J genealogical glossary termsEdit This Page

From FamilySearch Wiki


J

Jacob Mehrling Holdcraft Collection
  • A card file of transcripts of Bible records, obituaries, tombstone inscriptions, church records, genealogies, and county records from Frederick County and neighboring counties in Pennsylvania and Maryland.
Jew
  • Jews can be either (1) descendants of Judah, one of the twelve sons of Jacob, (2) people of the ancient southern kingdom of Judah, or (3) people who practice the religion, life-styles, and traditions of Judaism but may or may not be Jewish by birth.
Jewish Landsmanschaft
  • An organization of people of Jewish descent.
Jewish Records, Family History Library Catalog™
  • A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize sources of birth, marriage, and death information kept by Jewish communities.
Jíbaro
  • A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian and African. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
John Pickens Dornan's Collection Family File
  • A two-part collection of alphabetically arranged family folders and handwritten family group records of Quakers and other families from South Jersey.
Jordebogsregnkaber, Denmark
  • Danish land tenure accounts, which are records that usually concerned the transfer of crown land and the evaluations of property. These records also include fines assessed for fornication and taxes on marriage.
Journal History of the Church, Latter-day Saint
  • A day-by-day scrapbook of events in the history of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints at Journal History.
Journal, general
  • An individual’s daily account of his or her life. Also called a diary.
Journal, Latter-day Saint
  • The earliest type of membership records of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. The records were in a bound book and had no set format. Clerks recorded the information as seemed best to them.
Journal, publication
  • A newspaper or periodical.
Journeyman
  • A person who has learned a trade and receives wages for work.
Judgment docke
  • List of court judgments or orders.
Judicial court, Minnesota
  • A court in Minnesota with citywide or townwide jurisdiction over misdemeanors.
Judicial courthouse, Canada
  • One of 15 courthouses in Saskatchewan, Canada.
Judicial district court, Canada
  • A provincial court in Canada that handles certain types of criminal and civil cases involving more than a specified amount of money. Also called a midlevel county court or county court. Many provinces no longer use these courts.
Julia Hoge Spencer Ardery Collection
  • A collection of abstracted court records, deeds, family Bibles, family histories, and correspondence about families from Kentucky and Virginia.
Julian calendar
  • A calendar introduced in Rome in 46 B.C. This calendar was the basis for the Gregorian calendar, which is in common use today. The Julian calendar specified that the year began on 25 March (Lady's Day) and had 365 days. Each fourth year had a leap day, so it had 366 days. The year was divided into months. Each month had 30 or 31 days, except February which had 28 days in normal years and 29 days in leap years. This calendar was used for several centuries but was eventually replaced by the Gregorian calendar because leap years had been miscalculated.
Jurisdiction
  • The power, right, and authority to make, enforce, and interpret laws in a given area. Also a geographic area in which this authority is exercised.
Juror
  • An individual who sits on a jury in a court of law.
Jury, county commissioners
  • A committee of 12 people who carry out orders of the county commissioners.
Jury, court
  • A group of citizens who hear the evidence presented to a court and reach a decision regarding the case.
Justice court, Arizona
  • A court in Arizona with districtwide jurisdiction over misdemeanors and minor criminal cases.
Justice court, Nevada
  • A court in Nevada with jurisdiction over misdemeanors and minor civil cases in townships.
Justice court, New Jerse
  • A court in New Jersey presided over by a justice of the peace. Justice courts have authority to perform marriages, issue summons for debts, and rule on minor civil suits. They also have criminal jurisdiction over bastardy, domestic violence, trespass, disorderly conduct, and forcible entry cases. During the 1900s, most of these courts were replaced by district and superior courts. These courts are also called small cause courts.
Justice court, New York
  • A court in New York presided over by a justice of the peace. Justice courts have jurisdiction over minor civil suits, and they perform marriages and issue summons for debts. They were established in 1664 and continue today.
Justice court, Oregon
  • A court in Oregon with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases. Justice courts share jurisdiction with circuit courts.
Justice court, West Virginia
  • A court in West Virginia with jurisdiction over misdemeanors and civil cases involving less than $300. Justice courts have been established in magisterial districts (with three to five districts in each county).
Justice of the peace
  • A local magistrate who has limited authority over civil matters, such as performing marriages and adjudicating minor criminal offences. A justice of the peace presides over a justice of the peace court or a justice court.
Justice of the peace court, Alabama
  • A court presided over by a justice of the peace. These courts had jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases. These courts were abolished in 1972.
Justice of the peace court, Arizona
  • A court with districtwide jurisdiction over misdemeanors and minor criminal cases.
Justice of the peace court, Arkansas
  • A court presided over by a justice of the peace. The court has countywide jurisdiction over preliminary criminal cases and minor contracts.
Justice of the peace court, Connecticut
  • A court presided over by a justice of the peace. The court had jurisdiction over areas that did not have a town court. These courts are no longer used.
Justice of the peace court, Delaware
  • A court presided over by a justice of the peace. The court has jurisdiction over minor civil cases.
Justice of the peace court, Idaho
  • A court presided over by a justice of the peace. The court had jurisdiction over minor cases. It was abolished in 1971 and its jurisdiction assigned to the district courts.
Justice of the peace court, Illinois
  • A court presided over by a justice of the peace. The court has jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases.
Justice of the peace court, Indiana
  • A court presided over by a justice of the peace.
Justice of the peace court, Iowa
  • A court presided over by a justice of the peace. The court has districtwide jurisdiction over misdemeanors, search warrants, and violations of town and city ordinances.
Justice of the peace court, Maine
  • A court in Maine with jurisdiction over minor civil matters.Justice of the peace court, Mississippi
Justice of the peace court, Mississipp
  • A court presided over by a justice of the peace. The court has countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases.
Justice of the peace court, New Hampshire
  • A court in New Hampshire with townwide jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases.
Justice of the peace court, Ohio
  • A court in Ohio with local jurisdiction over minor criminal and civil cases.
Justice of the peace court, Pennsylvania
  • A court in Pennsylvania presided over by a justice of the peace. The courts have countywide jurisdiction over minor cases. Before 1885 they could also perform marriages. These courts are still used but have become less influential. Some places no longer have them.
Justice of the peace court, Scotland
  • A Scottish court with countywide jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases. The sheriff's courts and High Court of Justiciary were used more frequently than justice of the peace courts.
Justice of the peace court, South Dakota
  • A court presided over by a justice of the peace. The court has countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases.
Justice of the peace court, Utah
  • A court presided over by a justice of the peace. At different times the court has had different jurisdictions. While Utah was a territory (1850 to 1896), these courts performed marriages and had limited jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases and small claims. Since Utah became a state (1896), these courts have had jurisdiction over marriages, misdemeanors, and civil cases less than $1,000.
Justice of the peace court, Wisconsin
  • A court in Wisconsin with jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases.
Justice of the peace court, Wyoming
  • A court presided over by a justice of the peace. The court has countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases.
Juvenile
  • An individual who has not reached the age at which he or she should be treated as an adult under criminal law. Court systems may handle offenses committed by juveniles separately from offences committed by adults.
Juvenile court, Pennsylvania
  • A court in Pennsylvania with jurisdiction over children 16 years or younger who are dependent upon the courts for support or who have been accused of committing crimes.
Juvenile court, Utah
  • A court in Utah with jurisdiction over youths under 18 years of age who commit criminal acts. It also has jurisdiction in child abuse, child custody, and certain adoption cases.

 

Need additional research help? Contact our research help specialists.

Need wiki, indexing, or website help? Contact our product teams.


Did you find this article helpful?

You're invited to explain your rating on the discussion page (you must be signed in).

  • This page was last modified on 5 August 2009, at 00:21.
  • This page has been accessed 1,200 times.