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''[[United States|United States ]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]]  [[United States Migration Internal|Migration ]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]]  [[US Migration Trails and Roads|Trails and Roads ]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]]  [[Unicoi_Trail|Unicoi Trail]]''[[Image:Catawba and Unicoi Trails.png|right|650px]]  
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''[[United States|United States&nbsp;]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] &nbsp;[[United States Migration Internal|Migration&nbsp;]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] &nbsp;[[US Migration Trails and Roads|Trails and Roads&nbsp;]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] &nbsp;[[Unicoi_Trail|Unicoi Trail]]''[[Image:Catawba and Unicoi Trails.png|right|650px]] &lt;br<br>
  
The '''Unicoi Trail''' (in red on the map) was a pre-colonial Indian trading path connecting the western parts of North and South Carolina with eastern Tennessee. At first it was open to trade only—no settlers. But after about 1795 settlers began using it.  
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The '''Unicoi Trail''' (in red on the map) was a pre-colonial Indian trading path connecting the western parts of North and South Carolina with eastern Tennessee. At first it was open to trade only—no settlers. But after about 1795 settlers began using it. It was open to wagons about 1813, and became a toll road (turnpike) about 1819. {{Adoption TNGenWeb}}
  
 
=== Historical Background  ===
 
=== Historical Background  ===
  
The '''Unicoi Trail''' emerged from the Saluda Gap where North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia now meet. The trail headed west on the south side of the far west part of North Carolina over to the Tennessee border where it passed through the Unicoi Gap. The trail then curved north toward the Overhill Cherokee Villiages and ended at Tellico. The Unicoi Trail was the most heavily used&nbsp;trade route into east Tennessee, but settlers were forbidden to use it prior to ???????
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The '''Unicoi Trail''', Unicoi Turnpike, or Trading Path, emerged from the Saluda Gap where North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia now meet. The trail headed west on the south side of the far west part of North Carolina over to the Tennessee border where it passed through the Unicoi Gap. The trail then curved north toward the Overhill Cherokee villiages and ended at either Tellico, or Vonore, or Knoxville. The Unicoi Trail was the most heavily used trade route into east Tennessee, but settlers were forbidden to use it prior to the decline of Cherokee military power in the 1790s.<ref name="ETHS1st">East Tennessee Historical Society, ''[http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/44435788 First families of Tennessee: a register of early settlers and their present-day descendants]'' (Knoxville, Tenn.: East Tennessee Historical Society, c2000) [{{FHL|976.8 H2ff}}], 23.</ref>
  
After ?????? the Unicoi Trail was the most convenient way for pioneers from the Waxhaw area of the Carolinas to cross the mountains into east Tennessee.
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The first&nbsp;British colonists known to have used the Unicoi Trail in 1690 brought trade goods from Charleston to the Overhill Cherokee villages. Furs and pelts exchanged hands for guns and rum.<ref name="ETHS1st" /> By 1700 French colonists from the Gulf Coast followed the [[Great Indian Warpath|Great Indian Warpath]] to trade in the same villages. In 1736 an Englishman named Priber used the Unicoi Trail to reach Tellico where he and a Cherokee named Motoy set up a utopian-communist society. However, after five years the British arrested Priber and accused him of being a French spy.<ref name="KirkL">Lowell Kirk, "The Unicoi Turnpike" in ''Tellico Plains Mountain Press: Online History and Feature Ezine'' at http://www.telliquah.com/unicoi.htm (accessed 14 August 2010).</ref>
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The British-French rivalry heated up during the [[French and Indian War, 1754-1763|French and Indian War]] from 1754 to 1763. The British used pack animals on the Unicoi Trail to bring tools and supplies to build Fort Loudon. The British garrison also brought 12 hundred-pound cannons over the steep trail. After the British surrendered the Fort, they moved their cannons back to South Carolina over the Unicoi Trail.<ref name="KirkL" />
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During the [[Revolutionary War, 1775 to 1783|Revolutionary War]] most Cherokee Indians allied with the British against the American patriot cause. John Sevier led about 140 patriots across the Unicoi Gap to attack and burn three Indian villages. But, when they were faced by 1000 warriors the patriots quickly retreated back down the Unicoi Trail.<ref name="KirkL" />
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After the Unicoi Trail was opened to wagons about 1795, it became a popular choice for pioneers from the Yadkin River settlements, and Waxhaws to move across the mountains from North Carolina to east Tennessee.<ref>''First Families'', 23-24.</ref> In 1815 a company was formed to turn the trail into a road fit for freight wagons. By 1819 the toll road was renamed a turnpike and opened to the public. This opened up trade between Augusta, Georgia and Knoxville, Tennessee. Tennessee farmers used the road to market their goods in the South until after the American Civil War.<ref name="KirkL" />
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=== Route  ===
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*[[Stephens County, Georgia]]
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*[[Habersham County, Georgia]]
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*[[Rabun County, Georgia]]
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*[[Towns County, Georgia]]
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*[[Clay County, North Carolina]]
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*[[Cherokee County, North Carolina]]
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*[[Polk County, Tennessee]]
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*[[McMinn County, Tennessee]]
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*[[Monroe County, Tennessee]]
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*[[Blount County, Tennessee]]
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*[[Knox County, Tennessee]]
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'''Connecting trails'''
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Around Tugaloo, Georgia the following trails converge near the south end of the Unicoi Trail:
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:*Savannah River
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:*[[Lower Cherokee Traders' Path]] a pre-historic trail connecting the [http://sciway3.net/scgenweb/pickens-county/images/sheriff-01.pdf Lower Cherokee Villages] to the Catawba Indians ([[Charlotte, North Carolina]])
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:*[[Old Cherokee Path]] a pre-historic trail from the [http://sciway3.net/scgenweb/pickens-county/images/sheriff-01.pdf Lower Cherokee Villages] to [[Washington County, Virginia]] on the [[Great Valley Road]] (also known as the [[Great Indian Warpath]])
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:*[[Coosa-Tugaloo Indian Warpath]] was a pre-historic path that went toward [[Birmingham, Alabama]]
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:*[[Tugaloo-Apalachee Bay Trail]] was a pre-historic trail headed for the Florida panhandle and probably [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mission_San_Luis_de_Apalachee Mission San Luis de Apalachee]
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:*[[Augusta and Cherokee Trail]] was a pre-historic trail from [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tugaloo Tugaloo] originally to [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Savannah_Town,_South_Carolina Savannah Town, South Carolina] and later [[Augusta, Georgia]]
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:*[[Old South Carolina State Road|Old South Carolina State Road]] 1747 a fork of this road apparently connected [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tugaloo Tugaloo], Georgia to [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fort_Prince_George_(South_Carolina) Fort Prince George], to [[Columbia, South Carolina|Columbia]] and to [[Charleston, South Carolina]].
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:*[[Fort Charlotte and Cherokee Old Path|Fort Charlotte and Cherokee Old Path]] after 1765 followed the northeast side of the Savannah River from the [[Old Cherokee Path]] in [[Oconee County, South Carolina|Oconee County]] down to old [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fort_Charlotte_(South_Carolina) Fort Charlotte] in northwest [[McCormick County, South Carolina]]
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:*[[Upper Road]] about 1783 (overlapping the Lower Cherokee Traders' Path) connecting [[Fredericksburg, Virginia]] to [[Macon, Georgia]]
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:*[[Unicoi_Trail|Unicoi Turnpike]] opened to a few European traders 1690, but the wagon road was not opened to settlers until 1795 from near [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tugaloo Tugaloo] headed northwest to the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Overhill_Cherokee Overhill Cherokee villages] and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knoxville,_Tennessee Knoxville] in [[Tennessee]]<ref>Lowell Kirk, "The Unicoi Turnpike" at http://www.telliquah.com/unicoi.htm (accessed 3 May 2011).</ref><ref>William E. Myer, ''Indian Trails of the Southeast''. (Nashville, Tenn.: Blue and Gray Press, 1971). ({{FHL|54678|item|disp=FHL Book 970.1 M992i}}) [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/1523234 WorldCat entry].</ref>
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Toward the the north end the [[Unicoi_Trail]] connects to:
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:*in [[McMinn County, Tennessee]] the [[Unicoi_Trail]] joined and overlapped the [[Great Indian Warpath]] on its way to [[Knoxville, Tennessee]] and beyond.
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:*The warpath continued northeast but was also called the west fork of the [[Great Valley Road]] connecting Knoxville to [[Philadelphia, Pennsylvania]].
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:*[[Avery's Trace]] connected [[Knox County, Tennessee]] to [[Nashville, Tennessee]].
  
 
=== Settlers and Records  ===
 
=== Settlers and Records  ===
  
There is no known list of settlers who travelled the Unicoi Trail. However, some of the early residents of Tennessee ''may'' have used the trail to reach their destination, as well as several other routes like the [[Great Valley Road|Great Valley Road]], [[Wilderness Road]], [[Kentucky Road]], [[Avery's Trace]], or [[Georgia Road]]. For early Tennessee settlers see:  
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There is no known list of settlers who travelled the Unicoi Trail. However, some of the early residents of Tennessee ''may'' have used the trail to reach their destination, as well as several other routes like the [[Great Valley Road|Great Valley Road]], [[Wilderness Road]], [[Kentucky Road]], [[Avery's Trace]], [[Catawba Trail]], or [[Georgia Road]]. For early Tennessee settlers see:  
  
 
*East Tennessee Historical Society, ''[http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/44435788 First families of Tennessee: a register of early settlers and their present-day descendants]'' (Knoxville, Tenn.: East Tennessee Historical Society, c2000) [{{FHL|976.8 H2ff}}].
 
*East Tennessee Historical Society, ''[http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/44435788 First families of Tennessee: a register of early settlers and their present-day descendants]'' (Knoxville, Tenn.: East Tennessee Historical Society, c2000) [{{FHL|976.8 H2ff}}].
 
{{Wikipedia|Natchez Trace}}
 
  
 
=== Internet Sites  ===
 
=== Internet Sites  ===
  
*
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*Lowell Kirk, "The Unicoi Turnpike" in ''Tellico Plains Mountain Press: Online History and Feature Ezine'' at http://www.telliquah.com/unicoi.htm (accessed 14 August 2010).
 +
*"The Unicoi Turnpike - White County" in Georgia Historical Markers on Waymarking.com at http://www.waymarking.com/waymarks/WMMVB (accessed 5 April 2011). Description of the history and route on a roadside marker.
  
 
=== Sources  ===
 
=== Sources  ===
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{{reflist}}  
 
{{reflist}}  
  
{{Tennessee|Tennessee}}  
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{{Georgia|Georgia}}{{North Carolina|North Carolina}}{{South Carolina|South Carolina}}{{Tennessee|Tennessee}}  
  
[[Category:Migration_Routes]] [[Category:US_Migration_Trails_and_Roads]] [[Category:Tennessee]] [[Category:North_Carolina]]
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[[Category:Migration_Routes]] [[Category:US_Migration_Trails_and_Roads]] [[Category:Tennessee]] [[Category:North_Carolina]] [[Category:South_Carolina]] [[Category:Georgia]]

Latest revision as of 20:01, 5 May 2011

United States  Gotoarrow.png  Migration  Gotoarrow.png  Trails and Roads  Gotoarrow.png  Unicoi Trail
Catawba and Unicoi Trails.png
<br
The Unicoi Trail (in red on the map) was a pre-colonial Indian trading path connecting the western parts of North and South Carolina with eastern Tennessee. At first it was open to trade only—no settlers. But after about 1795 settlers began using it. It was open to wagons about 1813, and became a toll road (turnpike) about 1819.
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Contents

Historical Background

The Unicoi Trail, Unicoi Turnpike, or Trading Path, emerged from the Saluda Gap where North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia now meet. The trail headed west on the south side of the far west part of North Carolina over to the Tennessee border where it passed through the Unicoi Gap. The trail then curved north toward the Overhill Cherokee villiages and ended at either Tellico, or Vonore, or Knoxville. The Unicoi Trail was the most heavily used trade route into east Tennessee, but settlers were forbidden to use it prior to the decline of Cherokee military power in the 1790s.[1]

The first British colonists known to have used the Unicoi Trail in 1690 brought trade goods from Charleston to the Overhill Cherokee villages. Furs and pelts exchanged hands for guns and rum.[1] By 1700 French colonists from the Gulf Coast followed the Great Indian Warpath to trade in the same villages. In 1736 an Englishman named Priber used the Unicoi Trail to reach Tellico where he and a Cherokee named Motoy set up a utopian-communist society. However, after five years the British arrested Priber and accused him of being a French spy.[2]

The British-French rivalry heated up during the French and Indian War from 1754 to 1763. The British used pack animals on the Unicoi Trail to bring tools and supplies to build Fort Loudon. The British garrison also brought 12 hundred-pound cannons over the steep trail. After the British surrendered the Fort, they moved their cannons back to South Carolina over the Unicoi Trail.[2]

During the Revolutionary War most Cherokee Indians allied with the British against the American patriot cause. John Sevier led about 140 patriots across the Unicoi Gap to attack and burn three Indian villages. But, when they were faced by 1000 warriors the patriots quickly retreated back down the Unicoi Trail.[2]

After the Unicoi Trail was opened to wagons about 1795, it became a popular choice for pioneers from the Yadkin River settlements, and Waxhaws to move across the mountains from North Carolina to east Tennessee.[3] In 1815 a company was formed to turn the trail into a road fit for freight wagons. By 1819 the toll road was renamed a turnpike and opened to the public. This opened up trade between Augusta, Georgia and Knoxville, Tennessee. Tennessee farmers used the road to market their goods in the South until after the American Civil War.[2]

Route

Connecting trails

Around Tugaloo, Georgia the following trails converge near the south end of the Unicoi Trail:

Toward the the north end the Unicoi_Trail connects to:

Settlers and Records

There is no known list of settlers who travelled the Unicoi Trail. However, some of the early residents of Tennessee may have used the trail to reach their destination, as well as several other routes like the Great Valley Road, Wilderness Road, Kentucky Road, Avery's Trace, Catawba Trail, or Georgia Road. For early Tennessee settlers see:

Internet Sites

  • Lowell Kirk, "The Unicoi Turnpike" in Tellico Plains Mountain Press: Online History and Feature Ezine at http://www.telliquah.com/unicoi.htm (accessed 14 August 2010).
  • "The Unicoi Turnpike - White County" in Georgia Historical Markers on Waymarking.com at http://www.waymarking.com/waymarks/WMMVB (accessed 5 April 2011). Description of the history and route on a roadside marker.

Sources

  1. 1.0 1.1 East Tennessee Historical Society, First families of Tennessee: a register of early settlers and their present-day descendants (Knoxville, Tenn.: East Tennessee Historical Society, c2000) [FHL 976.8 H2ff], 23.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Lowell Kirk, "The Unicoi Turnpike" in Tellico Plains Mountain Press: Online History and Feature Ezine at http://www.telliquah.com/unicoi.htm (accessed 14 August 2010).
  3. First Families, 23-24.
  4. Lowell Kirk, "The Unicoi Turnpike" at http://www.telliquah.com/unicoi.htm (accessed 3 May 2011).
  5. William E. Myer, Indian Trails of the Southeast. (Nashville, Tenn.: Blue and Gray Press, 1971). (FHL Book 970.1 M992i) WorldCat entry.

 

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