Leech Lake Indian Reservation (Minnesota)Edit This Page
From FamilySearch Wiki
The Leech Lake Reservation is a federally-recognized reservation in Minnesota.
- Established -- May 7, 1864
- Agency (BIA) -- Leech Lake Agency (1874-1879) - White Earth Agency (1879-1899) - Leech Lake Agency (1899-1921) - Consolidated Chippewa Agency (1922-)
- Principal tribes -- Cass Lake, Pillager, and Lake Winnibigoshish (Winnebago) Bands of Chippewa
- Population -- 2010 census is 4,682 (when including mixed bloods it's 5,157) - Does not include non Indians
Leech Lake Reservation was created on May 7, 1864. It is connected to Red Lake Reservation and White Earth Reservation. Nearly a decade earlier, the first (it was rejected by Pembina and Pillager Chippewa leaders) Leech Lake Reservation was established by Treaty of Feb. 22, 1855 (X, 1165); Executive orders, Nov. 4, 1873, and May 26, 1874 and an act of Jan. 14, 1889 (XXV, 642). Included also with the February 22, 1855 Treaty, were Mille Lac, Rabbit Lake, Gull Lake (adjacent to the old Menominee and Winnebago Chippewa Reservation), Pokagomin Lake, Sandy Lake, and Rice Lake Reservations. Three Pillager Chippewa Reservations were established (rejected by Pembina and Pillager Chippewa leaders). They were Cass Lake, Leech Lake, and Winnebagoshish (Winnebago Chippewa's) Reservations.
On May 7, 1864, the United States eradicated Mille Lac, Rabbit Lake, Gull Lake, Pokagomin Lake, Sandy Lake, and Rice Lake Reservations. As a result of the 1862 Minnesota Indian War, the United States created the new Pillager Chippewa Leech Lake Reservation. They actually enlarged the Leech Lake Reservation. Click this link http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/S?ammem/hlaw:@filreq%28@band%28@field%28DATE+18640507%29+@field%28FLD003+@band%28llss+c56%29%29%29+@field%28COLLID+llss%29%29 to read the May 7, 1864 Treaty.
Red Lake Reservation and White Earth Reservation, are Pembina Chippewa Reservations closely related to the Pillager Chippewas of Leech Lake Reservation. Click this link http://www.anishinabe-history.com/RedLake.jpg, to see the correct map of the Red Lake Reservation. Click this link http://www.anishinabe-history.com/White_Earth.jpg, to see a map of the correct White Earth Reservation.
To the east, south, and southeast, Leech Lake Reservation borders the Red Lake Reservation and White Earth Reservation. Click this link http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/map_item.pl?style=law&data=/gmd370m/g3701m/g3701em/gct00002/ca000034.sid&title=Minnesota+2&itemLink=r?ammem/hlaw:@field%28DOCID+@lit%28llss/4015/934/673%29%29 to see a map that proves Leech Lake Reservation is connected to both Red Lake Reservation and White Earth Reservation. It's the large Reservation the United States wanted to deport the Montana Little Shell Pembina Chippewas to. They actually conspired to deport the Montana Chippewas in the 1840s or 1850s.
In 1851, the Chippewa Agency was established. Then in 1872, White Earth Agency (it still went by the name Chippewa Agency) was established at White Earth Reservation. It served all Minnesota Chippewas. In 1873 (the same year the Little Shell Pembina Chippewa Reservation was created within White Earth Reservation), Red Lake Agency was established which indicates Red Lake Agency was the actual agency for the Little Shell Pembina Chippewa Reservation. A year later (1874), Leech Lake Agency was established. In 1878, the United States changed the name of Chippewa Agency to White Earth Agency.
In 1879, the United States consolidated Leech Lake Agency and Red Lake Agency, with White Earth Agency. Location may have been a factor in placing the Little Shell Pembina Chippewa Reservation agency at White Earth. Population was probably a factor as well. Most of the Chippewas who were relocated, moved to the White Earth District. After the 1898 Rebellion, a new Leech Lake Agency was established.
Leech Lake Chippewas are descended primarily from the military and police totem of the Algonquin's. They are also known as the Pillagers. Nearly all of northern Minnesota was vacant of white settlements until after the 1887 Dawes Act and 1889 Nelson Act.
In 1889, the United States passed the Nelson Act which was passed to specifically eradicate the Minnesota Chippewa Reservations except Red Lake and White Earth Reservation. Actually, it was the large Little Shell Pembina Chippewa Reservation. It led to serious problems among the Minnesota Chippewas, especially the Leech Lake Chippewas. In the mid 1890's, the Chippewas were planning some sort of secret military uprising. The United States found out and had the Leech Lake leader assassinated. However, chief Bugonaygishig took over and the short 1898 rebellion followed.
After the short war, the United States returned the Minnesota Chippewa Reservations and actually established the Chippewa National Forest which makes up almost the entire land area of the Leech Lake Reservation. Leech Lake Reservation is, thus, Restricted or Protected. Except the extreme western part of the Reservation.
In 1900, the population of Leech Lake Reservation was 1,913. In 1930, the population of Leech Lake Reservation was 2,076. During that 30 year time period, the population of Leech Lake Reservation increased by only 166 or around 8%. It can be attributed to the 1898 Rebellion and forced relocation of the most war like Pillager Chippewas, to White Earth Reservation. As of the 2010 census, the Indian population of Leech Lake Reservation is 4,682. When including mixed bloods it is 5,157.
In 1934, the Indian Reorganization Act was voted on by all Reservations, except Fort Belknap Indian Reservation. It was supposedly accepted at Leech Lake Reservation. One of the main goals of the IRA, was to relocate Reservation Indians off Reservation. That is exactly what happened at Leech Lake Reservation and all other Minnesota Chippewa Reservations. In the 1930s, Minnesota's Chippewa Reservations had a population of around 15,000, with over 8,000 living at White Earth Reservation. Since the 1930s, the Minnesota Chippewa Reservations Indian population has increased to a little over 17,000, which is an indication of what the IRA really caused
Today, the Chippewa population in the Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan area is around 18,000. Including the rest of the Chippewa population living off Reservation in Minnesota and the adjacent cities of Fargo, North Dakota and Grand Forks, North Dakota, it is close to 30,000. Many of the Chippewas who moved off Reservation were paid to move off of Reservation.
There should be a much larger Chippewa population at Leech Lake Reservation and all other Minnesota Chippewa Reservations but the IRA actually initiated a forced relocation off Reservation. That is why the white population is either the same or higher than the Chippewa population at Leech Lake Reservation and all other Minnesota Chippewa Reservations. Chippewas should outnumber the non Indian population at Leech Lake Reservation, by at least 10 to 1. The IRA made certain it wouldn't.
Land Records: Allotted land: 37,683 acres. Most of the land is not suited for agriculture. The forest the Reservation now has is a regrowth. In the 1890s, the United States nearly used the entire forest of the Reservation for construction and other purposes. The Reservation originally covered 677,099 acres. Nearly all remaining land is within Chippewa National Forest. Over 212,000 acres is waterways. Over 120,000 acres are wetlands. Compared with Red Lake Reservation, Leech Lake Reservation is probably a bit the worse off but overall Leech Lake Reservation is quite similar to Red Lake Reservation. They claim the United States government owns that portion of Chippewa National Forest within the boundaries of Leech Lake Reservation.
Treaty agreements tell otherwise. Then again, if you research the treaties you will discover discrepancies. In all, the government of Leech Lake Reservation owns over 630,000 acres of the 677,099 acres. Though it is thought the government of the United States owns most of the land area of Leech Lake Reservation, by treaty, the United States is suppose to recognize the government of Leech Lake Reservation as being in ownership. That means the United States is not following treaty guidelines. Control of the portion of Chippewa National Forest within Leech Lake Reservation, is actually controlled by the government of Leech Lake Reservation. Read treaty and learn about the Chippewas National Forest. Leech Lake Reservation is Restricted or off limits.
Throughout Leech Lake Reservation are as many as 40 to 45 very small settlements. Nearly all have less than 20 housing units. And many of those have 10 or fewer housing units. At least 11 have official names. The remaining communities are located from just north of Cass Lake, south to near Walker, Minnesota. They are categorized as being parts of townships rather than a distinct community. However, nearly all have at least one area of a cluster of housing units which number from 10 to over 50. Leaders of the Reservation have to eventually follow their own rules and deal with each of these communities as a distinct community, instead of white counties having control over them.
They must issue a name for each of the communities and manage to financially support each one so they can accept jurisdiction over their communities borders or city limits. Sooner or later, these scattered Chippewa communities are going to have to come to the attention of the leaders of Leech Lake Reservation. Future housing units must be built in a circle or C shaped street design. It will help to use as little land as possible for community growth. Place hydroponic farms (greenhouse farming) within each community so employment is availble and safe food (even tropical food) is grown. Form fishing and hunting society's which follow Federal and State laws, which will function as new employment opportunities.
Those Leech Lake Reservation communities which are cdp's, cities, towns and recognized settlement areas (their populations are not known and included under townships) by the government of Leech Lake Reservation and predominantly Indian, include:
- Cass Lake (city) 2010 population - 770
- Ball Club (cdp) 2010 population - 342
- Inger (cdp) 2010 population - 212
- Bena (city) 2010 population - 116
- Squaw Lake (city) 2010 population - 107
- Buck Lake
- Kego Lake
- Oak Point
- Portage Lake
- Smokey Point
- Sugar Bush
- Sugar Point
- Winnie Dam
- Confederation of American Indians. Indian Reservations: A State and Federal Handbook. Jefferson, North Caroline: McFarland & Co., c1986. WorldCat 14098308; FHL book 970.1 In2.
- Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30, 1906. This publication lists the 22 states which had reservations in 1908. Available online.
- Kappler, Charles J. Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office, 1902. 7 volumes. WorldCat 74490963; FHL book 970.1 K142i. Available online.
- Klein, Barry T., ed. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat 317923332; FHL book 970.1 R259e.
- Prucha, Francis Paul. Atlas of American Indian Affairs. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 1991 WorldCat 257331735; FHL book 970.1 P95aa
- Prucha, Francis Paul, ed. Documents of United States Indian Policy. 3rd Edition. Lincoln, Nebraska: Univeresity of Nebraska Press, 2000. WorldCat 50416280; FHL book 970.1 P95d.
- Prucha, Francis Paul. Guide to the Military Posts of the United States, 1789-1895. Madison, Wisconsin: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, c1964. WorldCat 522839; FHL book 973 M2pf.
- Schmeckebier, Laurance F. The Office of Indian Affairs: Its History, Activities, and Organization. Service Monographs of the United States Government; no. 48. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1927. Reprint. New York: AMS Press, 1972. WorldCat 257893; FHL book 973 B4b v. 48.
- Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .
- Volume 1 -- Not yet published
- Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- WorldCat 234303751
- Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- WorldCat 255572371
- Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- WorldCat 19331914; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4.
- Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- WorldCat 299653808; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5.
- Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat 247493742; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6.
- Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- WorldCat 247493311
- Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 13240086; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8.
- Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- WorldCat 26140053; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9.
- Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- WorldCat 301504096; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10.
- Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- WorldCat 256516416; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11.
- Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- WorldCat 39401371; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12.
- Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- WorldCat 48209643
- Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- WorldCat 254277176
- Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 356517503; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15.
- Volume 16 -- Not yet published
- Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- WorldCat 43957746
- Volume 18 -- Not yet published
- Volume 19 -- Not yet published
- Volume 20 -- Not yet published
- Tiller, Veronica E. Velarde. American Indian Reservations and Trust Areas. [Washington, DC]: Economic Development Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, 1996. WorldCat 35209517; FHL book 970.1 T463a.
- United States Department of Commerce, Frederick B. Dent, Secretary. Federal and State Reservations and Trust Areas. 1974. FHL book 970.1 Un3fe/1974.
- United States Department of the Interior. Executive Orders Relating to Indian Reservations. Washington: [United States] Government Printing Office, 1912 (v. 1), 1922 (v. 2). Vol. 1 – May 14, 1855 to July 1, 1912. Vol. 2 – July 1, 1912 to July 1, 1922. FHL film 1440543 Items 8-9.
- United States Federal and State Indian Reservations, Map. Available online.
- Waldman, Carl. Atlas of the North American Indian. New York: Facts on File, 2009. 3rd ed. WorldCat 244771132; FHL book 970.1 W146a 2009.
- Waldman, Carl. Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. New York, New York: Facts on File, 2006. 3rd ed. WorldCat 14718193; FHL book 970.1 W146e 2006.
- This page was last modified on 31 October 2014, at 09:59.
- This page has been accessed 3,245 times.
Future Changes to the Wiki
Changes are coming to the FamilySearch Research Wiki in the near future. Find out more on the Wiki Community News page.Community News