American Indian Treaties with the United States

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== Treaties Between the U.S. Government and Native American Tribes ==
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''[[United States|United States]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[American Indian Genealogy|American Indian Research]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[American_Indian_Treaties_with_the_United_States|Treaties]]''
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=== Treaties  ===
  
 
It was determined, even during the Colonial period in North America, that it was desirable to reach agreements with the Native American tribes, rather than fight them. The European countries who had interests in North America all tried to reach such agreements during the time periods they had those interests.  
 
It was determined, even during the Colonial period in North America, that it was desirable to reach agreements with the Native American tribes, rather than fight them. The European countries who had interests in North America all tried to reach such agreements during the time periods they had those interests.  
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In general, treaties with Native American tribes ceased by about 1873, although there were a few after that date. After 1873, most agreements between the federal government and the tribes were handled by a more informal method.  
 
In general, treaties with Native American tribes ceased by about 1873, although there were a few after that date. After 1873, most agreements between the federal government and the tribes were handled by a more informal method.  
  
== <span id="1280861130240S" style="display: none">&nbsp;</span><span id="fck_dom_range_temp_1280861129855_59" />Copies of Treaties Available Online  ==
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=== Copies of Treaties Available Online  ===
 
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Most of the treaties have been made available online through Charles J. Kappler's Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties. Other sources exist for non-ratified treaties and copies of treaties from sources other than Kappler's work. The University of Oklahoma has them online and searchable by name of tribe or by year. To view them, see their [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm table of contents].
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The following is a list of treaties available online. They are arranged in alphabetical order by the name of the treaty, which is often the location where the treaty was signed or the name of the tribe treating with the U.S. government. There are many more which have not yet been added.
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==== AIONAI&nbsp;(Also I-ON-I)  ====
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*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/com0554.htm Comanche, Aionai, '''Anadarko''', Caddo, Etc., 1846]&nbsp;Oklahoma State University
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==== '''ANADARKO (Also ANA-DA-CA)<br>''' ====
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*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/com0554.htm Comanche, Aionai, '''Anadarko''', Caddo, Etc., 1846]&nbsp;Oklahoma State University
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==== APACHE  ====
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*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Apache, 1852]
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*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Apache, Cheyenne, And Arapaho, 1865]&nbsp;Oklahoma State University
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*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Cheyenne And Arapaho, 1865 Oklahoma] State University
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*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Comanche, Kiowa, And Apache,1853] Oklahoma State University&nbsp;
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*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Kiowa, Comanche, And Apache, 1867] Oklahoma State University
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==== APPALACHICOLA<br> ====
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*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Appalachicola Band, 1832]&nbsp;Oklahoma State University
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*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Appalachicola Band, 1833]&nbsp; Oklahoma State University <br>
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==== ARAPAHO (Also ARRAPAHOE; ARAPAHOE)<br> ====
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*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Apache, Cheyenne, And Arapaho, 1865]&nbsp; Oklahoma State University
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*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Arapaho And Cheyenne, 1861]&nbsp; Oklahoma State University
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*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Cheyenne And Arapaho, 1865]&nbsp; Oklahoma State University
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*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Cheyenne And Arapaho, 1867]&nbsp; Oklahoma State University
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*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Northern Cheyenne And Northern Arapaho, 1868]&nbsp; Oklahoma State University
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*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty Of Fort Laramie With Sioux, Etc., 1851]&nbsp; Oklahoma State University
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*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Sioux—Brulé, Oglala, Miniconjou, Yanktonai, Hunkpapa, Blackfeet, Cuthead, Two Kettle, Sans Arcs, And Santee—and Arapaho,]&nbsp; Oklahoma State University&nbsp;
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==== &nbsp;ARIKARA (Also RICARA; ARICKAREE)<br> ====
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*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Arikara Tribe, 1825]&nbsp; Oklahoma State University
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*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Agreement At Fort Berthold, 1866]&nbsp; Oklahoma State University
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*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty Of Fort Laramie With Sioux, Etc., 1851]&nbsp; Oklahoma State University
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==== &nbsp;ASSINABOINE<br> ====
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*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty Of Fort Laramie With Sioux, Etc., 1851]&nbsp; Oklahoma State University&nbsp;<br>
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==== '''&nbsp;BANNOCK'''<br> ====
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*&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Eastern Band Shoshoni And Bannock, 1868]&nbsp;&nbsp;Oklahoma State University <br>
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==== &nbsp; BELANTSE-ETOA OR MINITAREE&nbsp;  ====
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Belantse-Etoa Or Minitaree Tribe, 1825]&nbsp; Oklahoma State University
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==== &nbsp; BLACKFEET (Also BLACKFOOT; BLACKFOOT NATION)<br> ====
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Blackfeet, 1855]&nbsp;&nbsp; Oklahoma State University&nbsp;
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Blackfeet Sioux, 1865]&nbsp; Oklahoma State University
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==== '''&nbsp; BLOOD'''<br> ====
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Blackfeet, 1855]&nbsp;&nbsp;Oklahoma State University&nbsp; <br>
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==== &nbsp; BROTHERTOWN<br> ====
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The New York Indians, 1838]&nbsp; Oklahoma State University <br>
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==== &nbsp; CADDO (Also CADOE)<br> ====
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*&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Caddo, 1835]&nbsp;&nbsp;Oklahoma State University&nbsp;
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Comanche, Aionai, Anadarko, Caddo, Etc., 1846]&nbsp; Oklahoma State University <br>
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==== &nbsp; CAHOKIA<br> ====
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Peoria, Etc., 1818]&nbsp; Oklahoma State University <br><br>
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==== &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;CALAPOOIA (See KALAPUYA)  ====
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==== &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;CAYUGA<span id="fck_dom_range_temp_1280852224333_653" /><br> ====
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*&nbsp;&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Agreement With The Five Nations Of Indians, 1792]&nbsp;&nbsp;Oklahoma State University&nbsp;
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*&nbsp;&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Six Nations, 1784]&nbsp;&nbsp;Oklahoma State University&nbsp;
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The New York Indians, 1838]&nbsp;&nbsp;Oklahoma State University&nbsp;
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Six Nations, 1789]&nbsp;&nbsp;Oklahoma State University&nbsp;
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Six Nations, 1794]&nbsp; Oklahoma State University
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==== &nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;CAYUSE<br> ====
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Walla-Walla, Cayuse, Etc., 1855]&nbsp; Oklahoma State University
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==== &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; CHASTA<br> ====
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Chasta, Etc., 1854]&nbsp;&nbsp;Oklahoma State University&nbsp;&nbsp;
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==== &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; CHEROKEE<br> ====
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Cherokee, 1785]&nbsp;Oklahoma State University
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Cherokee, 1791]&nbsp;Oklahoma State University
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Cherokee, 1794] Oklahoma State University
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Cherokee, 1798] Oklahoma State University
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Cherokee, 1804] Oklahoma State University
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Cherokee, 1805] Oklahoma State University
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Cherokee, 1805] Oklahoma State University
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Cherokee, 1806] Oklahoma State University
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Cherokee, 1816] Oklahoma State University
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Cherokee, 1816] Oklahoma State University
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Cherokee, 1816] Oklahoma State University
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Cherokee, 1817] Oklahoma State University
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Cherokee, 1819] Oklahoma State University
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Western Cherokee, 1828] Oklahoma State University
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Western Cherokee, 1833] Oklahoma State University
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Cherokee, 1835] Oklahoma State University
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Cherokee, 1846 [Western Cherokee]] Oklahoma State University
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Cherokee, 1866] Oklahoma State University
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Cherokee, 1868] Oklahoma State University
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Agreement With The Cherokee, 1835 (Unratified)] Oklahoma State University
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Agreement With The Cherokee And Other Tribes In The Indian Territory, 1865]&nbsp;&nbsp;OK.S.U.
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Comanche, Etc., 1835] Oklahoma State University
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==== &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; CHEYENNE (Also CHAYENNE)  ====
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Apache, Cheyenne, And Arapaho, 1865<br>]
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Arapaho And Cheyenne, 1861<br>]
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Cheyenne Tribe, 1825<br>]
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Cheyenne And Arapaho, 1865<br>]
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Cheyenne And Arapaho, 1867<br>]
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Northern Cheyenne And Northern Arapaho, 1868<br>]
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty Of Fort Laramie With Sioux, Etc., 1851]
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==== &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; CHICKASAW (Also CHICKESAW)<br> ====
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Agreement With The Cherokee And Other Tribes In The Indian Territory, 1865]
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Chickasaw, 1786]
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Chickasaw, 1801]
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Chickasaw, 1805]
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Chickasaw, 1816]
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Chickasaw, 1818]
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Chickasaw, 1832]
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Chickasaw, 1832]
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Chickasaw, 1834]
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Chickasaw, 1830]
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Choctaw And Chickasaw, 1837]
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Chickasaw, 1852]
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Choctaw And Chickasaw, 1854]
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Choctaw And Chickasaw, 1855]
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Choctaw And Chickasaw, 1866[n]]&nbsp;&nbsp;
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<br>
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==== &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;CHIPPEWA (Also CHIPPEWAY; CHIPAWA)  ====
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Chippewa, Etc., 1808]
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Chippewa, 1819<br>]
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Chippewa, 1820<br>]
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Ottawa And Chippewa, 1820<br>]
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Chippewa, 1826<br>]
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Chippewa, Etc., 1827<br>]
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Chippewa, Etc., 1829<br>]
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Chippewa, Etc., 1833<br>]
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Chippewa, 1836<br>]
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Chippewa, 1837<br>]
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Chippewa, 1837<br>]
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Chippewa, 1837<br>]
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Chippewa, 1838<br>]
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Chippewa, 1839<br>]
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*&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Chippewa, 1842]
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[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm Treaty With The Chippewa Of The Mississippi And Lake Superior, 1847<br>Treaty With The Chippewa, 1854<br>Treaty With The Chippewa, 1855<br>Treaty With The Chippewa Of Saginaw, Etc., 1855<br>Treaty With The Chippewa, Etc., 1859<br>Treaty With The Chippewa Of The Mississippi And The Pillager And Lake Winnibigoshish Bands, 1863<br>Treaty With The Chippewa—Red Lake And Pembina Bands, 1863<br>Treaty With The Chippewa—Red Lake And Pembina Bands, 1864<br>Treaty With The Chippewa, Mississippi, And Pillager And Lake Winnibigoshish Bands, 1864<br>Treaty With The Chippewa Of Saginaw, Swan Creek, And Black River, 1864<br>Treaty With The Chippewa—Bois Forte Band, 1866<br>Treaty With The Chippewa Of The Mississippi, 1867<br>Treaty With The Chippewa Of The Mississippi And Lake Superior, 1847<br>Treaty With The Chippewa, 1854<br>Treaty With The Chippewa, 1855<br>Treaty With The Chippewa Of Saginaw, Etc., 1855<br>Treaty With The Chippewa, Etc., 1859<br>Treaty With The Chippewa Of The Mississippi And The Pillager And Lake Winnibigoshish Bands, 1863<br>Treaty With The Chippewa—Red Lake And Pembina Bands, 1863<br>Treaty With The Chippewa—Red Lake And Pembina Bands, 1864<br>Treaty With The Chippewa, Mississippi, And Pillager And Lake Winnibigoshish Bands, 1864<br>Treaty With The Chippewa Of Saginaw, Swan Creek, And Black River, 1864<br>Treaty With The Chippewa—Bois Forte Band, 1866<br>Treaty With The Chippewa Of The Mississippi, 1867<br><span id="fck_dom_range_temp_1280861040344_152" />]
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Most of the treaties have been made available [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/ online] through Charles J. Kappler's Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties. Other sources exist for non-ratified treaties and copies of treaties from sources other than Kappler's work.  
  
====
+
The '''University of Oklahoma''' has them online and searchable by name of tribe or by year. To view them, see their [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Kappler/Vol2/toc.htm table of contents].
  
<br>
+
The following is a list of some treaties available elsewhere&nbsp;online. They are arranged in alphabetical order by the name of the treaty, which is often the location where the treaty was signed or the name of the tribe treating with the U.S. government. There are many more which have not yet been added.
  
 +
:Dancing Rabbit Creek, 1830<ref>Treaty at Dancing Rabbit Creek, 1830 [http://s3.amazonaws.com/choctaw-msldigital/assets/157/1830_Treaty_of_Dancing_Rabbit_Creek_original.pdf].</ref> -- Choctaw
 +
:Fort Laramie, 1868<ref>Treaty of Fort Laramie, 1868 [http://www.firstpeople.us/FP-Html-Treaties/FortLaramieTreaty1868.html].</ref> -- Sioux
 +
:Greenville, 1795<ref>Treaty of Greenville, 1795 [http://www.firstpeople.us/FP-Html-Treaties/TreatyOfGreenville1795.html].</ref>
 
:Medicine Creek, 1854<ref>Treaty of Medicine Creek, 1854, Washington Governor's Office of Indian Affairs [http://www.goia.wa.gov/Treaties/Treaties/medicinecreek.htm available online].</ref>  
 
:Medicine Creek, 1854<ref>Treaty of Medicine Creek, 1854, Washington Governor's Office of Indian Affairs [http://www.goia.wa.gov/Treaties/Treaties/medicinecreek.htm available online].</ref>  
 
:Neah Bay, 1855<ref>Treaty of Neah Bay, 1855, Washington Governor's Office of Indian Affairs [http://www.goia.wa.gov/Treaties/Treaties/pointnopoint.htm available online].</ref>  
 
:Neah Bay, 1855<ref>Treaty of Neah Bay, 1855, Washington Governor's Office of Indian Affairs [http://www.goia.wa.gov/Treaties/Treaties/pointnopoint.htm available online].</ref>  
Line 192: Line 31:
 
:Point No Point, 1855<ref>Treaty of Point No Point, 1855, Washington Governor's Office of Indian Affairs [http://www.goia.wa.gov/Treaties/Treaties/pointnopoint.htm available online].</ref>  
 
:Point No Point, 1855<ref>Treaty of Point No Point, 1855, Washington Governor's Office of Indian Affairs [http://www.goia.wa.gov/Treaties/Treaties/pointnopoint.htm available online].</ref>  
 
:Quinault, 1856<ref>Quinault Treaty, 1856, Washington Governor's Office of Indian Affairs [http://www.goia.wa.gov/Treaties/Treaties/quinault.htm available online]</ref>  
 
:Quinault, 1856<ref>Quinault Treaty, 1856, Washington Governor's Office of Indian Affairs [http://www.goia.wa.gov/Treaties/Treaties/quinault.htm available online]</ref>  
:Walla Walla, 1855<ref>Treaty with the Walla Walls, 1855, Washington Governor's Office of Indian Affairs [http://www.goia.wa.gov/Treaties/Treaties/wallawalla.htm available online].</ref>  
+
:Walla Walla, 1855<ref>Treaty with the Walla Wallas, 1855, Washington Governor's Office of Indian Affairs [http://www.goia.wa.gov/Treaties/Treaties/wallawalla.htm available online].</ref>  
 
:Yakama, 1855<ref>Treaty with the Yakama, 1855, Washington Governor's Office of Indian Affairs [http://www.goia.wa.gov/Treaties/Treaties/yakima.htm available online].</ref>
 
:Yakama, 1855<ref>Treaty with the Yakama, 1855, Washington Governor's Office of Indian Affairs [http://www.goia.wa.gov/Treaties/Treaties/yakima.htm available online].</ref>
  
== References  ==
+
=== References  ===
  
<references />
+
<references />  
  
 
=== Bibliography  ===
 
=== Bibliography  ===
  
 
*''Early Recognized Treaties with American Indian Nations'', published by the University of Nebraska Libraries - Lincoln Electronic Text Center. [http://earlytreaties.unl.edu/index.html Available online].  
 
*''Early Recognized Treaties with American Indian Nations'', published by the University of Nebraska Libraries - Lincoln Electronic Text Center. [http://earlytreaties.unl.edu/index.html Available online].  
*Kappler, Charles J. ''Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties''. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office. 7 volumes. WorldCat 74490963; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=53745&disp=Indian+treaties%2C+1778%2D1883%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 K142i]. [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/index.htm Available online].  
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*Kappler, Charles J. ''Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties''. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office. 7 volumes. WorldCat 74490963; {{FHL|53745|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 K142i}}. [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/index.htm Available online].  
*United States Department of the Interior. ''Executive Orders Relating to Indian Reservations''. Washington: [United States] Government Printing Office, 1912 (v. 1), 1922 (v. 2). Vol. 1 – May 14, 1855 to July 1, 1912. Vol. 2 – July 1, 1912 to July 1, 1922. [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=1024754&disp=Executive+orders+relating+to+Indian+rese%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL film 1440543 Items 8-9].<br>
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*United States Department of the Interior. ''Executive Orders Relating to Indian Reservations''. Washington: [United States] Government Printing Office, 1912 (v. 1), 1922 (v. 2). Vol. 1 – May 14, 1855 to July 1, 1912. Vol. 2 – July 1, 1912 to July 1, 1922. {{FHL|1024754|title-id|disp=FHL film 1440543 Items 8-9}}.<br>  
 
*Washington ''Governor's Office of Indian Affairs'', Tribal Government page. [http://www.goia.wa.gov/tribal_gov/tribal_gov.html Available online]
 
*Washington ''Governor's Office of Indian Affairs'', Tribal Government page. [http://www.goia.wa.gov/tribal_gov/tribal_gov.html Available online]
  
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[[Category:Indians_of_the_United_States]]

Revision as of 15:54, 18 March 2013

United States Gotoarrow.png American Indian Research Gotoarrow.png Treaties

Contents

Treaties

It was determined, even during the Colonial period in North America, that it was desirable to reach agreements with the Native American tribes, rather than fight them. The European countries who had interests in North America all tried to reach such agreements during the time periods they had those interests.

When the federal government was established, efforts were made to persuade the various Indian tribes to give up their claims to land and to remain loyal to the colonists. These agreements were called treaties.

Treaties were negotiated between the federal government and the respective tribes as if the tribes were independent nations. According to the provisions of the U.S. Constitution, such treaties had to be ratified by the U.S. Senate.

Representatives of the federal government and of the particular tribe signed the treaties, so at least some of the tribal members are listed on the treaty. Normally, one of the provisions of a treaty was an annual payment called an annuity.

Copies of treaties are a part of the Congressional Record and have been copied and printed in many places (see Bibliography below). Many have also been made available on the internet.

In general, treaties with Native American tribes ceased by about 1873, although there were a few after that date. After 1873, most agreements between the federal government and the tribes were handled by a more informal method.

Copies of Treaties Available Online

Most of the treaties have been made available online through Charles J. Kappler's Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties. Other sources exist for non-ratified treaties and copies of treaties from sources other than Kappler's work.

The University of Oklahoma has them online and searchable by name of tribe or by year. To view them, see their table of contents.

The following is a list of some treaties available elsewhere online. They are arranged in alphabetical order by the name of the treaty, which is often the location where the treaty was signed or the name of the tribe treating with the U.S. government. There are many more which have not yet been added.

Dancing Rabbit Creek, 1830[1] -- Choctaw
Fort Laramie, 1868[2] -- Sioux
Greenville, 1795[3]
Medicine Creek, 1854[4]
Neah Bay, 1855[5]
Point Elliott, 1855[6]
Point No Point, 1855[7]
Quinault, 1856[8]
Walla Walla, 1855[9]
Yakama, 1855[10]

References

  1. Treaty at Dancing Rabbit Creek, 1830 [1].
  2. Treaty of Fort Laramie, 1868 [2].
  3. Treaty of Greenville, 1795 [3].
  4. Treaty of Medicine Creek, 1854, Washington Governor's Office of Indian Affairs available online.
  5. Treaty of Neah Bay, 1855, Washington Governor's Office of Indian Affairs available online.
  6. Treaty of Point Elliott, 1855, Washington Governor's Office of Indian Affairs available online.
  7. Treaty of Point No Point, 1855, Washington Governor's Office of Indian Affairs available online.
  8. Quinault Treaty, 1856, Washington Governor's Office of Indian Affairs available online
  9. Treaty with the Walla Wallas, 1855, Washington Governor's Office of Indian Affairs available online.
  10. Treaty with the Yakama, 1855, Washington Governor's Office of Indian Affairs available online.

Bibliography

  • Early Recognized Treaties with American Indian Nations, published by the University of Nebraska Libraries - Lincoln Electronic Text Center. Available online.
  • Kappler, Charles J. Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office. 7 volumes. WorldCat 74490963; FHL book 970.1 K142i. Available online.
  • United States Department of the Interior. Executive Orders Relating to Indian Reservations. Washington: [United States] Government Printing Office, 1912 (v. 1), 1922 (v. 2). Vol. 1 – May 14, 1855 to July 1, 1912. Vol. 2 – July 1, 1912 to July 1, 1922. FHL film 1440543 Items 8-9.
  • Washington Governor's Office of Indian Affairs, Tribal Government page. Available online