A New Nation 1789-1859

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''[[Portal:United States of America|United States of America]] &gt; [[United States History|United States History]] &gt; Birth of A Nation 1789-1859 '' <br>
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''[[United States|United States]][[Image:Gotoarrow.png]][[United States History]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]]'' '''Birth of A Nation 1789-1859'''  
==Follow your ancestor as they lived the "New Nation's" history==
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[[Image:Daniel Boone Escorting Settlers Through the Cumberland Gap.jpg|thumb|right|370px|Daniel Boone Escorting Settlers Through the Cumberland Gap]] It all started with [http://www.timepage.org/spl/13colony.html Thirteen Colonies] <ref> [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thirteen_Colonies Thirteen Colonies -Wikipedia]</ref> uniting in their quest for freedom from British Rule. [[Revolutionary War, 1775 to 1783|The Revolutionary War]] was fought, the [http://www.ushistory.org/declaration/document/index.htm Declaration of Independence] signed and the official separation from Great Britain was acknowledged with the signing of the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Paris_(1763) Treaty of Paris in 1783]. This established American control over the territory between the [http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=2067 Appalachians Mountains] and the [http://www.mvn.usace.army.mil/pao/bro/misstrib.htm Mississippi River].  Then a great expansion began. [http://colonialancestors.com/revolutionary/soldiers.htm Veterans of the Revolutionary War] pursued land in the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ohio_Country Ohio Country]. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Northwest_Territory Northwest Territory]  provided land west of the [http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=784 Ohio River]. [http://www.gatewayno.com/history/LaPurchase.html The Louisiana  Purchase] was completed in 1803 opening the land to the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rocky_Mountains Rocky Mountains] and the new country grew. [http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=827 Zanes Trace], [http://www.nps.gov/archive/fone/natlroad.htm The National Road], [http://www.isu.edu/~trinmich/Oregontrail.html Oregon Trail], [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conestoga_wagon Conestoga wagons], and [http://www.lds.org/gospellibrary/pioneer/03_Iowa_City.html handcarts] all helped with the expansion. Many more [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_territory territories] were opened, [http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~gentutor/trails.html roads] were made and [http://americanhistory.si.edu/ONTHEMOVE/themes/story_48_1.html modes of transportation] employed to move people into the frontier.  States began getting admitted to the Union as battles were won, [http://geography.about.com/od/politicalgeography/a/usboundary.htm treaties were signed] and more area was claimed. With the fervor of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manifest_Destiny Manifest Destiny], a movement to the west ensued.<ref> ''An Outline of United States History'', for Use in the General Course in United States History, Yale College: By Ralph Henry Gabriel, Dumas Malone, Frederick Johnson Manning, Theodore L. Glasgow. Memorial Publication Fund. Published by Yale university press, 1921.
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Original from Harvard University. Digitized Jun 19, 2008. 68 pages. page 32. Full text available at [http://books.google.com/books?id=mIYoAAAAYAAJ Google Books] [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/9145349 Worldcat]</ref>
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==Timeline==
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== Follow your ancestor as they lived the "New Nation's" history ==
*'''1789:''' [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Osgood Samuel Osgood], first Postmaster General under Constitution. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Adams John Adams] is sworn in as the 1st Vice President of the United States. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Washington George Washington] is sworn in as the 1st President of the United States. [http://www.americanrevolution.com/CongressCreatedtheUSMilitary.htm The United States Army is established]. [http://www.websters-dictionary-online.org/definition/THE+12TH+STATE North Carolina is the 12th state admitted to the Union]. [http://www.civilwarhome.com/casualties.htm North Carolina troops suffered the greatest losses] of all the states during the Civil War while fighting for the Confederacy, re-entered the Union after the fighting ceased. <br>
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*'''1790''': [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_United_States_Coast_Guard The United States Coast Guard is established]. [http://www.websters-dictionary-online.org/definition/THE+13TH+STATE Rhode Island is the 13th state admitted to the Union]. Congress adopts uniform rules so that any free white person could apply for [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naturalization_Act_of_1790 citizenship after two years of residency]. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Slater Samuel Slater] ("Father of the American Industrial Revolution") <ref> White, George Savage; ''Memoir of Samuel Slater: the father of American manufactures'' Edition: 2. Published by s.n., 1836
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[[Image:Daniel Boone Escorting Settlers Through the Cumberland Gap.jpg|thumb|right|400px]] It all started with [http://www.timepage.org/spl/13colony.html Thirteen Colonies] <ref>[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thirteen_Colonies Thirteen Colonies -Wikipedia]</ref> uniting in their quest for freedom from British Rule. [[Revolutionary War, 1775 to 1783|The Revolutionary War]] was fought, the [http://www.ushistory.org/declaration/document/index.htm Declaration of Independence] signed and the official separation from Great Britain was acknowledged with the signing of the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Paris_(1763) Treaty of Paris in 1783]. This established American control over the territory between the [http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=2067 Appalachians Mountains] and the [http://www.mvn.usace.army.mil/pao/bro/misstrib.htm Mississippi River]. Then a great expansion began. [http://colonialancestors.com/revolutionary/soldiers.htm Veterans of the Revolutionary War] pursued land in the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ohio_Country Ohio Country]. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Northwest_Territory Northwest Territory] provided land west of the [http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=784 Ohio River]. [http://www.gatewayno.com/history/LaPurchase.html The Louisiana Purchase] was completed in 1803 opening the land to the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rocky_Mountains Rocky Mountains] and the new country grew. [http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=827 Zanes Trace], [http://www.nps.gov/archive/fone/natlroad.htm The National Road], [http://www.isu.edu/~trinmich/Oregontrail.html Oregon Trail], [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conestoga_wagon Conestoga wagons], and [http://www.lds.org/gospellibrary/pioneer/03_Iowa_City.html handcarts] all helped with the expansion. Many more [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_territory territories] were opened, [http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~gentutor/trails.html roads] were made and [http://americanhistory.si.edu/ONTHEMOVE/themes/story_48_1.html modes of transportation] employed to move people into the frontier. States began getting admitted to the Union as battles were won, [http://geography.about.com/od/politicalgeography/a/usboundary.htm treaties were signed] and more area was claimed. With the fervor of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manifest_Destiny Manifest Destiny], a movement to the west ensued.<ref> ''An Outline of United States History'', for Use in the General Course in United States History, Yale College: By Ralph Henry Gabriel, Dumas Malone, Frederick Johnson Manning, Theodore L. Glasgow. Memorial Publication Fund. Published by Yale university press, 1921. Original from Harvard University. Digitized Jun 19, 2008. 68 pages. page 32. Full text available at [http://books.google.com/books?id=mIYoAAAAYAAJ Google Books] [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/9145349 Worldcat]</ref>
Original from the New York Public Library. Digitized Jul 13, 2007. 448 pages. Full text available at [http://books.google.com/books?id=CXgIVXx8eSUC Google Books] </ref> opens the [http://www.clemson.edu/caah/history/FacultyPages/PamMack/lec122/amir.htm first textile factory in Pawtucket, Rhode Island]. At first he [http://www.brunswick.k12.me.us/bjh/depart/curric/nationgrows/virtualtelegraph/periods/period1/slaterbrownreport.htm employed children ages 7 to 12] then eventually incorporated whole families and complete communities in his work force.  
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== Timeline  ==
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*'''1789:''' [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Osgood Samuel Osgood], first Postmaster General under Constitution. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Adams John Adams] is sworn in as the 1st Vice President of the United States. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Washington George Washington] is sworn in as the 1st President of the United States. [http://www.americanrevolution.com/CongressCreatedtheUSMilitary.htm The United States Army is established]. [http://www.websters-dictionary-online.org/definition/THE+12TH+STATE North Carolina is the 12th state admitted to the Union]. [http://www.civilwarhome.com/casualties.htm North Carolina troops suffered the greatest losses] of all the states during the Civil War while fighting for the Confederacy, re-entered the Union after the fighting ceased. <br>
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*'''1790''': [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_United_States_Coast_Guard The United States Coast Guard is established]. [http://www.websters-dictionary-online.org/definition/THE+13TH+STATE Rhode Island is the 13th state admitted to the Union]. Congress adopts uniform rules so that any free white person could apply for [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naturalization_Act_of_1790 citizenship after two years of residency]. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Slater Samuel Slater] ("Father of the American Industrial Revolution") <ref>White, George Savage; ''Memoir of Samuel Slater: the father of American manufactures'' Edition: 2. Published by s.n., 1836 Original from the New York Public Library. Digitized Jul 13, 2007. 448 pages. Full text available at [http://books.google.com/books?id=CXgIVXx8eSUC Google Books] </ref>opens the [http://www.clemson.edu/caah/history/FacultyPages/PamMack/lec122/amir.htm first textile factory in Pawtucket, Rhode Island]. At first he [http://www.brunswick.k12.me.us/bjh/depart/curric/nationgrows/virtualtelegraph/periods/period1/slaterbrownreport.htm employed children ages 7 to 12] then eventually incorporated whole families and complete communities in his work force.
  
 
*'''1791:''' [http://www.websters-dictionary-online.org/definition/THE+14TH+STATE Vermont is the 14th state] admitted to the Union. Vermont became the first state added to the Union following the 13 colonies on March 1, 1791. Until statehood, had been a region claimed by both New York and New Hampshire.
 
*'''1791:''' [http://www.websters-dictionary-online.org/definition/THE+14TH+STATE Vermont is the 14th state] admitted to the Union. Vermont became the first state added to the Union following the 13 colonies on March 1, 1791. Until statehood, had been a region claimed by both New York and New Hampshire.
  
*'''1792:''' The United States Military Draft is established ([http://www.constitution.org/mil/mil_act_1792.htm Second Militia Act of 1792]). Every "free able-bodied white male citizen" between the ages of 18 and 45 were [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Militia_Act_of_1792 conscripted into a local militia companies] to be overseen by the state. [http://www.websters-dictionary-online.org/definition/THE+15TH+STATE Kentucky is the 15th state admitted to the Union]. Kentucky became the first state to be carved from the great western wilderness on June 1, 1792. Never a territory, it was part of Virginia until statehood. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Washington George Washington] was re-elected president of the United States; [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Adams John Adams] was re-elected Vice President.   [http://www.geocities.com/bobarnebeck/history.html A Yellow fever] epidemic occurred. <ref> ''A melancholy scene of devastation: the public response to the 1793 Philadelphia yellow fever epidemic'' By J. Worth Estes, Billy G. Smith. Contributor J. Worth Estes
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*'''1792:''' The United States Military Draft is established ([http://www.constitution.org/mil/mil_act_1792.htm Second Militia Act of 1792]). Every "free able-bodied white male citizen" between the ages of 18 and 45 were [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Militia_Act_of_1792 conscripted into a local militia companies] to be overseen by the state. [http://www.websters-dictionary-online.org/definition/THE+15TH+STATE Kentucky is the 15th state admitted to the Union]. Kentucky became the first state to be carved from the great western wilderness on June 1, 1792. Never a territory, it was part of Virginia until statehood. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Washington George Washington] was re-elected president of the United States; [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Adams John Adams] was re-elected Vice President. [http://www.geocities.com/bobarnebeck/history.html A Yellow fever] epidemic occurred. <ref>''A melancholy scene of devastation: the public response to the 1793 Philadelphia yellow fever epidemic'' By J. Worth Estes, Billy G. Smith. Contributor J. Worth Estes Edition: illustrated. Published by The Library Company of Phil, 1997. ISBN 088135192X, 9780881351927 211 pages. [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/36170565 Worldcat] Full text available at [http://books.google.com/books?id=MRfIwih28gIC Google Books.] </ref>Thought to be brought into the ports of the United states from the [http://www.bukisa.com/articles/41886_the-yellow-fever-occuring-in-american-theatre-in-the-late-1700s West Indies], this was one of the most dreaded diseases at that time. Many died unattended in homes while those with financial means fled the cities. [http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/yellowfever.htm Philadelphia] was particularly hard hit.
Edition: illustrated. Published by The Library Company of Phil, 1997. ISBN 088135192X, 9780881351927 211 pages. [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/36170565 Worldcat] Full text available at [http://books.google.com/books?id=MRfIwih28gIC Google Books.] </ref> Thought to be brought into the ports of the United states from the [http://www.bukisa.com/articles/41886_the-yellow-fever-occuring-in-american-theatre-in-the-late-1700s West Indies], this was one of the most dreaded diseases at that time. Many died unattended in homes while those with financial means fled the cities. [http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/yellowfever.htm Philadelphia] was particularly hard hit.  
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[[Image:Underground railroad.jpg|thumb|right|370px|Routes of the Underground Railroad]]
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[[Image:Underground railroad.jpg|thumb|right|400px]]  
*'''1793:''' February 12; [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fugitive_slave_laws Fugitive Slave Act passed]; this had a devastating effect on the lives of twenty percent of the American population that was of African descent, giving rise to the [http://teacher.scholastic.com/activities/bhistory/underground_railroad/ Underground Railroad]. <ref> ''The Underground Railroad From Slavery to Freedom'' By Wilbur Henry Siebert, Albert Bushnell Hart. Edition: 2. Published by Macmillan, 1898. Original from the University of Michigan. Digitized Jun 25, 2007. 478 pages, Indexed. Full text at [http://books.google.com/books?id=cms4AAAAMAAJ Google Books]. </ref> <ref> Mitchell, William M.; ''The Underground Railroad from Slavery to Freedom'' Edition: 2. Published by W. Tweedie, 1860. Original from Harvard University. Digitized Aug 4, 2006. 191 pages. Full text available at [http://books.google.com/books?id=iSL60qzv974C Google Books] </ref> March 4; George Washington is sworn in as President for a 2nd term with John Adams as Vice President. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eli_Whitney Eli Whitney] invents the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cotton_gin cotton gin].  
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*'''1793:''' February 12; [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fugitive_slave_laws Fugitive Slave Act passed]; this had a devastating effect on the lives of twenty percent of the American population that was of African descent, giving rise to the [http://teacher.scholastic.com/activities/bhistory/underground_railroad/ Underground Railroad]. <ref>''The Underground Railroad From Slavery to Freedom'' By Wilbur Henry Siebert, Albert Bushnell Hart. Edition: 2. Published by Macmillan, 1898. Original from the University of Michigan. Digitized Jun 25, 2007. 478 pages, Indexed. Full text at [http://books.google.com/books?id=cms4AAAAMAAJ Google Books]. </ref><ref>Mitchell, William M.; ''The Underground Railroad from Slavery to Freedom'' Edition: 2. Published by W. Tweedie, 1860. Original from Harvard University. Digitized Aug 4, 2006. 191 pages. Full text available at [http://books.google.com/books?id=iSL60qzv974C Google Books] </ref>March 4; George Washington is sworn in as President for a 2nd term with John Adams as Vice President. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eli_Whitney Eli Whitney] invents the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cotton_gin cotton gin].
  
*'''1794:''' John Adams was elected to be the second President of the United States. [http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Naval_Act_of_1794 The United States Navy is established] with authorization for six vessels.  
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*'''1794:''' John Adams was elected to be the second President of the United States. [http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Naval_Act_of_1794 The United States Navy is established] with authorization for six vessels.
  
*'''1796:''' [http://www.websters-dictionary-online.org/definition/THE+16TH+STATE Tennessee, formerly part of North Carolina, is the 16th state admitted to the Union]. On June 8, 1861, it joined the Confederacy and became a major battleground for the Civil War, re-entering the Union after war's end. Electors chose John Adams to be the second president of the United States.
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*'''1796:''' [http://www.websters-dictionary-online.org/definition/THE+16TH+STATE Tennessee, formerly part of North Carolina, is the 16th state admitted to the Union]. On June 8, 1861, it joined the Confederacy and became a major battleground for the Civil War, re-entering the Union after war's end. Electors chose John Adams to be the second president of the United States.
  
*'''1797:''' [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Adams John Adams] is sworn in as the 2nd President of the United States with Thomas Jefferson as the Vice President. [http://www.geocities.com/pentagon/bunker/2299/ The United States Marine Corps is established].
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*'''1797:''' [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Adams John Adams] is sworn in as the 2nd President of the United States with Thomas Jefferson as the Vice President. [http://www.geocities.com/pentagon/bunker/2299/ The United States Marine Corps is established].
  
*'''1800:''' [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indiana_Territory The Indiana Territory] is organized as is [http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=429 The Ohio Territory]. [http://www.historycentral.com/NN/Washingtoncap.html Washington, D.C. becomes the official capital of the United States]. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Washington,_D.C. The District of Columbia] does not have statehood.  
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*'''1800:''' [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indiana_Territory The Indiana Territory] is organized as is [http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=429 The Ohio Territory]. [http://www.historycentral.com/NN/Washingtoncap.html Washington, D.C. becomes the official capital of the United States]. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Washington,_D.C. The District of Columbia] does not have statehood.
  
 
*'''1801:''' Thomas Jefferson is sworn in as the 3rd President of the United States with Aaron Burr as the Vice President.
 
*'''1801:''' Thomas Jefferson is sworn in as the 3rd President of the United States with Aaron Burr as the Vice President.
Line 29: Line 31:
 
*'''1802:''' Children of naturalized citizens were considered to be citizens as per [http://www.earlyamerica.com/earlyamerica/milestones/naturalization/ Act of 1795].
 
*'''1802:''' Children of naturalized citizens were considered to be citizens as per [http://www.earlyamerica.com/earlyamerica/milestones/naturalization/ Act of 1795].
  
[[Image:Lewis and clark-expedition.jpg|thumb|right|370px|Lewis and Clark on the Lower Columbia]]
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*'''1802:''' Congress passed the Trade and Intercourse Act, this act directed the army to serve as a "police force" separating Indian and white communities in the expanding regions.
*'''1803:''' [http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/time_period.php?rec=2 Ohio is the 17th state admitted to the Union]. Ohio became the first state west of the Alleghenies on March 1, 1803 and was part of the [http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=772 Northwest Territory] until statehood.  The United States purchases the [http://lsm.crt.state.la.us/cabildo/cab4.htm Louisiana Territory for $15 million], containing what is now Arkansas, part of Colorado, Iowa, Louisiana, part of Minnesota, Missouri, part of Montana, part of North Dakota, part of Oklahoma, South Dakota, and part of Wyoming.<ref> James Alexander Robertson, Paul Alliot; ''Louisiana Under the Rule of Spain, France, and the United States, 1785-1807: Social, Economic, and Political Conditions of the Territory Represented in the Louisiana Purchase''. Published by The Arthur H. Clark Company, 1911. Item notes: v. 2. [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/1540781 Worldcat] Full text available at [http://books.google.com/books?id=iBQOAAAAIAAJ Google Books] </ref> [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Hundred_Years%27_War The War between France and England] interrupted trade and emigration from Europe. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Passenger_Vessels_Act_(disambiguation) The British Passenger Vessels Act] limited the numbers of Irish emigrant ships.  
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*'''1804:''' [http://www.lewisclark.net/ Louis & Clark] begin their expedition of the Louisiana Territory.
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[[Image:Lewis and clark-expedition.jpg|thumb|center|500px]]
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*'''1803:''' [http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/time_period.php?rec=2 Ohio is the 17th state admitted to the Union]. Ohio became the first state west of the Alleghenies on March 1, 1803 and was part of the [http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=772 Northwest Territory] until statehood. The United States purchases the [http://lsm.crt.state.la.us/cabildo/cab4.htm Louisiana Territory for $15 million], containing what is now Arkansas, part of Colorado, Iowa, Louisiana, part of Minnesota, Missouri, part of Montana, part of North Dakota, part of Oklahoma, South Dakota, and part of Wyoming.<ref> James Alexander Robertson, Paul Alliot; ''Louisiana Under the Rule of Spain, France, and the United States, 1785-1807: Social, Economic, and Political Conditions of the Territory Represented in the Louisiana Purchase''. Published by The Arthur H. Clark Company, 1911. Item notes: v. 2. [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/1540781 Worldcat] Full text available at [http://books.google.com/books?id=iBQOAAAAIAAJ Google Books] </ref>[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Hundred_Years%27_War The War between France and England] interrupted trade and emigration from Europe. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Passenger_Vessels_Act_(disambiguation) The British Passenger Vessels Act] limited the numbers of Irish emigrant ships.
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*'''1804:''' [http://www.lewisclark.net/ Louis &amp; Clark] begin their expedition of the Louisiana Territory.
  
 
*'''1805:''' [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michigan_Territory The Michigan Territory] is organized. Thomas Jefferson is sworn in as President for a 2nd term with George Clinton as Vice President. [http://lewisandclarktrail.com/101.htm Lewis and Clark reach the Pacific Ocean].
 
*'''1805:''' [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michigan_Territory The Michigan Territory] is organized. Thomas Jefferson is sworn in as President for a 2nd term with George Clinton as Vice President. [http://lewisandclarktrail.com/101.htm Lewis and Clark reach the Pacific Ocean].
  
*'''1806:''' [http://lewisandclark.state.mt.us/ Lewis and Clark] return from exploring the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louisiana_Territory Louisiana Territory]. [http://www.history.rochester.edu/steam/dickinson/ Robert Fulton] and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Livingston_(1746-1813) Robert R. Livingston] together built the first [http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blsteamship.htm commercial steamboat], the North River Steamboat (later known as the [http://www.hrmm.org/steamboats/fulton.html Clermont]), which carried passengers between New York City and Albany, New York. <ref> [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Fulton Robert Fulton –Wikipedia]</ref>
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*'''1806:''' [http://lewisandclark.state.mt.us/ Lewis and Clark] return from exploring the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louisiana_Territory Louisiana Territory]. [http://www.history.rochester.edu/steam/dickinson/ Robert Fulton] and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Livingston_(1746-1813) Robert R. Livingston] together built the first [http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blsteamship.htm commercial steamboat], the North River Steamboat (later known as the [http://www.hrmm.org/steamboats/fulton.html Clermont]), which carried passengers between New York City and Albany, New York. <ref>[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Fulton Robert Fulton –Wikipedia]</ref>
  
*'''1808:''' [http://abolition.nypl.org/home/ U.S. slave trade with Africa ends], From 1803 to 1808, between 75,000 and 100,000 Africans entered the United States. <ref> [http://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/30/opinion/30foner.html Forgotten Step toward Freedom]</ref>
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*'''1808:''' [http://abolition.nypl.org/home/ U.S. slave trade with Africa ends], From 1803 to 1808, between 75,000 and 100,000 Africans entered the United States. <ref>[http://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/30/opinion/30foner.html Forgotten Step toward Freedom]</ref>
  
*'''1809''': [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illinois_Territory The Illinois Territory is organized]. James Madison is sworn in as the 4th President of the United States with George Clinton is sworn in as Vice President.  
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*'''1809''': [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illinois_Territory The Illinois Territory is organized]. James Madison is sworn in as the 4th President of the United States with George Clinton is sworn in as Vice President.
  
 
*'''1810:''' The United States annexes what is now part of Alabama, part of Louisiana, and part of Mississippi.
 
*'''1810:''' The United States annexes what is now part of Alabama, part of Louisiana, and part of Mississippi.
  
*'''1811:''' [http://www.nps.gov/archive/fone/natlroad.htm The National Road] or [http://www.swetland.net/cumberland.htm Cumberland Road] was one of the first major improved highways in the United States, built by the federal government. Construction began in at Cumberland, Maryland, on the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potomac_River#History Potomac River]. <ref> [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cumberland_Road National Road]</ref>
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*'''1811:''' [http://www.nps.gov/archive/fone/natlroad.htm The National Road] or [http://www.swetland.net/cumberland.htm Cumberland Road] was one of the first major improved highways in the United States, built by the federal government. Construction began in at Cumberland, Maryland, on the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potomac_River#History Potomac River]. <ref>[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cumberland_Road National Road]</ref>
  
*'''1812:''' [http://www.websters-dictionary-online.org/definition/THE+18TH+STATE Louisiana is the 18th state admitted to the Union]. With certain boundary changes, had been the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Territory_of_Orleans Territory of Orleans]. It joined the Confederacy on January 26; 1861 and re-entered the Union after the Civil War. The [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mississippi_Territory Mississippi Territory] is organized as is the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Missouri_Territory Missouri Territory]. [http://multied.com/1812/Index.html The United States declares war on Britain]. For more information about the War of 1812 and its battles see the [[War of 1812, 1812 to 1815|War of 1812]] Page along with individual State Military Pages.
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*'''1812:''' [http://www.websters-dictionary-online.org/definition/THE+18TH+STATE Louisiana is the 18th state admitted to the Union]. With certain boundary changes, had been the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Territory_of_Orleans Territory of Orleans]. It joined the Confederacy on January 26; 1861 and re-entered the Union after the Civil War. The [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mississippi_Territory Mississippi Territory] is organized as is the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Missouri_Territory Missouri Territory]. [http://multied.com/1812/Index.html The United States declares war on Britain]. For more information about the War of 1812 and its battles see the [[War of 1812, 1812 to 1815|War of 1812]] Page along with individual State Military Pages.
  
 
*'''1813:''' James Madison is sworn in as President for a 2nd term with Elbridge Gerry as the Vice President.
 
*'''1813:''' James Madison is sworn in as President for a 2nd term with Elbridge Gerry as the Vice President.
[[Image:Ft Henry bombardement 1814.jpg|thumb|right|370px|A VIEW of the BOMBARDMENT of Fort McHenry, near Baltimore, by the British fleet taken from the Observatory under the Command of Admirals Cochrane & Cockburn on the morning of the 13th of Sept 1814 which lasted 24 hours & thrown from 1500 to 1800 shells in the Night attempted to land by forcing a passage up the ferry branch but were repulsed with great loss."]]
 
*'''1814:''' The British set fire to Washington, D.C.  [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Star-Spangled_Banner The "Star-Spangled Banner"] <ref> ''Francis Scott Key: author of the Star spangled banner; what else he was and who''. By Francis Scott Key-Smith
 
Published by Key-Smith and company, 1911. 104 pages. [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/1544641 Worldcat]. Full text available at [http://books.google.com/books?id=ExkOAAAAIAAJ Google Books] </ref>  becomes the official national Anthem. The United States and Britain sign the [http://www.brocku.ca/iasc/niagara1812/t1/willbepage.php?link=HomePage Treaty of Ghent], ending the War of 1812.
 
  
*'''1815:''' January 8; American forces win the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_New_Orleans Battle of New Orleans] (they didn't know the war is over).
+
[[Image:Ft Henry bombardement 1814.jpg|thumb|right|600px]]
 +
 
 +
*'''1814:''' The British set fire to Washington, D.C. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Star-Spangled_Banner The "Star-Spangled Banner"] <ref>''Francis Scott Key: author of the Star spangled banner; what else he was and who''. By Francis Scott Key-Smith Published by Key-Smith and company, 1911. 104 pages. [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/1544641 Worldcat]. Full text available at [http://books.google.com/books?id=ExkOAAAAIAAJ Google Books] </ref>becomes the official national Anthem. The United States and Britain sign the [http://www.brocku.ca/iasc/niagara1812/t1/willbepage.php?link=HomePage Treaty of Ghent], ending the War of 1812.
 +
 
 +
*'''1815:''' January 8; American forces win the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_New_Orleans Battle of New Orleans] (they didn't know the war is over). After [http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/wars_napoleonic.html The Napoleonic Wars] ended the a string of [http://www.icue.com/portal/site/iCue/flatview/?cuecard=1506 European immigrants dramatically increased].
  
 
*'''1816:''' December 11; [http://www.websters-dictionary-online.org/definition/THE+19TH+STATE Indiana is the 19th state admitted to the Union.] There was a residue of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indiana_Territory Indiana Territory] that continued to exist under that name until Dec. 3, 1818, when it was attached to [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michigan_Territory Michigan Territory].
 
*'''1816:''' December 11; [http://www.websters-dictionary-online.org/definition/THE+19TH+STATE Indiana is the 19th state admitted to the Union.] There was a residue of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indiana_Territory Indiana Territory] that continued to exist under that name until Dec. 3, 1818, when it was attached to [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michigan_Territory Michigan Territory].
  
*'''1817:''' March 3; [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alabama_Territory The Alabama Territory] is organized. James Monroe is sworn in as the 5th President of the United States with Elbridge Gerry as Vice President. [http://www.websters-dictionary-online.org/definition/THE+20TH+STATE Mississippi is the 20th state admitted to the Union.] [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mississippi_Territory Mississippi was formally a territory] by Act of April 7, 1798, effective May 7, 1798.
+
*'''1817:''' March 3; [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alabama_Territory The Alabama Territory] is organized. James Monroe is sworn in as the 5th President of the United States with Elbridge Gerry as Vice President. [http://www.websters-dictionary-online.org/definition/THE+20TH+STATE Mississippi is the 20th state admitted to the Union.] [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mississippi_Territory Mississippi was formally a territory] by Act of April 7, 1798, effective May 7, 1798.
  
*'''1818:''' Liverpool becomes the most-used port of departure for Irish and British immigrants coming to the United States. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jackson_Purchase The Jackson Purchase] [http://www.riversidemuseum.net/historyofriverside/pre-05.htm Illinois is the 21st state admitted to the Union.]
+
*'''1818:''' Liverpool becomes the most-used port of departure for Irish and British immigrants coming to the United States. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jackson_Purchase The Jackson Purchase] [http://www.riversidemuseum.net/historyofriverside/pre-05.htm Illinois is the 21st state admitted to the Union.] The privately owned [http://www.oceanlinermuseum.co.uk/James%20Monroe%201815.html Black Ball Line Packet] sailed regularly between New York and Liverpool, England.
  
*'''1819:''' February 22; The United States annexes Florida. [http://www.mises.org/rothbard/panic1819.pdf Panic of 1819] The Arkansas Territory is organized. [http://www.alabamamoments.alabama.gov/sec05qs.html Alabama is the 22nd state admitted to the Union.] In January 1861, Alabama seceded from the Union, and on February 4, delegates from six states met at Montgomery and formed the Confederate States of America, with Montgomery as the capital. After the Civil War, Alabama re-entered the Union.
+
*'''1819:''' The United States annexes Florida. The [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panic_of_1819 Panic of 1819] caused desperate people to live in Tent Cities. The Arkansas Territory is organized. [http://www.alabamamoments.alabama.gov/sec05qs.html Alabama is the 22nd state admitted to the Union.] In January 1861, Alabama seceded from the Union, and on February 4, delegates from six states met at Montgomery and formed the Confederate States of America, with Montgomery as the capital. After the Civil War, Alabama re-entered the Union. [http://www.theshipslist.com/ships/passengerlists/1819_20index.htm Passenger lists] are kept for Steamboat travel. <ref>Filby, P. William, ed.'' Passenger and Immigration Lists Index: A Guide to Published Arrival Records of ... Passengers who Came to the United States and Canada in the Seventeenth, Eighteenth, and Nineteenth Centuries.'' Published by Gale Research Co., 1980. Item notes: v. 2. Original from the University of Wisconsin - Madison. Digitized Jun 10, 2008. 324 pages. [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/6378697 Worldcat.] This series is a finding aid to published passenger lists. Be sure to read the "front material" to understand how to use the information you find. </ref>
  
*'''1820:''' The U.S. population is about 9.6 million. About 151,000 new immigrants arrive in 1820 alone. [http://www.mainehistory.info/ Maine is the 23rd state admitted to the Union.] Its admission to the Union balanced the simultaneous admission of Missouri as a slave state. What is now the state of Maine was, before statehood, called the District of Maine and belonged to Massachusetts. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Missouri_Compromise The Missouri Compromise] was an agreement between the pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions passed in the United States Congress concerning Western Territories.
+
[[Image:1820 Territorial Growth.jpg|thumb|center|650px]]  
  
*'''1821:''' James Monroe is sworn in as President for a 2nd term with Daniel Tompkins as Vice President. [http://www.kindredtrails.com/Missouri-History-2.html Missouri is the 24th state admitted to the Union.] Missouri was admitted as a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slave_state slave state] on August 10, 1821, after an agreement known as the Missouri Compromise in which Maine was admitted as a free state. The state was much smaller than the territory. The area to the west and northwest of the state, which had been in the territory, was commonly known as the "Missouri Country" until May 30, 1854, and certain of the post offices in this area show a Missouri abbreviation in the postmark.
+
*'''1820:''' The U.S. population is about 9.6 million. About 151,000 new immigrants arrive in 1820 alone. [http://www.mainehistory.info/ Maine is the 23rd state admitted to the Union.] Its admission to the Union balanced the simultaneous admission of Missouri as a slave state. What is now the state of Maine was, before statehood, called the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/District_of_Maine District of Maine] and belonged to Massachusetts. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Missouri_Compromise The Missouri Compromise] was an agreement between the pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions passed in the United States Congress concerning Western Territories.
 +
 
 +
*'''1821:''' James Monroe is sworn in as President for a 2nd term with Daniel Tompkins as Vice President. [http://www.kindredtrails.com/Missouri-History-2.html Missouri is the 24th state admitted to the Union.] Missouri was admitted as a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slave_state slave state] on August 10, 1821, after an agreement known as the Missouri Compromise in which Maine was admitted as a free state. The state was much smaller than the territory. The area to the west and northwest of the state, which had been in the territory, was commonly known as the "Missouri Country" until May 30, 1854, and certain of the post offices in this area show a Missouri abbreviation in the postmark.
  
 
*'''1822:''' [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Florida_Territory The Florida Territory is organized].
 
*'''1822:''' [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Florida_Territory The Florida Territory is organized].
  
*'''1825:''' John Quincy Adams is sworn in as the 6th President of the United States with John Calhoun as Vice President.
+
*'''1825:''' John Quincy Adams is sworn in as the 6th President of the United States with John Calhoun as Vice President. The [[Erie Canal|Erie Canal]] is finished providing transportation for travelers and cargo.
  
 
*'''1829:''' Andrew Jackson is sworn in as the 7th President of the United States with John Calhoun as Vice President.
 
*'''1829:''' Andrew Jackson is sworn in as the 7th President of the United States with John Calhoun as Vice President.
  
*'''1833:''' Andrew Jackson is sworn in as President for a 2nd term with Martin van Buren asVice President.
+
*'''1830:''' Polish revolution spurred refuge to the U.S.; [http://www.istrianet.org/istria/history/1800-present/immigration/ellis-chrono.htm Congress allotted thirty-six sections of public land in Illinois] to Polish refugees. <ref>[http://www.archive.org/stream/settlementofilli00pool/settlementofilli00pool_djvu.txt ''The settlement of Illinois from 1830 to 1850 (1908)''] Pooley, William Vipond. </ref>
 +
*'''1833:''' Andrew Jackson is sworn in as President for a 2nd term with Martin van Buren as Vice President.
  
 
*'''1834:'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_Territory The Indian Territory] is established in what is now Oklahoma.
 
*'''1834:'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_Territory The Indian Territory] is established in what is now Oklahoma.
Line 79: Line 88:
 
*'''1836:'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wisconsin_Territory The Wisconsin Territory] is organized. [http://www.oldstatehouse.com/educational_programs/classroom/arkansas_news/detail.asp?id=392&issue_id=15&page=1 Arkansas is the 25th state admitted to the Union] despite opposition in Congress to a new slave state. Arkansas Governor Henry M. Rector seized Fort Smith and Arkansas joined the Confederacy in 1861 re-entering the Union at War's end. The territory of Arkansas was larger than the state. After statehood the leftover area to the west had post offices that continued for some years to use an Arkansas abbreviation in the postmarks, although they were really in the "Indian Country."
 
*'''1836:'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wisconsin_Territory The Wisconsin Territory] is organized. [http://www.oldstatehouse.com/educational_programs/classroom/arkansas_news/detail.asp?id=392&issue_id=15&page=1 Arkansas is the 25th state admitted to the Union] despite opposition in Congress to a new slave state. Arkansas Governor Henry M. Rector seized Fort Smith and Arkansas joined the Confederacy in 1861 re-entering the Union at War's end. The territory of Arkansas was larger than the state. After statehood the leftover area to the west had post offices that continued for some years to use an Arkansas abbreviation in the postmarks, although they were really in the "Indian Country."
  
*'''1837:''' Martin van Buren is sworn in as the 8th President of the United States with Richard Johnson as Vice President. [http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/380086/Michigan/78744/Statehood-and-growth Michigan is the 26th state admitted to the Union.]
+
*'''1837:''' Martin van Buren is sworn in as the 8th President of the United States with Richard Johnson as Vice President. [http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/380086/Michigan/78744/Statehood-and-growth Michigan is the 26th state admitted to the Union.] [http://earlyradiohistory.us/1838mrse.htm The Magnetic telegraph was invented by Samuel Morse].
  
 
*'''1838:''' [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iowa_Territory The Iowa Territory is organized].
 
*'''1838:''' [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iowa_Territory The Iowa Territory is organized].
Line 87: Line 96:
 
*'''1841:''' William Harrison is sworn in as the 9th President of the United States with John Tyler as Vice President. John Tyler is sworn in as the 10th President of the United States.
 
*'''1841:''' William Harrison is sworn in as the 9th President of the United States with John Tyler as Vice President. John Tyler is sworn in as the 10th President of the United States.
  
*'''1844:''' The United States annexes what are now parts of Colorado, New Mexico, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas as a result of the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adams-On%C3%ADs_Treaty Adams-Onis Treaty] with Spain.
+
*'''1844:''' The United States annexes what are now parts of Colorado, New Mexico, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas as a result of the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adams-On%C3%ADs_Treaty Adams-Onis Treaty] with Spain.
  
*'''1845:''' [http://www.drbronsontours.com/bronsonhistorypageamericanstaugustinestatehood.html Florida is the 27th state] admitted to the Union, and a move delayed by the reluctance of Congress to admit another slave state, and it joined the Confederacy on January 10, 1861, re-entering the Union at war's end. James Polk is sworn in as the 11th President of the United States with George Dallas as Vice President. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Republic_of_Texas Texas was an independent republic] before statehood and was the [http://www.tsl.state.tx.us/treasures/earlystate/index.html 28th state admitted to the Union].  
+
*'''1845:''' The term [http://www.pbs.org/kera/usmexicanwar/prelude/md_manifest_destiny.html Manifest Destiny] was a phrase coined by American newspaper editor [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_L._O%27Sullivan John O'Sullivan]. O'sullivan was writing about the proposed annexation of Texas and stated that it was America's “manifest destiny to overspread the continent.” The idea suggested that through expansion from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific, the United States could become a recognized political and social superpower. America had, in fact, O'Sullivan argued, been uniquely chosen for the task of expanding Westward, driving out the wilderness and establishing civilization. <ref>[http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-manifest-destiny.htm What is Manifest Destiny?]</ref> [http://www.drbronsontours.com/bronsonhistorypageamericanstaugustinestatehood.html Florida is the 27th state] admitted to the Union, and a move delayed by the reluctance of Congress to admit another slave state, and it joined the Confederacy on January 10, 1861, re-entering the Union at war's end. James Polk is sworn in as the 11th President of the United States with George Dallas as Vice President. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Republic_of_Texas Texas was an independent republic] before statehood and was the [http://www.tsl.state.tx.us/treasures/earlystate/index.html 28th state admitted to the Union].
  
*'''1846:'''  May 8; The Mexican War begins with the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Palo_Alto Battle of Palo Alto]. For more information about the The Mexican War and its battles see the [[Mexican War, 1846 to 1848 |The Mexican War]] Page along with individual State Military Pages. Irish of all classes emigrate to the United States as a result of the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Irish_Famine potato famine]. <ref> Kinealy, Christine; ''This great calamity: the Irish famine, 1845-52''.
+
[[Image:Sites Along the Mormon Trail.png|thumb|center|500px]]  
Edition: illustrated. Published by Gill & Macmillan, 1994. Original from the University of California. Digitized Sep 4, 2008. 450 pages. [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/31890907 Worldcat] Snippet view available at [http://books.google.com/books?id=qzy5AAAAIAAJ&q=This+Great+Calamity+The+Irish+Famine+1845-52&dq=This+Great+Calamity+The+Irish+Famine+1845-52&lr=&as_drrb_is=q&as_minm_is=0&as_miny_is=&as_maxm_is=0&as_maxy_is=&as_brr=0&as_pt=ALLTYPES&ei=tWrZSb2VHYSkkASfvaTxBw&client=firefox-a&pgis=1 Google Books]</ref> Many Irish came to the United States by [http://www.historyplace.com/worldhistory/famine/coffin.htm way of Canada]. [http://www.lone-star.net/mall/texasinfo/mexicow.htm The United States declares war on Mexico]. The United States annexes what is now Arizona and New Mexico. [http://www.iptv.org/iowapathways/artifact_detail.cfm?aid=a_000633&oid=ob_000124 Iowa is the 29th state admitted to the Union] becoming the first free state in the old Louisiana Territory.
+
  
*'''1846-1847:''' Crop failures in Europe. Mortgage foreclosures send tens of thousands of the dispossessed go to the United States.
+
*'''1846:''' Brigham Young, president of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saint's governing body, begins the largest, most successful [http://www.americanwest.com/trails/pages/mormtrl.htm mass exodus in American History]. The Mexican War begins with the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Palo_Alto Battle of Palo Alto]. For more information about the The Mexican War and its battles see the [[Mexican War, 1846 to 1848|The Mexican War]] Page along with individual State Military Pages. Irish of all classes emigrate to the United States as a result of the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Irish_Famine potato famine]. <ref>Kinealy, Christine; ''This great calamity: the Irish famine, 1845-52''.  Edition: illustrated. Published by Gill &amp;amp;amp;amp; Macmillan, 1994. Original from the University of California. Digitized Sep 4, 2008. 450 pages. [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/31890907 Worldcat] Snippet view available at [http://books.google.com/books?id=qzy5AAAAIAAJ&amp;amp;amp;amp;q=This+Great+Calamity+The+Irish+Famine+1845-52&amp;amp;amp;amp;dq=This+Great+Calamity+The+Irish+Famine+1845-52&amp;amp;amp;amp;lr=&amp;amp;amp;amp;as_drrb_is=q&amp;amp;amp;amp;as_minm_is=0&amp;amp;amp;amp;as_miny_is=&amp;amp;amp;amp;as_maxm_is=0&amp;amp;amp;amp;as_maxy_is=&amp;amp;amp;amp;as_brr=0&amp;amp;amp;amp;as_pt=ALLTYPES&amp;amp;amp;amp;ei=tWrZSb2VHYSkkASfvaTxBw&amp;amp;amp;amp;client=firefox-a&amp;amp;amp;amp;pgis=1 Google Books]</ref> Many Irish came to the United States by [http://www.historyplace.com/worldhistory/famine/coffin.htm way of Canada]. [http://www.lone-star.net/mall/texasinfo/mexicow.htm The United States declares war on Mexico]. The United States annexes what is now Arizona and New Mexico. [http://www.iptv.org/iowapathways/artifact_detail.cfm?aid=a_000633&oid=ob_000124 Iowa is the 29th state admitted to the Union] becoming the first free state in the old Louisiana Territory.
  
*'''1847:''' September 14; American forces take Mexico City.
+
*'''1846-1847:''' [http://www.feefhs.org/links/galicia/history.html Crop failures in Europe]. Mortgage foreclosures send tens of thousands of the dispossessed go to the United States.
[[Image:Gold seeking river operations California.jpg|thumb|right|370px|Middle Fork of the American River; Mining operation with prospectors working the bed of the Middle Fork of the American River. [http://www.coloma.com/gold/ Coloma, California,] 1848.]]
+
  
*'''1848:''' Discovery of gold results in Chinese and Latin American immigrants coming to the west coast. The [[China Emigration and Immigration|China Emigration and Immigration]] page explains in more detail the impact the Chinese had with this part of the Nation's growth.
+
*'''1847:''' [http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history.do?action=Article&id=5345 American forces take Mexico City.]
*'''1848:''' February 2; Mexico and the United States sign the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, ending the Mexican-American War.
+
*'''1848:''' February 2; The United States gains what is now California, Nevada, Utah, and parts of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Wyoming as a result of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
+
*'''1848:'''  German political refugees emigrate following the failure of a revolution.
+
*'''1848''': May 29; [http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/tp%2D015/ Wisconsin is the 30th state admitted to the Union] <ref> ''1999-2000 Wisconsin Blue Book'' (published by the State of Wisconsin), on May 29, 1848,  Wisconsin became the 30th state in the Union." (p. 630)</ref>
+
*'''1848:'''  August 14; The United States annexes the Oregon Territory containing what is now Idaho, part of Montana, Oregon, Washington, part of Wyoming.
+
  
*'''1849:'''  March 3; The Minnesota Territory is organized.
+
[[Image:Gold seeking river operations California.jpg|thumb|center|500px]]
*'''1849:'''  March 4; Millard Fillmore is sworn in as the 12th Vice President of the United States.
+
*'''1849:'''  March 5; Zachary Taylor is sworn in as the 12th President of the United States.
+
*'''1849:'''  December 6; Harriet Tubman escapes from slavery on the "Underground Railroad".
+
  
*'''1850:''' May 30; The Kansas Territory is organized.
+
*'''1848:''' [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/California_gold_rush The California gold rush] results in Chinese and Latin American immigrants coming to the west coast. The [[China Emigration and Immigration|China Emigration and Immigration]] page explains in more detail the impact the [http://www.sfmuseum.net/hist6/chinhate.html Chinese] had with this part of the Nation's growth. Mexico and the United States sign the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Guadalupe_Hidalgo treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo], ending the Mexican-American War. The United States gains what is now California, Nevada, Utah, and parts of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Wyoming as a result of the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Guadalupe_Hidalgo Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo]. German political refugees emigrate following the failure of a revolution. [http://www.wisconsinhistory.org/turningpoints/tp%2D015/ Wisconsin is the 30th state admitted to the Union] <ref>''1999-2000 Wisconsin Blue Book'' (published by the State of Wisconsin), on May 29, 1848, Wisconsin became the 30th state in the Union." (p. 630)</ref> The United States annexes the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oregon_Territory Oregon Territory] containing what is now Idaho, part of Montana, Oregon, Washington, part of Wyoming.
*'''1850:'''  May 30; The Nebraska Territory is organized.
+
*'''1850:'''  July 10; Millard Fillmore is sworn in as the 13th President of the United States.
+
*'''1850:'''  September 9; [http://www.inn-california.com/articles/history/californiastatehood.html California is the 31st state admitted to the Union.] Congress hesitated to welcome a new free state, but because of its booming population and the discovery of gold California was admitted. Ceded by Mexico by the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, concluded Feb. 2, 1848, and proclaimed July 4, 1848. From then until statehood, California had a military government until Dec. 20, 1849, and then a local civil government. It never had a territorial form of government.
+
*'''1850:'''  September 9; The Utah Territory is organized.
+
*'''1850:'''  September 18;  The Fugitive Slave Act is passed by Congress requiring the return of escaped slaves.
+
  
*'''1853:''' March 2; The Washington Territory is organized.
+
*'''1849:''' [http://www.mnterritorialpioneers.org/info/hist/terrhist.htm The Minnesota Territory is organized.] Millard Fillmore is sworn in as the 12th Vice President of the United States. Zachary Taylor is sworn in as the 12th President of the United States. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harriet_Tubman Harriet Tubman escapes from slavery] on the "Underground Railroad".
*'''1853:'''  March 2; The Oregon Territory is organized.
+
*'''1853: ''' March 4; Franklin Pierce is sworn in as the 14th President of the United States with William King as Vice President.
+
*'''1853:'''  December 30; The United States purchases what is now part of Arizona and New Mexico.
+
  
*'''1857:''' March 4; James Buchanan is sworn in as the 15th President of the United States with John Breckinridge as Vice President.  
+
*'''1850:''' The [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kansas_Territory Kansas Territory], [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nebraska_Territory Nebraska Territory],and The [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Utah_Territory Utah Territory] are organized. Millard Fillmore is sworn in as the 13th President of the United States. [http://www.inn-california.com/articles/history/californiastatehood.html California is the 31st state admitted to the Union.] Congress hesitated to welcome a new free state, but because of its booming population and the discovery of gold [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/California California was admitted]. Ceded by Mexico by the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Guadalupe_Hidalgo Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo], concluded Feb. 2, 1848, and proclaimed July 4, 1848. From then until statehood, California had a military government until Dec. 20, 1849, and then a local civil government. California never had a territorial form of government. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fugitive_Slave_Law_of_1850 The Fugitive Slave Act] is passed by Congress requiring the return of escaped slaves.
  
*'''1858:''' May 11; [http://lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/today/may11.html Minnesota is the 32nd state admitted to the Union.]
+
*'''1851:''' [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erie_Railroad The Erie Railroad] opens in New York; at 483 miles, it is the longest railroad line in the world. <ref>"1850-1877: Science and Medicine: Chronology." American Eras. Gale Research Inc. 1997. Encyclopedia.com. 9 Apr. 2009 &amp;amp;amp;lt;http://www.encyclopedia.com&amp;amp;amp;gt;. </ref>
  
*'''1859:''' February 14; [http://www.opb.org/programs/oregonexperience/programs/18-Road-to-Statehood Oregon is the 33rd state admitted to the Union.]
+
*'''1853:''' [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Washington_Territory The Washington Territory] and [http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ho/time/dwe/16335.htm The Oregon Territory] are organized. Franklin Pierce is sworn in as the 14th President of the United States with William King as Vice President.
  
==Websites==
+
*'''1854:''' The United States purchases ([http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gadsden_Purchase The Gadsden Purchase]) what is now part of Arizona and New Mexico.
*[http://www.npg.si.edu/exhibit/origins/index.html American Origins] 1600 to 1900 presentation by the Smithsonian.
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 +
*'''1855:''' The Panama Railroad, an American company, completes the [http://www.trainweb.org/panama/history1.html Panama Railroad across the Isthmus of Panama]. From 1855 to 1890 [http://www.castlegarden.org/ Castle Garden] was America's first official immigration center.
 +
 
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*'''1856:''' The first railroad bridge across the Mississippi River is opened, linking Rock Island, Illinois, with Davenport, Iowa.
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*'''1857:''' James Buchanan is sworn in as the 15th President of the United States with John Breckinridge as Vice President.
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*'''1858:''' [http://lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/today/may11.html Minnesota is the 32nd state admitted to the Union.]
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*'''1859:''' [http://www.opb.org/programs/oregonexperience/programs/18-Road-to-Statehood Oregon is the 33rd state admitted to the Union.]
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== Websites ==
 +
 
 +
*[http://www.npg.si.edu/exhibit/origins/index.html American Origins] 1600 to 1900 presentation by the Smithsonian.
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*[http://www.castlegarden.org/manifests.html CastleGarden] manifests.
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*[http://www.let.leidenuniv.nl/history/migration/chapter52.html The Migration to North America]
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*[http://overlandtrails.lib.byu.edu/ Overland Diaries and Letters], 1846-1869 is a collection of the original writings of travelers on the Mormon, California, Oregon, and Montana trails.  
 
*[http://www.nationalgeographic.com/railroad/ The Underground Railroad] presentation by the National Geographic Online.
 
*[http://www.nationalgeographic.com/railroad/ The Underground Railroad] presentation by the National Geographic Online.
  
==Sources==
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== Sources ==
<references/>
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<references />
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{{featured article}}
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[[Category:United_States_History|1789-1859]]

Revision as of 18:31, 15 March 2012

United StatesGotoarrow.pngUnited States History Gotoarrow.png Birth of A Nation 1789-1859

Contents

Follow your ancestor as they lived the "New Nation's" history

Daniel Boone Escorting Settlers Through the Cumberland Gap.jpg
It all started with Thirteen Colonies [1] uniting in their quest for freedom from British Rule. The Revolutionary War was fought, the Declaration of Independence signed and the official separation from Great Britain was acknowledged with the signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1783. This established American control over the territory between the Appalachians Mountains and the Mississippi River. Then a great expansion began. Veterans of the Revolutionary War pursued land in the Ohio Country. Northwest Territory provided land west of the Ohio River. The Louisiana Purchase was completed in 1803 opening the land to the Rocky Mountains and the new country grew. Zanes Trace, The National Road, Oregon Trail, Conestoga wagons, and handcarts all helped with the expansion. Many more territories were opened, roads were made and modes of transportation employed to move people into the frontier. States began getting admitted to the Union as battles were won, treaties were signed and more area was claimed. With the fervor of Manifest Destiny, a movement to the west ensued.[2]

Timeline

  • 1791: Vermont is the 14th state admitted to the Union. Vermont became the first state added to the Union following the 13 colonies on March 1, 1791. Until statehood, had been a region claimed by both New York and New Hampshire.
Underground railroad.jpg
  • 1801: Thomas Jefferson is sworn in as the 3rd President of the United States with Aaron Burr as the Vice President.
  • 1802: Children of naturalized citizens were considered to be citizens as per Act of 1795.
  • 1802: Congress passed the Trade and Intercourse Act, this act directed the army to serve as a "police force" separating Indian and white communities in the expanding regions.
Lewis and clark-expedition.jpg
  • 1804: Louis & Clark begin their expedition of the Louisiana Territory.
  • 1810: The United States annexes what is now part of Alabama, part of Louisiana, and part of Mississippi.
  • 1813: James Madison is sworn in as President for a 2nd term with Elbridge Gerry as the Vice President.
Ft Henry bombardement 1814.jpg
  • 1819: The United States annexes Florida. The Panic of 1819 caused desperate people to live in Tent Cities. The Arkansas Territory is organized. Alabama is the 22nd state admitted to the Union. In January 1861, Alabama seceded from the Union, and on February 4, delegates from six states met at Montgomery and formed the Confederate States of America, with Montgomery as the capital. After the Civil War, Alabama re-entered the Union. Passenger lists are kept for Steamboat travel. [12]
1820 Territorial Growth.jpg
  • 1820: The U.S. population is about 9.6 million. About 151,000 new immigrants arrive in 1820 alone. Maine is the 23rd state admitted to the Union. Its admission to the Union balanced the simultaneous admission of Missouri as a slave state. What is now the state of Maine was, before statehood, called the District of Maine and belonged to Massachusetts. The Missouri Compromise was an agreement between the pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions passed in the United States Congress concerning Western Territories.
  • 1821: James Monroe is sworn in as President for a 2nd term with Daniel Tompkins as Vice President. Missouri is the 24th state admitted to the Union. Missouri was admitted as a slave state on August 10, 1821, after an agreement known as the Missouri Compromise in which Maine was admitted as a free state. The state was much smaller than the territory. The area to the west and northwest of the state, which had been in the territory, was commonly known as the "Missouri Country" until May 30, 1854, and certain of the post offices in this area show a Missouri abbreviation in the postmark.
  • 1825: John Quincy Adams is sworn in as the 6th President of the United States with John Calhoun as Vice President. The Erie Canal is finished providing transportation for travelers and cargo.
  • 1829: Andrew Jackson is sworn in as the 7th President of the United States with John Calhoun as Vice President.
  • 1836:The Wisconsin Territory is organized. Arkansas is the 25th state admitted to the Union despite opposition in Congress to a new slave state. Arkansas Governor Henry M. Rector seized Fort Smith and Arkansas joined the Confederacy in 1861 re-entering the Union at War's end. The territory of Arkansas was larger than the state. After statehood the leftover area to the west had post offices that continued for some years to use an Arkansas abbreviation in the postmarks, although they were really in the "Indian Country."
  • 1841: William Harrison is sworn in as the 9th President of the United States with John Tyler as Vice President. John Tyler is sworn in as the 10th President of the United States.
  • 1844: The United States annexes what are now parts of Colorado, New Mexico, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas as a result of the Adams-Onis Treaty with Spain.
  • 1845: The term Manifest Destiny was a phrase coined by American newspaper editor John O'Sullivan. O'sullivan was writing about the proposed annexation of Texas and stated that it was America's “manifest destiny to overspread the continent.” The idea suggested that through expansion from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific, the United States could become a recognized political and social superpower. America had, in fact, O'Sullivan argued, been uniquely chosen for the task of expanding Westward, driving out the wilderness and establishing civilization. [14] Florida is the 27th state admitted to the Union, and a move delayed by the reluctance of Congress to admit another slave state, and it joined the Confederacy on January 10, 1861, re-entering the Union at war's end. James Polk is sworn in as the 11th President of the United States with George Dallas as Vice President. Texas was an independent republic before statehood and was the 28th state admitted to the Union.
Sites Along the Mormon Trail.png
  • 1846-1847: Crop failures in Europe. Mortgage foreclosures send tens of thousands of the dispossessed go to the United States.
Gold seeking river operations California.jpg
  • 1851: The Erie Railroad opens in New York; at 483 miles, it is the longest railroad line in the world. [17]
  • 1854: The United States purchases (The Gadsden Purchase) what is now part of Arizona and New Mexico.
  • 1856: The first railroad bridge across the Mississippi River is opened, linking Rock Island, Illinois, with Davenport, Iowa.
  • 1857: James Buchanan is sworn in as the 15th President of the United States with John Breckinridge as Vice President.

Websites

Sources

  1. Thirteen Colonies -Wikipedia
  2. An Outline of United States History, for Use in the General Course in United States History, Yale College: By Ralph Henry Gabriel, Dumas Malone, Frederick Johnson Manning, Theodore L. Glasgow. Memorial Publication Fund. Published by Yale university press, 1921. Original from Harvard University. Digitized Jun 19, 2008. 68 pages. page 32. Full text available at Google Books Worldcat
  3. White, George Savage; Memoir of Samuel Slater: the father of American manufactures Edition: 2. Published by s.n., 1836 Original from the New York Public Library. Digitized Jul 13, 2007. 448 pages. Full text available at Google Books
  4. A melancholy scene of devastation: the public response to the 1793 Philadelphia yellow fever epidemic By J. Worth Estes, Billy G. Smith. Contributor J. Worth Estes Edition: illustrated. Published by The Library Company of Phil, 1997. ISBN 088135192X, 9780881351927 211 pages. Worldcat Full text available at Google Books.
  5. The Underground Railroad From Slavery to Freedom By Wilbur Henry Siebert, Albert Bushnell Hart. Edition: 2. Published by Macmillan, 1898. Original from the University of Michigan. Digitized Jun 25, 2007. 478 pages, Indexed. Full text at Google Books.
  6. Mitchell, William M.; The Underground Railroad from Slavery to Freedom Edition: 2. Published by W. Tweedie, 1860. Original from Harvard University. Digitized Aug 4, 2006. 191 pages. Full text available at Google Books
  7. James Alexander Robertson, Paul Alliot; Louisiana Under the Rule of Spain, France, and the United States, 1785-1807: Social, Economic, and Political Conditions of the Territory Represented in the Louisiana Purchase. Published by The Arthur H. Clark Company, 1911. Item notes: v. 2. Worldcat Full text available at Google Books
  8. Robert Fulton –Wikipedia
  9. Forgotten Step toward Freedom
  10. National Road
  11. Francis Scott Key: author of the Star spangled banner; what else he was and who. By Francis Scott Key-Smith Published by Key-Smith and company, 1911. 104 pages. Worldcat. Full text available at Google Books
  12. Filby, P. William, ed. Passenger and Immigration Lists Index: A Guide to Published Arrival Records of ... Passengers who Came to the United States and Canada in the Seventeenth, Eighteenth, and Nineteenth Centuries. Published by Gale Research Co., 1980. Item notes: v. 2. Original from the University of Wisconsin - Madison. Digitized Jun 10, 2008. 324 pages. Worldcat. This series is a finding aid to published passenger lists. Be sure to read the "front material" to understand how to use the information you find.
  13. The settlement of Illinois from 1830 to 1850 (1908) Pooley, William Vipond.
  14. What is Manifest Destiny?
  15. Kinealy, Christine; This great calamity: the Irish famine, 1845-52. Edition: illustrated. Published by Gill &amp;amp;amp; Macmillan, 1994. Original from the University of California. Digitized Sep 4, 2008. 450 pages. Worldcat Snippet view available at Google Books
  16. 1999-2000 Wisconsin Blue Book (published by the State of Wisconsin), on May 29, 1848, Wisconsin became the 30th state in the Union." (p. 630)
  17. "1850-1877: Science and Medicine: Chronology." American Eras. Gale Research Inc. 1997. Encyclopedia.com. 9 Apr. 2009 &amp;amp;lt;http://www.encyclopedia.com&amp;amp;gt;.