the 1740s to 1830. The collection is divided into 50 series. Some series are titled by geographic area, some by the names of prominent frontier leaders, and some by topic. The bulk of the collection consists of notes from interviews, questionnaires, and letters gathered during Draper’s extensive travels and research to learn about frontier history. Personal papers are much more rare than government or military records.

The collection includes many items of a genealogical or biographical nature. For an inventory and partial indexes, see:

  • Guide to the Draper Manuscripts [7]This guide gives series and volume descriptions for some of the Draper manuscripts. There are several indexes at the end of the book, including a name and subject index, an additional personal data index, and a list of references to Illinois.
  • Index to Lyman C. Draper Manuscripts. [8]The name index gives the series and volume numbers, but is not complete.

State Histories Useful to Genealogists

Good genealogists strive to understand the life and times of their ancestors. In this sense, any history is useful. But certain kinds of state, county, and local histories, especially older histories published between 1845 and 1945, often include biographical sketches of prominent individuals. The sketches usually tend toward the laudatory, but may include some genealogical details. If these histories are indexed or alphabetical, check for an ancestor's name. Some examples for the State of Tennessee are:

Top Ten Tennessee History Reference Books. The webmistress of the Jefferson county usgenweb website "tried to create a list of her personal Top Ten Tennessee History Reference Books."

The best local history for genealogists is:

Here is a list of some Tennessee state histories:

  • Carpenter, W.H. The History of Tennessee from Its EarliestSettlement to the Present Time. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott and Co., 1856. Digital version at Internet Archive.
  • Hale, Will T. and Merritt, Dixon L. A History of Tennessee and Tennesseans - The Leaders and Representative Men in Commerce, Industry and Modern Activities. The Lewis Publishing Company, Chicago and New York, 1913. Digital versions at Ancestry ($); Internet Archive.
  • Hamer, Philip M. Tennessee, a History, 1673-1932, 4 volumes. New York: American Historical Society, 1935. FHL film 1000311 Items 1-4
  • Haywood, John.The Civil and Political History of the State of Tennessee from its Earliest Settlement up to the Year 1796, including the Boundaries of the State. Nashville, Tennessee: Publishing House of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 1891. Free ditigal copy.
  • Garrett, William Robertson and Goodpasture, Albert Virgil. History of Tennessee, its People and its Institutions. The Brandon Co., Nashville, Tenn.: 1900. Includes the 1870 Constitution of Tennessee (pp.321-338) and Bibliography of Tennessee History and Biography (pp.338-341).
  • History of Tennessee [10]This is a basic history of Tennessee, not indexed.
  • Putnam, Albigence Waldo. History of Middle Tennessee: or, Life and Times of Gen. James Robertson. Nashville, Tenn.: A.A. Stitt, Southern Methodist Publishing House, 1859. Digital version at Google Books.
  • The Annals of Tennessee to the End of the Eighteenth Century: [11] This extensive history of the early settlement era includes a map, a few biographical sketches, and an index.
  • Smith, Daniel. A Short Description of the State of Tennessee: lately called the Territory of the United States, South of the River Ohio; to accompany and explain a map of that country. (A very early history.) Philadelphia: Printer for Mathew Carey by Lang and Ustick, 1796. Free digital copy.
  • The Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture [12]This comprehensive alphabetical work contains topics, biographies, and events representing aspects and disciplines of Tennessee’s history.
  • Moore, John Trotwood and Justin P. Foster, editors. Tennessee: The Volunteer State, 1769-1923, 4 vols. Nashville: S.J.Clarke Publishing Co., 1923. This indexed four-volume set includes church information and Tennessee history in addition to three volumes of biographies.[13] This indexed four-volume set includes church information and Tennessee history in addition to three volumes of biographies.

United States History

The following are only a few of the many sources that are available:

  • The Almanac of American History, [14] This provides brief historical essays and chronological descriptions of thousands of key events in United States history.
  • Dictionary of American History, Revised ed [15] This includes historical sketches on various topics in U.S. history, such as wars, people, laws, and organizations. A snippet view is available at Google books.
  • Webster's Guide to American History: A Chronological, Geographical, and Biographical Survey and Compendium [16][17] This includes a history, some maps, tables, and other historical information.

The Family History Library has a sizable history collection for Tennessee consisting of two main types of records:

  • Published histories of the state, its counties, and towns often contain maps, information on religious and civic organizations, and biographies of individuals and families who have lived there.
  • Copies of documents on microfilm and in published form broaden a genealogist’s understanding of the times and places in which ancestors lived. Many of the documents include names of individuals involved in the event being documented.

See Also

  • Griffey, Irene, compiler. The Preemptors: Middle Tennessee's First Settlers. Clarksville: P.p., 1989. FHL book 976.8 R2g Notes if grants were made to the resident (at the time that the commissioners visited in 1782-3) or to an assignee.
  • Tennessee: A Guide to the State. Compiled and Written by the Federal Writers' Project of the Work Projects Administration for the State of Tennessee. American Guide Series. (No Place: New Deal Network, 1996) Original published: Tennessee: State of Tennessee. Department of Conservation, Division of Information, 1939. Available online. This book has chapters dealing with several topics of particular interest to genealogists, including: “Historic Indians,” "Negroes in Tennessee," “Chronology,” “Religion,” “History and Government,” and chapters relating to occupations.

Research Guides

  • McBride, Robert M., compiler. Tennessee County Data for Historical and Genealogical Research. Nashville: Tennessee State Library and Archives, 1966. This guide includes details about record loss in Tennessee counties and lists the extant newspapers.

See the Tennessee Archives and Libraries article for facilities with regional collections which might include histories. To find more books and articles about Tennessee 's history use the Internet Google search for phases like "Tennessee history." Family History Library Catalog Surname Search lists many more histories under topics like:

TENNESSEE - HISTORY
TENNESSEE, [COUNTY] - HISTORY
TENNESSEE, [COUNTY], [TOWN] - HISTORY
TENNESSEE, BIBLIOGRAPHY


Web Sites

Sources

  1. Kory L. Meyerink, "Chapter 17: County and Local Histories," in Printed Sources: A Guide to Published Genealogical Records (Salt Lake City, Utah: Ancestry Incorporated, 1998), 627-669.
  2. Smith, Sam B., 1929. Tennessee History: A Bibliography. Knoxville, Tennessee: University of Tennessee Press, [1974]. FHL book 976.8 A3s
  3. Filby, P. William. A Bibliography of American County Histories. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1985. FHL book 973 H23bi
  4. Kaminkow, Marion J. United States Local Histories in the Library of Congress. 5 vols. Baltimore: Magna Charta Book, 1975-76. FHL book 973 A3ka
  5. Foster, Austin Powers. Counties of Tennessee. 1923. Reprint, Greenville, South Carolina: Southern Historical Press, 1990. FHL film 896777 Item 4
  6. Draper, Lyman Copeland,Draper manuscript collection Chicago, Illinois : Filmed by the University of Chicago Library, [197-?] FHL Film 889097 (first of 147 films)
  7. Harper, Josephine L. Guide to the Draper Manuscripts. Madison, Wisconsin: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1983. FHL book 977.583/M1 A3h
  8. Wolfe, Barbara Schull. Index to Lyman C. Draper Manuscripts. Logansport, Indiana: B.S. Wolfe, 197–?. FHL book 977.583/M1 A3w
  9. Goodspeed History of Tennessee. [Nashville, Tennessee]: Restoration and Reproduction Section, Library and Archives Division, Tennessee Dept. of Education, 1965. Micro-reproduction of county sections of: History of Tennessee from the Earliest Time to the Present. Nashville, Tennessee: Goodspeed Publishing, 1886–1887. FHL Film 899865; book 55122
  10. Folmsbee, Stanley John. History of Tennessee. New York, New York: Lewis Historical Publishing, 1960. FHL book 976.8 H2fs
  11. Ramsey, James Gettys McGready. The Annals of Tennessee to the End of the Eighteenth Century: Comprising Its Settlement as the Watauga Association, from 1769–1777; a Part of North Carolina, from 1777 to 1784; the State of Franklin, from 1788 to 1790; the Territory of the U.S. South of the Ohio, from 1790 to 1796; the State of Tennessee, from 1790 to 1800. 1853. Reprint, Not published: 1967. FHL Book 976.8 H2r; digital version at Google Books.
  12. West, Carroll Van. The Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture. Nashville, Tennessee: Rutledge Hill Press, 1998. FHL book 976.8 H2te
  13. FHL book 976.8 D3m v. 1-4 Free online digital copy at the FamilySearch link at various libraries (WorldCat)
  14. Schlesinger, Jr., Arthur M. The Almanac of American History. Greenwich, Conn.: Bison Books, 1983. FHL book 973 H2alm
  15. Dictionary of American History, Revised ed., 8 vols. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1976. FHL book 973 H2ad
  16. Webster's Guide to American History: A Chronological, Geographical, and Biographical Survey and Compendium. Springfield, Mass.: G and C Merriam, 1971. FHL book 973 H2v
  17. Limited view at Google Books
  18. Writings on American History By American Historical Association, Library of Congress, United States National Historical Publications Commission, Published by KTO Press, 1921 FHL book 973 H23w