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Migration to Canada
- Harriett Tubman was a woman of remarkable skill, determination, and dedication. She was a "conductor" for the Underground Railroad where she assisted runaway slaves to find freedom not only in the northern U.S. but all the way to Canada. There was a notable community in Nova Scotia. Some of the newly free slaves would intermingle with Canadian Indians, as they often did in the U.S. Don't ignore Canada when looking for your African American ancestors! Check out this site about Harriet Tubman
For more, see Canada First Nations Genealogy Research Community
- See routes to freedom taken by runaway slaves: Many Rivers to Cross, the African Canadian Experience
Migration to Liberia
- Recommended Website: 'African-Americans to Liberia, 1820-1904,' by Michael Hait, African American Genealogy Examiner
Migration within the United States
Slave Populations before the Civil War
By 1790, nearly all Africans to be imported to the United States had already arrived. They lived in primarily four states.
- South Carolina—107,000
- North Carolina—101,000
- No other state had more than 30,000 enslaved people.
Between 1820 and 1860, huge increases in slave population occurred across the South. Slave populations in 1860 are listed below:
- South Carolina—402,000
- North Carolina—331,000
Migration after the Civil War
Between 1790 and 1900, 90% of African Americans lived in the South.
By 1960, 50% of African Americans lived in the South.
- 100,000 African Americans moved to Kansas in late 1870s, early 1880s
- 500,000 African Americans left the south during WWI (1916-1919)
o 90,000 to Pennsylvania
o 73,000 to Illinois
o 43,000 to Michigan
- 1 million African Americans left the South in the 1920s
- 5 million African Americans left the South between 1940-1960
- During 1970s, African Americans started returning to the South, especially to larger, urban cities.
- By 1990, 84% of African Americans lived in urban areas.
- See Field to Factory: Afro-American Migration 1915-1940by Spencer Crew.
Enslaved in the North
By 1800, approximately 37,000 northern blacks were still reported in bondage. By 1830, most northern states had required freeing of slaves although 3,600 people remained in bondage, mostly in New Jersey.
In 1860, there were 488,000 free blacks or about 10% of total African Americans in the U.S.
- 46% of free blacks (226,000) lived in North and West
- 46% lived in upper South (KY, MD, MO, TN, VA, NC, DC)
- 8% lived in deep South
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