Virginia Census

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''[[United States|United States ]] >  [[United States Census|U.S. Census ]] >  [[Virginia|Virginia]]  >  [[Virginia_Census|Census]]''  
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''[[United States|United States ]] >  [[United States Census|U.S. Census ]] >  [[Virginia|Virginia]]  >  [[Virginia Census|Census]]''  
  
== Existing and lost censuses  ==
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{| width="100%" cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" border="0" class="FCK__ShowTableBorders"
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|-
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| width="44%" | __TOC__
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| valign="middle" | <center><font size="+1">'''Tips'''</font></center>
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*If at first you don't find a name, try again under [[Spelling Substitution Tables for the United States and Canada|another spelling]].
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*[[Copying Sources|Photocopy]] each ancestor's census. Identify where you found it.
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*Look for an ancestor in '''''every''''' census during her or his lifetime.
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*On the [[Adding a Custom Event to a PAF Family Group Record|family group record]] show&nbsp;each person's census listings.
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*Study&nbsp;others in the same household, neighbors, and anyone with the similar names nearby on the census in [[Research a Family in Community Context|community context]].
  
For a list of available and missing Virginia censuses, [[Virginia Censuses Existing and Lost|click here]]. <br>
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<br>  
  
<br>
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*For a list of the exact date of each federal census, [[Virginia Censuses Existing and Lost|click here]].
  
== Availability  ==
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|}
  
Federal censuses are increasingly available online and on microfilm.
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=== Online Virginia indexes and images  ===
  
'''1810 (partial)–1930:''' The Family History Library has microfilm copies of the U.S. federal censuses for the state of Virginia.
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{{Census Online Virginia}}
  
'''''1850 United States Census'''''—A free Internet index and images to the 1850 United States Census can be viewed on the [http://pilot.familysearch.org/recordsearch/start.html#p=collectionDetails;t=searchable;c=1401638 FamilySearch Record Search – Pilot Site]. This index includes every name listed on the census and is linked to an image including information about each person’s residence and age in 1850, birthplace, occupation, other family members, and neighbors.
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=== Federal population schedules  ===
  
--'''1860 United States Census'''''—''A free Internet index and images to the 1860 United States Census can be viewed on the [http://search.labs.familysearch.org/recordsearch/start.html#p=collectionDetails;t=searchable;c=1473181 FamilySearch Record Search – Pilot Site.] This index includes every name listed on the census and is linked to an image including information about each person’s residence and age in 1860, birthplace, occupation, other family members, whether married or single, and neighbors.
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==== Microfilm images ====
  
'''&nbsp;1870 United States Census---'''A free internet index and images can be viewed on [http://pilot.familysearch.org/recordsearch/start.html#p=collectionDetails;t=searchable;c=1438024 FamilySearch Record Pilot site]. This index includes the full name, age, sex, race, birthplace, occupation, month if born in census year, month if married in census year, birth place of father and mother, if born in a foreign country.
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*
  
'''1880 United States Census'''– A Free Internet Index and Images to the US Census can be viewed on the [http://search.labs.familysearch.org/recordsearch/start.html#p=collectionDetails;t=searchable;c=1417683 Family Search Record Pilot – Pilot Site.] This index includes an every name index to population schedules listing inhabitants. It includes the full name, race, sex, age, birth month (if born during the previous year), relationship to head of household, whether married, single or divorced, whether married during the previous year, country or state of birth of each person and his parent’s, occupation and street address and house number.
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==== Indexes: fiche, film, or book  ====
  
'''1900 Federal Census''' - A free Internet index and images to the 1900 United States Census can be viewed on the&nbsp; [http://pilot.familysearch.org/recordsearch/start.html#start FamilySearch Record Search – Pilot Site<span id="fck_dom_range_temp_1236863911171_679" />]. Important additions to this census are month and year of birth of each household member, number of years married for each married person, number of children born to each mother and the number of those still living, year of immigration, and number of years in the United States.<br><br><br>'''Substitutes for missing censuses:'''
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For a list of microform and book indexes for the population schedules of Virginia, [[Virginia Population Schedule Indexes: Fiche, Film, or Book|click here]]
  
Most published substitutes are based on state censuses and tax lists. Each covers different counties. Most of present-day West Virginia is included in the second item, but both must be used for a complete search of West Virginia.
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=== Federal non-population schedules  ===
  
*Fothergill, Augusta B. and John Mark Naugle. Virginia Tax Payers, 1782-87, Other than Those Published by the United States Census Bureau. 1940. Reprint. Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1966. (Family History Library book [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=381662&disp=Virginia+tax+payers%2C+1782%2D87%2C+othe%20%20&columns=*,0,0 975.5 R4f 1966]; Family History Library film [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=381662&disp=Virginia+tax+payers%2C+1782%2D87%2C+othe%20%20&columns=*,0,0 874197 item 4].)
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==== Online indexes and images  ====
*Heads of Families . . . Records of the State Enumerations: 1782 to 1785, Virginia. 1908. Reprint. Baltimore, Maryland: Southern Book Company, 1952. (Family History Library book [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=329264&disp=Heads+of+families+at+the+first+census+of%20%20&columns=*,0,0 975.5 X2us 1790]; Family History Library film [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=329264&disp=Heads+of+families+at+the+first+census+of%20%20&columns=*,0,0 874193 item 4].)
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For the missing portions of the 1810 census use:  
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{| width="77%" cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" border="1" align="center"
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|-
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| bgcolor="#ff9900" align="center" colspan="11" | <font size="+1">'''Online Federal Non-Population Schedules for Virginia'''</font>
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|-
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| bgcolor="#ff9900" colspan="2" | <br>
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| bgcolor="#ff9966" align="center" colspan="3" | '''Free'''
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| bgcolor="#cccccc" align="center" colspan="3" | '''Free at Some Libraries''' (usually&nbsp;with&nbsp;library&nbsp;card)
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| bgcolor="#ff9900" align="center" | '''Pay'''
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|-
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| bgcolor="#ff9900" align="center" | '''Year'''
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| width="10%" bgcolor="#ff9900" align="center" | '''Type'''
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| bgcolor="#ff9966" align="center" | '''Record Search'''
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| bgcolor="#ff9966" align="center" | '''Census Bureau'''
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| bgcolor="#ff9966" align="center" | '''Google Book'''
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| bgcolor="#cccccc" align="center" | '''Heritage Quest'''
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| bgcolor="#cccccc" align="center" | '''Ancestry FHL'''
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| bgcolor="#cccccc" align="center" | '''Ancestry Library'''
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| bgcolor="#ff9900" align="center" | '''Ancestry Home'''
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|-
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| '''1890'''
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| width="20%" | Veterans
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| align="center" | -
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| align="center" | -
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| align="center" | -
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| align="center" | -
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| align="center" | [http://search.ancestryinstitution.com/iexec/?htx=List&dbid=8667&offerid=0%3a7858%3a0 Link]
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| align="center" | [http://search.ancestrylibrary.com/iexec/?htx=List&dbid=8667&offerid=0%3a7858%3a0 Link]
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| align="center" | [http://search.ancestry.com/iexec/?htx=List&dbid=8667&offerid=0%3a7858%3a0 Link]
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|-
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| '''1880'''
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| width="20%" | Defective
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| align="center" | -
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| align="center" | -
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| align="center" | -
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| align="center" | -
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| align="center" | [http://search.ancestryinstitution.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=1634 Link]
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| align="center" | [http://search.ancestrylibrary.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=1634 Link]
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| align="center" | [http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=1634 Link]
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|-
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| '''1880'''
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| width="20%" | Mortality
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| align="center" | -
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| align="center" | -
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| align="center" | -
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| align="center" | -
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| align="center" | [http://search.ancestryinstitution.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=3530 Link]
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| align="center" | [http://search.ancestrylibrary.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=3530 Link]
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| align="center" | [http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=3530 Link]
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|-
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| '''1870'''
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| Mortality
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| align="center" | -
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| align="center" | -
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| align="center" | -
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| align="center" | -
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| align="center" | [http://search.ancestryinstitution.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=3530 Link]
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| align="center" | [http://search.ancestrylibrary.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=3530 Link]
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| align="center" | [http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=3530 Link]
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|-
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| '''1860'''
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| Slave owner
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| align="center" | -
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| align="center" | -
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| align="center" | -
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| align="center" | [http://persi.heritagequestonline.com/hqoweb/library/do/census/results/image?urn=urn%3Aproquest%3AUS%3Bcensus%3B8457527%3B-1%3B8%3B18&searchtype=3&offset=1&locthreadid=4479091&hitcount=5479 Link]<ref name="HQSlave">HeritageQuest has slave owner schedule images only.</ref>
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| align="center" | [http://search.ancestryinstitution.com/iexec/?htx=List&dbid=7668&offerid=0%3a7858%3a0 Link]
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| align="center" | [http://search.ancestrylibrary.com/iexec/?htx=List&dbid=7668&offerid=0%3a7858%3a0 Link]
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| align="center" | [http://search.ancestry.com/iexec/?htx=List&dbid=7668&offerid=0%3a7858%3a0 Link]
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|-
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| '''1860'''
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| Mortality
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| align="center" | -
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| align="center" | -
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| align="center" | -
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| align="center" | -
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| align="center" | [http://search.ancestryinstitution.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=3530 Link]
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| align="center" | [http://search.ancestrylibrary.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=3530 Link]
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| align="center" | [http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=3530 Link]
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|-
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| '''1850'''
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| Slave owner
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| align="center" | [http://pilot.familysearch.org/recordsearch/start.html#p=collectionDetails;c=1420440;t=browsable;w=0 Link]
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| align="center" | -
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| align="center" | -
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| align="center" | [http://persi.heritagequestonline.com/hqoweb/library/do/census/results/image?urn=urn%3Aproquest%3AUS%3Bcensus%3B12159696%3B-1%3B7%3B18&searchtype=3&offset=1&locthreadid=8194799&hitcount=4245 Link]<ref name="HQSlave" />
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| align="center" | [http://search.ancestryinstitution.com/iexec/?htx=List&dbid=8055&offerid=0%3a7858%3a0 Link]
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| align="center" | [http://search.ancestrylibrary.com/iexec/?htx=List&dbid=8055&offerid=0%3a7858%3a0 Link]
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| align="center" | [http://search.ancestry.com/iexec/?htx=List&dbid=8055&offerid=0%3a7858%3a0 Link]
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|-
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| '''1850'''
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| Mortality
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| align="center" | [http://pilot.familysearch.org/recordsearch/start.html#p=collectionDetails;c=1420441 Link]
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| align="center" | -
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| align="center" | -
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| align="center" | -
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| align="center" | [http://search.ancestryinstitution.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=3530 Link]
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| align="center" | [http://search.ancestrylibrary.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=3530 Link]
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| align="center" | [http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=3530 Link]
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|-
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| '''1840'''
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| Pensioners
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| align="center" | -
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| align="center" | [http://www2.census.gov/prod2/decennial/documents/1840c-01.pdf BookLink]
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| align="center" | [http://books.google.com/books?id=W7JYAAAAMAAJ&dq=1840+census+pensioners&printsec=frontcover&source=bl&ots=W0XUmfgahX&sig=WRyMIVwiePLwKmlxhbchJl1ZeeA&hl=en&ei=SJ0MSvSrBqOMtgf19I2FCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=10#PPA61,M1 BookLink]
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| align="center" | -
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| align="center" | [http://search.ancestryinstitution.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=7678 Link]
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| align="center" | [http://search.ancestrylibrary.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=7678 Link]
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| align="center" | [http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=7678 Link]
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|}
  
*Netti Schreiner-Yantis, A Supplement to the 1810 Census of Virginia: Tax Lists of the Counties for Which the Census is Missing (Springfield, Virginia: Genealogical Books in Print, 1971; Family History Library book [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=109831&disp=A+supplement+to+the+1810+census+of+Virgi%20%20&columns=*,0,0 975.5 R4s]). This includes information from&nbsp;19 counties that are missing from the 1810 census.
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==== Microfilm images  ====
  
When indexes are not available or a name is omitted, you can still look for the name in the census. In large cities it helps to first learn the person's address by searching the city directory under the census year (see the “Directories” section). Then look for that address on the original census schedules.  
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*'''1890 Union veterans schedules''' are available at the Family History Library on Family History Library &nbsp;films [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=230777&disp=Schedules+enumerating+Union+veterans+and%20%20&columns=*,0,0 338265-66]. They are also available at the National Archives.
  
== Historical Background  ==
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The Library of Virginia has the original 1850, 1870, and 1880 schedules. Duke University (William R. Perkins Library, Duke University, Durham, NC 27706) has the 1860 schedules. The 1850 and 1860 schedules for the area that later became West Virginia are also on microfilm at the Family History Library and the West Virginia Archives and History Library.
  
== Indexes  ==
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==== Indexes: fiche, film, or book ====
  
'''Online Indexes'''
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For a list of microform and book indexes for the non-population schedules of Virginia, [[Virginia Non-Population Schedule Indexes: Fiche, Film, or Book|click here]].
  
[[Www.ancestry.com|Ancestry.com]] ($$):&nbsp;Has all available years searchable by the name, birth year, and many other options, with links to the digitized images of the census pages.
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=== State and colonial censuses  ===
  
[[Www.heritagequestonline.com/|HeritageQuest Online]]: Has indexes for most of the census years and images for all years. While they do not offer personal subscriptions, a public or academic library near you likely subscribes. The way the census was indexed is different from the way Ancestry was indexed.
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{| width="100%" cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" border="1" align="center"
 
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|-
'''Book Indexes'''  
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| bgcolor="#99cc99" align="center" colspan="90" | '''Virginia state and colonial censuses'''<ref name="Lainh">Ann S. Lainhart, ''[http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/26517040 State Census Records]'' (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1992)[[{{Lainha}}]], 107-108.</ref><ref name="Dubes">Henry J. Dubester, ''[http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/37244714 State Censuses: An Annotated Bibliography of Censuses of Population Taken After the Year 1790 by States and Territories of the United States]'' (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1948)[[{{Dubes}}]], 62.</ref>
 
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*Jackson, Ronald Vern. AIS Microfiche Indexes of U.S. Census and Other Records. Bountiful, Utah: Accelerated Indexing Systems International, 1984. (No Family History Library fiche number but available at many Family History Centers.) Several Virginia 1607-1810 tax and residents lists and the 1810 census index are combined together on Search 1. Separate 1820, 1830, 1840, and 1850 indexes are on other searches.
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| align="left" | &nbsp;
 
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| align="left" | No statewide&nbsp;state census was taken, but many county censuses were taken at different years from 1782 to 1786:
Statewide indexes are available for the 1810 (partial),1820, 1830, 1840, 1850, 1860, and 1870, censuses.  
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|-
 
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| bgcolor="#ffffcc" align="left" | '''1786'''  
County-wide indexes sometimes help locate names overlooked in statewide indexes. Several county-wide indexes are listed in the Family History Library Catalog '''Place Search''' under VIRGINIA, [COUNTY] - CENSUS.  
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| bgcolor="#ffffcc" align="left" | County of Greenbrier
 
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|-
== Special Censuses  ==
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| align="left" | '''1785'''  
 
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| align="left" | Counties of Albermarle, Amelia, Amherst, Fairfax, Greenbrier, Halifax, Harrison, Lancaster, New Kent, Norfolk, Orange, Pittsylvania, Prince Edward, Princess Anne, Shenandoah,&nbsp;and Stafford.
'''Veterans Schedules'''  
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|-
 
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| bgcolor="#ffffcc" align="left" | '''1784'''  
The 1890 Union veterans schedules are available at the Family History Library on Family History Library &nbsp;films [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=230777&disp=Schedules+enumerating+Union+veterans+and%20%20&columns=*,0,0 338265-66]. They are also available at the National Archives. The veterans schedules for Virginia have been indexed.
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| bgcolor="#ffffcc" align="left" | Counties of Cumberland, Gloucester, Greenbrier, Hampshire, Nansemond, Northumberland, Rockingham, Surry, and Warwick.
 
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*Dilts, Bryan Lee. 1890 Virginia Census Index of Civil War Veterans or Their Widows. Salt Lake City, Utah: Index Publishing, 1986.
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| align="left" | '''1783'''  
 
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| align="left" | Counties of Amherst, Chesterfield, Essex, Gloucester, Greenbrier, Greensville, Lancaster, Middlesex, Nansemond, Powhatan, Prince Edward, Princess Anne, Richmond, and Shenandoah.
'''Mortality Schedules'''  
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|-
 
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| bgcolor="#ffffcc" align="left" | '''1782'''  
Mortality schedules (lists of deaths during the census year) for the 1850, 1860, 1870, and 1880 censuses are available on microfilm at the Family History Library. The Library of Virginia has the original 1850, 1870, and 1880 schedules. Duke University (William R. Perkins Library, Duke University, Durham, NC 27706) has the 1860 schedules. The 1850 and 1860 schedules for the area that later became West Virginia are also on microfilm at the Family History Library and the West Virginia Archives and History Library.  
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| bgcolor="#ffffcc" align="left" | Counties of Amelia, Charlotte, Cumberland, Fairfax, Fluvanna, Frederick, Halifax, Hampshire, Hanover, Isle of Wight, Mecklenburg, Monongalia, New Kent, Northumberland, Orange, Pittsylvania, Surry, Sussex, and Warwick.&nbsp; AND, the City of Richmond and the City of Williamsburg.
 
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|}
'''1850 United States Census Mortality Schedules'''—A free Internet index and images to the 1850 United States Census Mortality Schedules can be viewed on the [http://pilot.familysearch.org/recordsearch/start.html#p=collectionDetails;t=searchable;c=1420441 FamilySearch Record Search - Pilot Site]. Mortality schedules provided nationwide death statistics for the twelve months&nbsp;prior to the 1850 census.&nbsp; Key genealogical facts found on the 1850 mortality&nbsp;schedule are: Name, age, sex, color, married or widowed, birthplace, month of death, occupation, cause of death.  
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<br>[http://mortalityschedules.com/ Mortality Schedules 1850-1880]
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'''Slave Schedules'''  
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Slave schedules for 1850 and 1860 list the names of slave owners but do not normally list the names of the slaves. The number of slaves, the gender, and the slaves' age ranges are given. Virginia slave schedules at the Family History Library are cataloged with the census population schedules.  
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'''1850 United States Census Slave Schedules'''—A free Internet index and images to the 1850 United States Census Slave Schedules can be viewed on the [http://pilot.familysearch.org/recordsearch/start.html#p=collectionDetails;c=1420440;t=browsable;w=0 FamilySearch Record Search – Pilot Site] listing each '''slave owner's''' name and residence. It also shows the age, gender, and color of the slaves. Slave names are not normally listed.
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== State Censuses  ==
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There were no state censuses taken by Virginia.
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== Colonial&nbsp;Censuses  ==
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Colonial Censuses
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In addition to the federal censuses, lists of residents are available for some colonial years. The lists of 1624 and 1787 have been published and are available at the [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=localitydetails&subject=351&subject_disp=Virginia&columns=*,0,0 Family History Library]. These censuses list only the heads of households.  
 
In addition to the federal censuses, lists of residents are available for some colonial years. The lists of 1624 and 1787 have been published and are available at the [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=localitydetails&subject=351&subject_disp=Virginia&columns=*,0,0 Family History Library]. These censuses list only the heads of households.  
Line 86: Line 184:
 
Several census substitutes have been compiled, including:  
 
Several census substitutes have been compiled, including:  
  
*Virginia in 1740: A Reconstructed Census. Miami Beach, Florida: T.L.C. Genealogy, 1992. (Family History Library book [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=603466&disp=Virginia+in+1740%3A+a+reconstructed+cens%20%20&columns=*,0,0 975.5 X22t 1740]; Family History Library film&nbsp;[http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=603466&disp=Virginia+in+1740%3A+a+reconstructed+cens%20%20&columns=*,0,0 1697799 Item 3] ).&nbsp;
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*Virginia in 1740: A Reconstructed Census. Miami Beach, Florida: T.L.C. Genealogy, 1992. (Family History Library book [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=603466&disp=Virginia+in+1740%3A+a+reconstructed+cens%20%20&columns=*,0,0 975.5 X22t 1740]; Family History Library film&nbsp;[http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=603466&disp=Virginia+in+1740%3A+a+reconstructed+cens%20%20&columns=*,0,0 1697799 Item 3] ).
  
<br>
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=== Existing and lost censuses  ===
  
== Web Sites  ==
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For a list of available and missing Virginia censuses, [[Virginia Censuses Existing and Lost|click here]]. <br>
  
Ancestry:&nbsp; [http://www.ancestry.com http://www.ancestry.com]
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=== Why use a census?  ===
  
Heritage Quest Online:&nbsp; [http://www.heritagequestonline.com http://www.heritagequestonline.com]
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A well-indexed census is one of the easiest ways to locate where an ancestor's family lived and when they lived there. You can also use censuses to follow the changes in a family over time, and identify neighbors. These and other clues provided by censuses are important because they help find additional kinds of records about the family.  
  
Census Online:&nbsp; [http://www.census-online.com/links/VA/ http://www.census-online.com/links/VA/]
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=== More about censuses  ===
  
Genealogy Today:&nbsp; [http://dir.genealogytoday.com/usa/va/census.html http://dir.genealogytoday.com/usa/va/census.html]  
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[[United States Census|Click here]] for additional details about how to use censuses, such as:
  
Access Genealogy:&nbsp; [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/census/virginia.htm http://www.accessgenealogy.com/census/virginia.htm]  
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:*[[United States Census Searching|index searching tips]]
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:*[[United States Census Analyzing Census Data|analyzing and using what you find]]
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:*[[United States Census Accuracy|census accuracy]]
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:*[[United States Census Historical Background|historical background]]
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:*[[United States Census#Contents_of_Federal_Censuses|contents of various census years and types]]
  
Mortality Schedules:&nbsp; [http://mortalityschedules.com/ http://mortalityschedules.com/]
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=== Sources and footnotes  ===
  
== References  ==
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{{reflist}}
  
''[http://www.familysearch.org/eng/Search/Rg/frameset_rg.asp?Dest=G1&Aid=&Gid=&Lid=&Sid=&Did=&Juris1=&Event=&Year=&Gloss=&Sub=&Tab=&Entry=&Guide=Virginia.ASP Virginia Research Outline].'' Salt Lake City, Utah: Intellectual Reserve, Inc., Family History Department, 1998, 2001.
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{{Place|Virginia}} {{stub}}
  
 
[[Category:Virginia|Census]]
 
[[Category:Virginia|Census]]

Revision as of 02:01, 25 February 2010

United States  >  U.S. Census  >  Virginia  >  Census

Contents

Tips
  • If at first you don't find a name, try again under another spelling.
  • Photocopy each ancestor's census. Identify where you found it.
  • Look for an ancestor in every census during her or his lifetime.
  • On the family group record show each person's census listings.
  • Study others in the same household, neighbors, and anyone with the similar names nearby on the census in community context.


  • For a list of the exact date of each federal census, click here.

Online Virginia indexes and images

1900-1940

Online Federal and State Population Schedules of Virginia 
  Free Free at Some Libraries (usually with a library card)* Pay
Family
Search[1]
Internet Archive[2]  Misc.  Heritage Quest[3] Fold3[4] Ancestry FHL[5] Ancestry Library[5] Ancestry Home[5] Archives[6] Family Link[7]
1940 indexes Link - Link
Link
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images Link - Link
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1930 indexes Link - - Link Link Link Link Link Link Link
images Link Link - Link Link Link Link Link - Link
1920 indexes Link - - Link - Link Link Link Link -
images Link Link - Link - Link Link Link - Link
1910 indexes Link - - Link - Link Link Link Link -
images Link Link - Link - Link Link Link - Link
1900 indexes Link - - Link - Link Link Link Link -
images Link Link - Link - Link Link Link - Link

1850-1880

Online Federal and State Population Schedules of Virginia 
  Free Free at Some Libraries (usually with a library card)* Pay
Family
Search[1]
Internet Archive[2]  Misc.  Heritage Quest[3] Fold3[4] Ancestry FHL[5] Ancestry Library[5] Ancestry Home[5] Archives[6] Family Link[7]
1880 indexes Link Soundex - Link - Link Link Link Link -
images - Link - Link - Link Link Link - Link
1870 indexes Link - - Link - Link Link Link Link -
images Link Link - Link - Link Link Link - Link
1860[8] indexes Link - - Link Link Link Link Link Link -
images - Link - Link Link Link Link Link - Link
1850[8] indexes Link - - - - Link Link Link Link -
images Link Link - Link - Link Link Link - Link

1790-1840

Online Federal and State Population Schedules of Virginia 
  Free Free at Some Libraries (usually with a library card)* Pay
Family
Search[1]
Internet Archive[2]  Misc.  Heritage Quest[3] Fold3[4] Ancestry FHL[5] Ancestry Library[5] Ancestry Home[5] Archives[6] Family Link[7]
1840[8] indexes Link - - - - Link Link Link Link -
images Link Link - Link - Link Link Link - Link
1830[8] indexes Link - - - - Link Link Link Link -
images Link Link - Link - Link Link Link - Link
1820[8] indexes Link - - Link - Link Link Link Link -
images Link Link - Link - Link Link Link - Link
partial 1810[8] indexes Link - - Link - Link Link Link Link -
images Link Link - Link - Link Link Link - Link
partial 1800 indexes Link - - - - Link Link Link Link -
images Link - - - - - - - - -
1790 indexes - - - - - - - - - -
images - - Trans-
cript
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  Family Search Internet Archive Misc.  Heritage Quest Fold3 Ancestry FHL  Ancestry Library  Ancestry Home Archives Family Link
Free Free at Some Libraries (usually with a library card) Pay


Federal population schedules

Microfilm images

Indexes: fiche, film, or book

For a list of microform and book indexes for the population schedules of Virginia, click here

Federal non-population schedules

Online indexes and images

Online Federal Non-Population Schedules for Virginia

Free Free at Some Libraries (usually with library card) Pay
Year Type Record Search Census Bureau Google Book Heritage Quest Ancestry FHL Ancestry Library Ancestry Home
1890 Veterans - - - - Link Link Link
1880 Defective - - - - Link Link Link
1880 Mortality - - - - Link Link Link
1870 Mortality - - - - Link Link Link
1860 Slave owner - - - Link[9] Link Link Link
1860 Mortality - - - - Link Link Link
1850 Slave owner Link - - Link[9] Link Link Link
1850 Mortality Link - - - Link Link Link
1840 Pensioners - BookLink BookLink - Link Link Link

Microfilm images

  • 1890 Union veterans schedules are available at the Family History Library on Family History Library  films 338265-66. They are also available at the National Archives.

The Library of Virginia has the original 1850, 1870, and 1880 schedules. Duke University (William R. Perkins Library, Duke University, Durham, NC 27706) has the 1860 schedules. The 1850 and 1860 schedules for the area that later became West Virginia are also on microfilm at the Family History Library and the West Virginia Archives and History Library.

Indexes: fiche, film, or book

For a list of microform and book indexes for the non-population schedules of Virginia, click here.

State and colonial censuses

Virginia state and colonial censuses[10][11]
  No statewide state census was taken, but many county censuses were taken at different years from 1782 to 1786:
1786 County of Greenbrier
1785 Counties of Albermarle, Amelia, Amherst, Fairfax, Greenbrier, Halifax, Harrison, Lancaster, New Kent, Norfolk, Orange, Pittsylvania, Prince Edward, Princess Anne, Shenandoah, and Stafford.
1784 Counties of Cumberland, Gloucester, Greenbrier, Hampshire, Nansemond, Northumberland, Rockingham, Surry, and Warwick.
1783 Counties of Amherst, Chesterfield, Essex, Gloucester, Greenbrier, Greensville, Lancaster, Middlesex, Nansemond, Powhatan, Prince Edward, Princess Anne, Richmond, and Shenandoah.
1782 Counties of Amelia, Charlotte, Cumberland, Fairfax, Fluvanna, Frederick, Halifax, Hampshire, Hanover, Isle of Wight, Mecklenburg, Monongalia, New Kent, Northumberland, Orange, Pittsylvania, Surry, Sussex, and Warwick.  AND, the City of Richmond and the City of Williamsburg.

In addition to the federal censuses, lists of residents are available for some colonial years. The lists of 1624 and 1787 have been published and are available at the Family History Library. These censuses list only the heads of households.

Several census substitutes have been compiled, including:

  • Virginia in 1740: A Reconstructed Census. Miami Beach, Florida: T.L.C. Genealogy, 1992. (Family History Library book 975.5 X22t 1740; Family History Library film 1697799 Item 3 ).

Existing and lost censuses

For a list of available and missing Virginia censuses, click here.

Why use a census?

A well-indexed census is one of the easiest ways to locate where an ancestor's family lived and when they lived there. You can also use censuses to follow the changes in a family over time, and identify neighbors. These and other clues provided by censuses are important because they help find additional kinds of records about the family.

More about censuses

Click here for additional details about how to use censuses, such as:

Sources and footnotes

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 FamilySearch, a free online service of the Family History Library, including free images of many federal censuses, including an index of the 1880 federal census of the United States; connected with 1880 census images provided by Ancestry.com, a subscription site.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Internet Archive, a free online service includes free images of most of the federal censuses.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 HeritageQuest has arranged with many subscribing public libraries in the United States to allow users free access on home computers by means of their personal library card numbers. HeritageQuest provides images of all surviving 1790 to 1930 federal censuses, and indexes to many but not all of them.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Fold3, formerly known as Footnote.com, a subscription site partnering with the National Archives and includes some federal censuses. Free access is available at many public libraries.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 Ancestry.com, a subscription site that provides online indexes and images to all surviving federal and many state census records, among other sources. They have three online editions: (1) an FHL edition free only at the Family History Library and a few Family History Centers, (2) a slightly smaller Library edition free only at some public libraries, and (3) a Home edition subscription service for individuals.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Archives.com, a subscription site that provides online indexes and images to all surviving federal census records, among other sources.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 FamilyLink.com, a subscription site that provides online images (and some indexes) to all surviving federal and many state census records, among other sources.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 Virginia censuses from 1810 to 1860 enumerated some residents on land that would become West Virginia in 1863
  9. 9.0 9.1 HeritageQuest has slave owner schedule images only.
  10. Ann S. Lainhart, State Census Records (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1992)[[FHL book 973 X2Lai]], 107-108.
  11. Henry J. Dubester, State Censuses: An Annotated Bibliography of Censuses of Population Taken After the Year 1790 by States and Territories of the United States (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1948)[FHL Book 973 X23s; Fiche 6018062], 62.