American Indian School Records

From FamilySearch Wiki

(Difference between revisions)
m
m (editing and reformatting)
Line 1: Line 1:
'''Types of Schools:''' Mission early -1870, Independent Mission Schools,  Reservation schools, Reservation boarding shcools, Off Reservation schools, Agricultural and industrial schools  
+
'''Types of Schools:''' Mission early -1870, Independent Mission Schools, Reservation schools, Reservation boarding schools, Off-Reservation schools, Agricultural and industrial schools  
  
 
Some boarding schools were managed by church groups under government contract.  
 
Some boarding schools were managed by church groups under government contract.  
Line 5: Line 5:
 
Advanced Schools: Carlisle in Pennsylvania, Chemawa in Oregon, Haskel in Kansas, and Sherman in California  
 
Advanced Schools: Carlisle in Pennsylvania, Chemawa in Oregon, Haskel in Kansas, and Sherman in California  
  
*1879: November 1, Carlisle, Pennsylvania - Carlisle School opened
+
=== History  ===
*1884: 200 Indian Schools
+
*1887: 10,000 Indian children were in school 
+
*1890: 104 Reservation schools
+
*1896: Congress reduced funds to the Indian Schools, this year the cut was 80%
+
*1894: 77 Reservation Boarding schools
+
*1900: government support for church run Indian schools was completely withdrawn
+
*Mid 1900: government schools discontinued and the American Indians were to be assimilated into the public schools
+
*2004: 34 Tribal Colleges serving 30,000
+
  
 
+
Many of those involved in Indian Affairs desired to assimilate the native population and to teach them to rid themselves of their native culture. Efforts were made to accomplish that by sending representatives of various religious denominations to “convert them to Christianity.” Certainly, this effort was met with some success.
  
== History  ==
+
Another approach was tried in the late 1800s. Some Bureau of Indian Affairs officials felt that if the American Indian children could be sent to schools off the reservations, they could be taught English and to renounce their culture. Lt. Richard Henry Pratt established the Carlisle Indian School in Pennsylvania, which became the beginning of the Indian Boarding School System.  
 
+
The desire of many of those involved in Indian Affairs was to assimilate the native population and to teach them to rid themselves of their native culture. Efforts were made to accomplish that by sending representatives of various religious denominations to “convert them to Christianity.” Certainly, this effort was met with some success.
+
 
+
Another approach was tried in the late 1800s. Some felt that if the American Indian children could be sent to schools off the reservations, they could be taught English and to renounce their culture. Lt. Richard Henry Pratt established the Carlisle Indian School in Pennsylvania, which became the beginning of the Indian Boarding School System.  
+
  
 
An Education Division of the Bureau of Indian Affairs was established in 1885. This brought an intensification of the effort to educate the younger American Indians in agriculture, domestic skills, mechanical training, and the basic subjects of reading, writing, and arithmetic.  
 
An Education Division of the Bureau of Indian Affairs was established in 1885. This brought an intensification of the effort to educate the younger American Indians in agriculture, domestic skills, mechanical training, and the basic subjects of reading, writing, and arithmetic.  
  
A number of boarding schools were established, all of which required the young person to leave their family, their reservation, and their culture to live at the school and be taught. Some of the more well-known boarding schools include the [[Carlisle Indian Industrial School (Pennsylvania)|Carlisle Indian School]] in Pennsylvania, [[Haskell Institute|Haskell Institute]] in Kansas, [[Sherman Institute|Sherman Institute]] in California, [[Chilocco Indian School|Chilocco School]] in Oklahoma, and the Intermountain Indian School in Utah. There were also many smaller boarding schools, the [[Pipestone Indian Boarding School|Pipestone Indian Boarding School]] in Minnesota as an example. In all, there were some 500 boarding schools, some near the reservations they served, but many which were far away. Most of the boarding schools had ceased to operate by the 1980s.  
+
A number of boarding schools were established, all of which required the young person to leave their family, their reservation, and their culture to live at the school and be taught. Some of the larger and more well-known boarding schools included the [[Carlisle Indian Industrial School (Pennsylvania)|Carlisle Indian School]] in Pennsylvania, [[Haskell Institute|Haskell Institute]] in Kansas, [[Sherman Institute|Sherman Institute]] in California, [[Chilocco Indian School|Chilocco School]] in Oklahoma, and the Intermountain Indian School in Utah. There were also many smaller boarding schools, the [[Pipestone Indian Boarding School|Pipestone Indian Boarding School]] in Minnesota as an example. In all, there were some 500 boarding schools, some near the reservations they served, but many which were far away. Most of the boarding schools had ceased to operate by the 1980s.  
  
 
In addition to boarding schools, day schools were established on or near some reservations.  
 
In addition to boarding schools, day schools were established on or near some reservations.  
  
The education of Native American children changed significantly with the passage of the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934. Tribes were given greater autonomy in where their students could go to school, what they were taught, etc. And Indian education continues to evolve. For information about Indian education in today's world, see the web site of the [http://www.oiep.bia.edu/ Bureau of Indian Education].  
+
The education of Native American children changed significantly with the passage of the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934. Tribes were given greater autonomy in where their students could go to school, what they were taught, etc. Indian education continues to evolve. For information about Indian education in today's world, see the web site of the [http://www.oiep.bia.edu/ Bureau of Indian Education].  
  
== Records  ==
+
==== Brief Timeline  ====
 +
 
 +
*1879, November 1: Carlisle, Pennsylvania - Carlisle School opened
 +
*1884: 200 Indian Schools were operating
 +
*1887: 10,000 Indian children were in school
 +
*1890: 104 Reservation schools were operating
 +
*1894: 77 Reservation boarding schools were operating
 +
*1896: Congress reduced funds to the Indian Schools; in this year the funding was cut 80%
 +
*1900: government support for church-run Indian schools was completely withdrawn
 +
*Mid 1900: government schools were discontinued and the Indian students were to be assimilated into the public schools
 +
*2004: 34 Tribal Colleges serving 30,000 were in operation
 +
 
 +
=== Records  ===
  
 
The agents of the Bureau of Indian Affairs on each reservation were required to maintain records of potential students at schools. '''School census records included''' names school-age children, their age, place of birth, and, in some cases, the name of their parent or guardian. Reports were sent by the agents to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs regarding the enrollment of students from their reservation.  
 
The agents of the Bureau of Indian Affairs on each reservation were required to maintain records of potential students at schools. '''School census records included''' names school-age children, their age, place of birth, and, in some cases, the name of their parent or guardian. Reports were sent by the agents to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs regarding the enrollment of students from their reservation.  
Line 43: Line 43:
 
Under each state of the United States is a heading, "American Indians." One of the sub-headings on that page is "Schools." Pages regarding the history, location, and availability of the records for each school are being developed.<br>  
 
Under each state of the United States is a heading, "American Indians." One of the sub-headings on that page is "Schools." Pages regarding the history, location, and availability of the records for each school are being developed.<br>  
  
== References: ==
+
=== External Links ===
  
[http://www.twofrog.com/rezsch.html The Reservation Boarding School System in the United States, 1870-1928].
+
[http://www.stateuniversity.com/universities/KS/Haskell_Indian_Nations_University.html Haskell Indian Nations University]  
  
A [http://home.epix.net/~landis/secondary.html reading list] for those wanting to know more about Indian boarding schools and the experiences of students may refer to such a list, compiled by the Carlisle Indian School.
+
[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intermountain_Indian_School Intermountain Indian School]
  
==== Bibliography  ====
+
Texas Tech University [http://www.lib.utexas.edu/taro/ttusw/00081/tsw-00081.html Indian Schools Collection]
  
*Child, Brenda J. ''Boarding School Seasons: American Indian Families, 1900-1940''. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2000. [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/38601984&referer=brief_results WorldCat 38601984]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=1123164&disp=Boarding+school+seasons%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 C436b].
+
==== See also: ====
  
== External Links:  ==
+
[[Indians of the United States and Their Records|Indians_of_the_United_States_and_Their_Records]]
  
[http://www.stateuniversity.com/universities/KS/Haskell_Indian_Nations_University.html Haskell Indian Nations University]
+
=== References  ===
  
[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intermountain_Indian_School Intermountain Indian School]  
+
[http://www.twofrog.com/rezsch.html The Reservation Boarding School System in the United States, 1870-1928].
  
Texas Tech University [http://www.lib.utexas.edu/taro/ttusw/00081/tsw-00081.html Indian Schools Collection]
+
A [http://home.epix.net/~landis/secondary.html reading list] for those wanting to know more about Indian boarding schools and the experiences of students may refer to such a list, compiled by the Carlisle Indian School.
  
'''See also:'''
+
=== Bibliography  ===
  
[[Indians of the United States and Their Records|Indians_of_the_United_States_and_Their_Records]]  
+
*Child, Brenda J. ''Boarding School Seasons: American Indian Families, 1900-1940''. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2000. [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/38601984&referer=brief_results WorldCat 38601984]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=1123164&disp=Boarding+school+seasons%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 C436b].
  
 
[[Category:Indians_of_the_United_States]] [[Category:American_Indian_Schools]]
 
[[Category:Indians_of_the_United_States]] [[Category:American_Indian_Schools]]

Revision as of 19:25, 21 April 2010

Types of Schools: Mission early -1870, Independent Mission Schools, Reservation schools, Reservation boarding schools, Off-Reservation schools, Agricultural and industrial schools

Some boarding schools were managed by church groups under government contract.

Advanced Schools: Carlisle in Pennsylvania, Chemawa in Oregon, Haskel in Kansas, and Sherman in California

Contents

History

Many of those involved in Indian Affairs desired to assimilate the native population and to teach them to rid themselves of their native culture. Efforts were made to accomplish that by sending representatives of various religious denominations to “convert them to Christianity.” Certainly, this effort was met with some success.

Another approach was tried in the late 1800s. Some Bureau of Indian Affairs officials felt that if the American Indian children could be sent to schools off the reservations, they could be taught English and to renounce their culture. Lt. Richard Henry Pratt established the Carlisle Indian School in Pennsylvania, which became the beginning of the Indian Boarding School System.

An Education Division of the Bureau of Indian Affairs was established in 1885. This brought an intensification of the effort to educate the younger American Indians in agriculture, domestic skills, mechanical training, and the basic subjects of reading, writing, and arithmetic.

A number of boarding schools were established, all of which required the young person to leave their family, their reservation, and their culture to live at the school and be taught. Some of the larger and more well-known boarding schools included the Carlisle Indian School in Pennsylvania, Haskell Institute in Kansas, Sherman Institute in California, Chilocco School in Oklahoma, and the Intermountain Indian School in Utah. There were also many smaller boarding schools, the Pipestone Indian Boarding School in Minnesota as an example. In all, there were some 500 boarding schools, some near the reservations they served, but many which were far away. Most of the boarding schools had ceased to operate by the 1980s.

In addition to boarding schools, day schools were established on or near some reservations.

The education of Native American children changed significantly with the passage of the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934. Tribes were given greater autonomy in where their students could go to school, what they were taught, etc. Indian education continues to evolve. For information about Indian education in today's world, see the web site of the Bureau of Indian Education.

Brief Timeline

  • 1879, November 1: Carlisle, Pennsylvania - Carlisle School opened
  • 1884: 200 Indian Schools were operating
  • 1887: 10,000 Indian children were in school
  • 1890: 104 Reservation schools were operating
  • 1894: 77 Reservation boarding schools were operating
  • 1896: Congress reduced funds to the Indian Schools; in this year the funding was cut 80%
  • 1900: government support for church-run Indian schools was completely withdrawn
  • Mid 1900: government schools were discontinued and the Indian students were to be assimilated into the public schools
  • 2004: 34 Tribal Colleges serving 30,000 were in operation

Records

The agents of the Bureau of Indian Affairs on each reservation were required to maintain records of potential students at schools. School census records included names school-age children, their age, place of birth, and, in some cases, the name of their parent or guardian. Reports were sent by the agents to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs regarding the enrollment of students from their reservation.

The schools themselves maintained individual pupil files, as well as attendance records, and other records of the health of the students, teachers at the schools, etc.

Some of the records of government boarding and day schools have been transferred to the National Archives and Records Administration system. If the school is still in operation, some records are still maintained by their administrative office. Some records have been acquired by historical societies or universities

See also:

Under each state of the United States is a heading, "American Indians." One of the sub-headings on that page is "Schools." Pages regarding the history, location, and availability of the records for each school are being developed.

External Links

Haskell Indian Nations University

Intermountain Indian School

Texas Tech University Indian Schools Collection

See also:

Indians_of_the_United_States_and_Their_Records

References

The Reservation Boarding School System in the United States, 1870-1928.

A reading list for those wanting to know more about Indian boarding schools and the experiences of students may refer to such a list, compiled by the Carlisle Indian School.

Bibliography