Albania

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The Cadastral Surveys (1431 to 1912) were a land taxation record, census-like in research usage. The Ottoman Turks conducted extensive surveys of land and population dating from as early as the 1400s. The resulting records are of two types, detailed [''mufassal''] and abridged [''icmal'']. At best, these surveys included less than 30% of the population. Women and children were rarely listed and remote localities may not have been surveyed.
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[[Image:AlbanianEagle.jpg|right|AlbanianEagle.jpg]]
  
Albanian territory was first included in a survey of 1431-1432. The Ottoman Turks conducted an extensive survey of land and population in the province [''sancak''] of Shkodër (northern Albania) for taxation purposes in 1485. This and other cadastral surveys have been published by Turkish archives (''<span>Bas</span>vekâlet Arsivi'' and ''Tapu ve Kadastro umum müdürlügünün'' in Ankara), including the surveys of 1485, 1497, 1534, 1536, 1571, 1582, and 1591. Census-like land surveys (termed ''yoklama''s) were conducted in 1596, 1606, 1672, 1691, 1694, 1698, and 1715. These surveys show a continuing preoccupation with the size of cultivable land and with their revenue. The purpose of these early Ottoman population counts was not to produce an accurate record of the total number of people in the realm. Rather, they were carried out for tax purposes, and their results were recorded in land deed registers (''tapu defteri''). Although the published copy of the 1485 Shkodër survey does appear to include names and patronyms of landowners, available literature about the surveys is inconclusive. Some sources indicate that they generally do not contain names and are likely not of significant genealogical value. Other sources indicate that the fifteenth and sixteenth century ''tahrir''s involved the registration of adult males—chiefly household heads as taxpayers but also bachelors and others. After 1715 the regular practice of compiling these statistics collapsed. Nevertheless there must have been some records made because the collection of taxes could not have been carried out without population data of some sort, probably incomplete information supplied by communal leaders. In the nineteenth century new considerations dictated a new type of survey and something much more like a true census was introduced in 1830, Census and Population Registers. Land surveys, then known as ''emlak tahriri'', continued to be conducted in the 1800s but they were taken separately from the population count. After the Crimean war a cadastral (land) survey was conducted to reestablish the tax base of the empire. This survey was conducted in 1858-1859 in the province of Yanya (which included Albanian territory), then empire-wide in 1860. This and later surveys included names of head of households.
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== Getting started with Albanian research  ==
  
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Albania is a small Balkan state on the Adriatic Sea. The name in Albanian is Shqiperia. The Ottoman Empire controlled Albania from 1478 until 1912. Islam became the majority religion (about 70%). There are still many Orthodox (about 20%) and Roman Catholics (about 10%). There has not been a significant emigration out of Albania to North America and most of those who have emigrated are Roman Catholic. Many of those who have Albanian ancestry are actually descended from Christian Albanians who fled to Italy after Albania was conquered by the Turks. The Turkish occupation caused a great Albanian exodus to southern Italy, especially to the kingdom of Naples, as well as to Sicily and even to Greece.
  
* Specific information is not available. Early surveys may list names of landholders. Surveys of the 1600s through 1800 provide considerable information about land and revenues but likely contain little information about the inhabitants. After 1800 the surveys provide names of heads of households and of any other taxpayers living in the same household; occupation and income; some from the 1800s may include names of females and children.
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== Jurisdictions  ==
  
It is not possible at this time to determine the extent to which this record exists and has been preserved. Some are kept at the Cadastral Department archives [''Tapu'' ''ve Kadastro Umum Mudurlugu arsivi''] in Ankara and Istanbul. Some may also be kept at the Central State Archives of Albania in Tiranë. None of these records have been acquired by the Family History Library. Access to these records is pretty much limited to those who can visit archives in Turkey and Albania.<br /><br />
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[[Albania:Jurisdictions|Jurisdictions in Albania]]
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== Research Tools  ==
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*[http://net.lib.byu.edu/fslab/researchoutlines/Europe/Albania.pdf Research Resources for Albania by BYU]
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*[[Albania Websites|Websites]]
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== Featured Content  ==
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*'''Browse:''' [[:Category:Albania|Pages for Albania]]
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Albania has been a nation long subjected to foreign domination. The mountains still bear the ruined walls of fortresses that once garrisoned Roman legions, Byzantine armies, and Venetian crusaders. Nevertheless the Albanian tribes, isolated by mountains, lakes and swamps, were never fully subdued by their many conquerors. The mountain chieftains retained much authority over their clans. (Read the rest of the article at [[Historical Background of Albania]]
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== Did you know?  ==
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The Albanians are considered to be descendants of Illyrian and Thracian tribes who settled the region in ancient times. The country is ethnically homogeneous with 96 percent of the population being Albanian. There are two major subgroups of Albanians - the Gegs and the Tosks. Historically, the Gegs of northern Albania were herdsmen, mostly Muslim and Roman-Catholic. The Tosks of the south were more generally settled farmers, and their religion was more often Greek-Orthodox but also many Muslims. Today their differences in dialect, religions and social customs are distinguishable but not pronounced. Ninety-five percent of the population are ethnically Albanian. Greeks are the largest minority; they constitute 3% of the population and live in the southern portion of the country. The other 2% include Vlachs (akin to Romanians), Gypsies, Bulgars, and Serbs.
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| style="font-family: verdana; background: rgb(238,238,238)" align="center" | '''Beginners Corner'''
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*[[Albania Beginners Corner Getting Started|Getting started]]
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*[[Albania Beginners Corner What's the Next Step?|What's the next step?]]
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*[[Albania Beginners Corner Finding Your Ancestor in the Records|Finding your ancestor in the records]]
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*[[Albania Beginners Corner Tips for Beginners|Tips for beginners]]
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*[[Church Records in Albania|Church Records in Albania]]
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*[[Civil Registration in Albania|Civil Registration in Albania]]
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*[[Historical Background of Albania|Historical Background of Albania]]<br>
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*[[Albania:Jurisdictions|Jurisdictions]]
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*[[Ottoman Detailed Cadastral Surveys in Albania|Ottoman Detailed Cadastral Surveys in Albania]]
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*[[Population Registers and Census Records in Albania|Population Registers and Census Records in Albania]]
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[[Category:Albania]]

Revision as of 19:29, 11 May 2012

AlbanianEagle.jpg

Contents

Getting started with Albanian research

Albania is a small Balkan state on the Adriatic Sea. The name in Albanian is Shqiperia. The Ottoman Empire controlled Albania from 1478 until 1912. Islam became the majority religion (about 70%). There are still many Orthodox (about 20%) and Roman Catholics (about 10%). There has not been a significant emigration out of Albania to North America and most of those who have emigrated are Roman Catholic. Many of those who have Albanian ancestry are actually descended from Christian Albanians who fled to Italy after Albania was conquered by the Turks. The Turkish occupation caused a great Albanian exodus to southern Italy, especially to the kingdom of Naples, as well as to Sicily and even to Greece.

Jurisdictions

Jurisdictions in Albania

Research Tools

Help Wanted

In order to make this wiki a better research tool, we need your help! Many tasks need to be done. You can help by:

Featured Content

Albania has been a nation long subjected to foreign domination. The mountains still bear the ruined walls of fortresses that once garrisoned Roman legions, Byzantine armies, and Venetian crusaders. Nevertheless the Albanian tribes, isolated by mountains, lakes and swamps, were never fully subdued by their many conquerors. The mountain chieftains retained much authority over their clans. (Read the rest of the article at Historical Background of Albania

Did you know?

The Albanians are considered to be descendants of Illyrian and Thracian tribes who settled the region in ancient times. The country is ethnically homogeneous with 96 percent of the population being Albanian. There are two major subgroups of Albanians - the Gegs and the Tosks. Historically, the Gegs of northern Albania were herdsmen, mostly Muslim and Roman-Catholic. The Tosks of the south were more generally settled farmers, and their religion was more often Greek-Orthodox but also many Muslims. Today their differences in dialect, religions and social customs are distinguishable but not pronounced. Ninety-five percent of the population are ethnically Albanian. Greeks are the largest minority; they constitute 3% of the population and live in the southern portion of the country. The other 2% include Vlachs (akin to Romanians), Gypsies, Bulgars, and Serbs.

(All text below this is included in a column on the left side of the screen.)