Virginia Census

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Not technically a census, the 1696 Association Oath Rolls serve as a census substitute. The original records&nbsp;are found in class C 213 at the [[England The National Archives|National Archives]], Kew, England.<ref>Cliff Webb, [http://www.origins.net/help/aboutbo-aor-background.aspx "Association Oath Rolls - Background to the Documents,"] Origins Network.</ref> Gandy published abstracts of oath takers living in British plantations, including Virginia:  
 
Not technically a census, the 1696 Association Oath Rolls serve as a census substitute. The original records&nbsp;are found in class C 213 at the [[England The National Archives|National Archives]], Kew, England.<ref>Cliff Webb, [http://www.origins.net/help/aboutbo-aor-background.aspx "Association Oath Rolls - Background to the Documents,"] Origins Network.</ref> Gandy published abstracts of oath takers living in British plantations, including Virginia:  
  
*Gandy, Wallace. ''The Association Oath Rolls of the British Plantations [New York, Virginia, Etc.] A.D. 1696''. London: the author, 1922. Digital version at [http://www.archive.org/details/associationoathr00gand Internet Archive]; reprint: {{FHL|958503|item}} 970 F2L 1995. [Barbados entries begin on page 30]
+
*Gandy, Wallace. ''The Association Oath Rolls of the British Plantations [New York, Virginia, Etc.] A.D. 1696''. London: the author, 1922. Digital version at [http://www.archive.org/details/associationoathr00gand Internet Archive]; reprint: {{FHL|958503|item}} 970 F2L 1995. [Virginia entries begin on page 30]
  
 
In addition to the federal censuses, lists of residents are available for some colonial years. The lists of 1624 and 1787 have been published and are available at {{FHL|351|item}}. These censuses list only the heads of households.  
 
In addition to the federal censuses, lists of residents are available for some colonial years. The lists of 1624 and 1787 have been published and are available at {{FHL|351|item}}. These censuses list only the heads of households.  

Revision as of 23:55, 20 November 2010

United States  Gotoarrow.png  U.S. Census  Gotoarrow.png  Virginia  Gotoarrow.png  Census

Contents

Tips
  • If at first you don't find a name, try again under another spelling.
  • Photocopy each ancestor's census. Identify where you found it.
  • Look for an ancestor in every census during her or his lifetime.
  • On the family group record show each person's census listings.
  • Study others in the same household, neighbors, and anyone with the similar names nearby on the census in community context.


  • For a list of the exact date of each federal census, click here.

Online Virginia indexes and images

1900-1940

Online Federal and State Population Schedules of Virginia 
  Free Free at Some Libraries (usually with a library card)* Pay
Family
Search[1]
Internet Archive[2]  Misc.  Heritage Quest[3] Fold3[4] Ancestry FHL[5] Ancestry Library[5] Ancestry Home[5] Archives[6] Family Link[7]
1940 indexes Link - Link
Link
- - Link Link Link - -
images Link - Link
Link
Link
- - Link Link Link Link Link
1930 indexes Link - - Link Link Link Link Link Link Link
images Link Link - Link Link Link Link Link - Link
1920 indexes Link - - Link - Link Link Link Link -
images Link Link - Link - Link Link Link - Link
1910 indexes Link - - Link - Link Link Link Link -
images Link Link - Link - Link Link Link - Link
1900 indexes Link - - Link - Link Link Link Link -
images Link Link - Link - Link Link Link - Link

1850-1880

Online Federal and State Population Schedules of Virginia 
  Free Free at Some Libraries (usually with a library card)* Pay
Family
Search[1]
Internet Archive[2]  Misc.  Heritage Quest[3] Fold3[4] Ancestry FHL[5] Ancestry Library[5] Ancestry Home[5] Archives[6] Family Link[7]
1880 indexes Link Soundex - Link - Link Link Link Link -
images - Link - Link - Link Link Link - Link
1870 indexes Link - - Link - Link Link Link Link -
images Link Link - Link - Link Link Link - Link
1860[8] indexes Link - - Link Link Link Link Link Link -
images - Link - Link Link Link Link Link - Link
1850[8] indexes Link - - - - Link Link Link Link -
images Link Link - Link - Link Link Link - Link

1790-1840

Online Federal and State Population Schedules of Virginia 
  Free Free at Some Libraries (usually with a library card)* Pay
Family
Search[1]
Internet Archive[2]  Misc.  Heritage Quest[3] Fold3[4] Ancestry FHL[5] Ancestry Library[5] Ancestry Home[5] Archives[6] Family Link[7]
1840[8] indexes Link - - - - Link Link Link Link -
images Link Link - Link - Link Link Link - Link
1830[8] indexes Link - - - - Link Link Link Link -
images Link Link - Link - Link Link Link - Link
1820[8] indexes Link - - Link - Link Link Link Link -
images Link Link - Link - Link Link Link - Link
partial 1810[8] indexes Link - - Link - Link Link Link Link -
images Link Link - Link - Link Link Link - Link
partial 1800 indexes Link - - - - Link Link Link Link -
images Link - - - - - - - - -
1790 indexes - - - - - - - - - -
images - - Trans-
cript
- - - - - - -
  Family Search Internet Archive Misc.  Heritage Quest Fold3 Ancestry FHL  Ancestry Library  Ancestry Home Archives Family Link
Free Free at Some Libraries (usually with a library card) Pay


Federal population schedules

Microfilm images

Federal Census Microfilms Available from the Family History Library
1940 N/A 1900 and Soundex 1850 1810  
1930 and Soundex 1880 and Soundex 1840  
1920 and Soundex 1870 1830  
1910 and Soundex 1860 1820  


Federal Census Microfilms Available from the National Archives
1940 N/A 1900 T623 and Soundex T1076 1850 M432 1810 M252
1930 T626 1880 T9 and Soundex T776 1840 M704
1920 T625 and Soundex M1592 1870 M593 1830 M19
1910 T624 and Soundex T1278 1860 M653 1820 M33  

Indexes: fiche, film, or book

For a list of microform and book indexes for the population schedules of Virginia, click here

Federal non-population schedules

Online indexes and images

Online Federal Non-Population Schedules for Virginia

Free Free at Some Libraries (usually with library card) Pay
Year Type Record Search Census Bureau Google Book Heritage Quest Ancestry FHL Ancestry Library Ancestry Home
1890 Veterans - - - - Link Link Link
1880 Defective - - - - Link Link Link
1880 Mortality - - - - Link Link Link
1870 Mortality - - - - Link Link Link
1860 Slave owner - - - Link[9] Link Link Link
1860 Mortality - - - - Link Link Link
1850 Slave owner Link - - Link[9] Link Link Link
1850 Mortality Link - - - Link Link Link
1840 Pensioners - BookLink BookLink - Link Link Link

Microfilm images

  • 1890 Union veterans schedules are available at the Family History Library on Family History Library  films 338265-66. They are also available at the National Archives.

The Library of Virginia has the original 1850, 1870, and 1880 schedules. Duke University (William R. Perkins Library, Duke University, Durham, NC 27706) has the 1860 schedules. The 1850 and 1860 schedules for the area that later became West Virginia are also on microfilm at the Family History Library and the West Virginia Archives and History Library.

Indexes: fiche, film, or book

For a list of microform and book indexes for the non-population schedules of Virginia, click here.

State and colonial censuses

Virginia state and colonial censuses
  No statewide state census was taken, but many county censuses were taken at different years from 1782 to 1786.[10][11]
1786 County of Greenbrier.[10]
1785 Counties of Albermarle, Amelia, Amherst, Fairfax, Greenbrier, Halifax, Harrison, Lancaster, New Kent, Norfolk, Orange, Pittsylvania, Prince Edward, Princess Anne, Shenandoah, and Stafford.[10]
1784 Counties of Cumberland, Gloucester, Greenbrier, Hampshire, Nansemond, Northumberland, Rockingham, Surry, and Warwick.[10]
1783 Counties of Amherst, Chesterfield, Essex, Gloucester, Greenbrier, Greensville, Lancaster, Middlesex, Nansemond, Powhatan, Prince Edward, Princess Anne, Richmond, and Shenandoah.[10]
1782 Counties of Amelia, Charlotte, Cumberland, Fairfax, Fluvanna, Frederick, Halifax, Hampshire, Hanover, Isle of Wight, Mecklenburg, Monongalia, New Kent, Northumberland, Orange, Pittsylvania, Surry, Sussex, and Warwick AND, the City of Richmond and the City of Williamsburg.[10]

Census substitutes

Not technically a census, the 1696 Association Oath Rolls serve as a census substitute. The original records are found in class C 213 at the National Archives, Kew, England.[12] Gandy published abstracts of oath takers living in British plantations, including Virginia:

  • Gandy, Wallace. The Association Oath Rolls of the British Plantations [New York, Virginia, Etc.] A.D. 1696. London: the author, 1922. Digital version at Internet Archive; reprint: FHL Collection 970 F2L 1995. [Virginia entries begin on page 30]

In addition to the federal censuses, lists of residents are available for some colonial years. The lists of 1624 and 1787 have been published and are available at FHL Collection. These censuses list only the heads of households.

Several census substitutes have been compiled, including:

  • Virginia in 1740: A Reconstructed Census. Miami Beach, Florida: T.L.C. Genealogy, 1992. (Family History Library book 975.5 X22t 1740; Family History Library film 1697799 Item 3 ).

Existing and lost censuses

For a list of available and missing Virginia censuses, click here.

Why use a census?

A well-indexed census is one of the easiest ways to locate where an ancestor's family lived and when they lived there. You can also use censuses to follow the changes in a family over time, and identify neighbors. These and other clues provided by censuses are important because they help find additional kinds of records about the family.

More about censuses

Click here for additional details about how to use censuses, such as:

Sources and footnotes

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 FamilySearch, a free online service of the Family History Library, including free images of many federal censuses, including an index of the 1880 federal census of the United States; connected with 1880 census images provided by Ancestry.com, a subscription site.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Internet Archive, a free online service includes free images of most of the federal censuses.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 HeritageQuest has arranged with many subscribing public libraries in the United States to allow users free access on home computers by means of their personal library card numbers. HeritageQuest provides images of all surviving 1790 to 1930 federal censuses, and indexes to many but not all of them.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Fold3, formerly known as Footnote.com, a subscription site partnering with the National Archives and includes some federal censuses. Free access is available at many public libraries.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 Ancestry.com, a subscription site that provides online indexes and images to all surviving federal and many state census records, among other sources. They have three online editions: (1) an FHL edition free only at the Family History Library and a few Family History Centers, (2) a slightly smaller Library edition free only at some public libraries, and (3) a Home edition subscription service for individuals.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Archives.com, a subscription site that provides online indexes and images to all surviving federal census records, among other sources.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 FamilyLink.com, a subscription site that provides online images (and some indexes) to all surviving federal and many state census records, among other sources.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 Virginia censuses from 1810 to 1860 enumerated some residents on land that would become West Virginia in 1863
  9. 9.0 9.1 HeritageQuest has slave owner schedule images only.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 Ann S. Lainhart, State Census Records (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1992)[[FHL book 973 X2Lai]], 107-108.
  11. Henry J. Dubester, State Censuses: An Annotated Bibliography of Censuses of Population Taken After the Year 1790 by States and Territories of the United States (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1948)[FHL Book 973 X23s; Fiche 6018062], 62.
  12. Cliff Webb, "Association Oath Rolls - Background to the Documents," Origins Network.