Blackfeet Indians

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''[[Indians of Montana|Indians of Montana]] > Blackfeet Indians''
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[[Image:Michael.jpg|thumb|right]]  
  
{{infobox ethnic group
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To get started with [[American Indian Genealogy|American Indian Research]] ''[[Indians of Montana|Indians of Montana]] > Blackfeet Indians'' {{infobox ethnic group
 
|group = Blackfeet
 
|group = Blackfeet
 
|image = [[Image:Blackfeet_IndiansThree_chiefs_Piegan.jpg|232x231px]]
 
|image = [[Image:Blackfeet_IndiansThree_chiefs_Piegan.jpg|232x231px]]
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}}  
 
}}  
  
'''Alternate Names and Spellings:''' Blackfeet<ref>The official tribal name is Blackfeet, as recognized by the U.S. Government and as used by the tribe itself on their official website.</ref>, Blackfoot and Blackfoot Nation<ref>Used by the federal government in the Treaty of 1855.</ref>; Pecunnie, Pikuni<ref>State Office of Indian Affairs website for the [http://www.tribalnations.mt.gov/blackfeet.asp Blackfeet Indians]</ref>  
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'''Alternate Names and Spellings:''' Blackfeet<ref>The official tribal name is Blackfeet, as recognized by the U.S. Government and as used by the tribe itself on their official website.</ref>, Blackfoot and Blackfoot Nation<ref>The name Blackfoot was used by the federal government in the Treaty of 1855.</ref>; Pecunnie, Pikuni<ref>State Office of Indian Affairs website for the [http://www.tribalnations.mt.gov/blackfeet.asp Blackfeet Indians]</ref>, Siksika
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=== Famous: [http://monadarkfeathernativeamerican.blogspot.com Mona Darkfeather]  ===
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=== Tribal Headquarters  ===
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Blackfeet Nation<br>1 Agency Square<br>Browning, MT 59417<br>Phone: 1-1-406-338-7521<br>Fax: 1.406.338.7530
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*[http://www.blackfeetnation.com/ Tribal Web Site] of the Blackfeet Indians of Montana
  
 
=== History  ===
 
=== History  ===
  
Originally the Blackfeet lived in the Saskatchewan River Valley of Saskatchewan, Canada, and the upper plains of the United States. By 1850 the tribe had moved to the Rocky Mountains and Missouri River areas.  
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[[Image:Chief Mountain Blackfeet Indians.jpg|thumb|282x202px]] Originally the Blackfeet lived in the Saskatchewan River Valley of Saskatchewan, Canada, and the upper plains of the United States. By 1850 the tribe had moved to the Rocky Mountains and Missouri River areas.  
  
 
Smallpox epidemics depopulated the tribe through the 1800's, especially during the years of 1837, 1845, 1857, 1869 and 1870 when the disease was most virulent. In the 1837 epidemic, approximately 6,000 members of the tribe were killed by the disease<ref>[http://www.blackfeetnation.com/about-the-blackfeet/our-history.html Our History], from the Tribal website of the Blackfeet Nation.</ref>.<br>  
 
Smallpox epidemics depopulated the tribe through the 1800's, especially during the years of 1837, 1845, 1857, 1869 and 1870 when the disease was most virulent. In the 1837 epidemic, approximately 6,000 members of the tribe were killed by the disease<ref>[http://www.blackfeetnation.com/about-the-blackfeet/our-history.html Our History], from the Tribal website of the Blackfeet Nation.</ref>.<br>  
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Intertribal conflicts occurred somewhat frequently when the Blackfeet raided neighboring tribes to acquire horses.  
 
Intertribal conflicts occurred somewhat frequently when the Blackfeet raided neighboring tribes to acquire horses.  
  
In the 1855 Treaty, also known as Lame Bull's Treaty, much of the Blackfeet territory became a common hunting grounds for Piegans, Gros Ventres, Blackfeet, Nez Perces, Flathead, and Bloods.&nbsp;  
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In the 1855 Treaty, also known as Lame Bull's Treaty, much of the Blackfeet territory became a common hunting grounds for [[Piegan Indians|Piegan]], [[Grosventre Indians|GrosVentres]], Blackfeet, [[Nez Perce Indians|Nez Perces]], [[Flathead Indians|Flathead]], and [[Blood Indians|Blood]].&nbsp;  
  
 
A treaty between the United States government and the Blackfeet Band of Sioux (often mistaken as the Blackfeet Tribe) was signed in 1865. This treaty did not include the Blackfeet Indians of Montana.<br>  
 
A treaty between the United States government and the Blackfeet Band of Sioux (often mistaken as the Blackfeet Tribe) was signed in 1865. This treaty did not include the Blackfeet Indians of Montana.<br>  
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Advancement by settlers to the west created conflict and&nbsp;military actions were taken. One such action occurred in 1870&nbsp;when a military unit under the direction of Colonel E. M. Baker attacked the winter camp of the Blackfeet on the Marias River, killing 170 men, women, and children and&nbsp;taking 140 prisoners.  
 
Advancement by settlers to the west created conflict and&nbsp;military actions were taken. One such action occurred in 1870&nbsp;when a military unit under the direction of Colonel E. M. Baker attacked the winter camp of the Blackfeet on the Marias River, killing 170 men, women, and children and&nbsp;taking 140 prisoners.  
  
With efforts begun as early as 1880, the Jesuits formally dedicated the [http://nwda-db.wsulibs.wsu.edu/nwda-search/fstyle.aspx?doc=WUGJopaMH04.xml&t=k&q=#historicalID Holy Family Mission] on the Blackfeet Reservation in 1890. They also established a mission school on the reservation in 1895. The Mission was closed in 1941. An inventory of the records of this mission is available through the Northwest Digital Archives<ref>[http://nwda.wsulibs.wsu.edu/about.shtml Northwest Digital Archives] (NWDA) provides access to archival and manuscript collections in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Alaska, and Washington</ref>.  
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With efforts begun as early as 1880, the Jesuits formally dedicated the [http://www.browningmontana.com/mission.html Holy Family Mission] on the [[Blackfeet Indian Reservation (Montana)|Blackfeet Reservation]] in 1890. They also established a mission school on the reservation in 1895. The Mission was closed in 1941. An inventory of the records of this mission is available through the Northwest Digital Archives<ref>[http://nwda.wsulibs.wsu.edu/about.shtml Northwest Digital Archives] (NWDA) provides access to archival and manuscript collections in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Alaska, and Washington</ref>.  
  
 
In 1888 the Blackfeet were gathered to the Blackfeet Reservation with headquarters at the present town of Browning, Montana. In the years 1907 to 1911, land on this reservation was allotted to individual members of the tribe.  
 
In 1888 the Blackfeet were gathered to the Blackfeet Reservation with headquarters at the present town of Browning, Montana. In the years 1907 to 1911, land on this reservation was allotted to individual members of the tribe.  
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*'''1837, 1845, 1857, 1869-70:''' Smallpox epidemics  
 
*'''1837, 1845, 1857, 1869-70:''' Smallpox epidemics  
 
*'''Prior to 1850:''' moved west and south to the Rocky Mountains and the Missouri River areas  
 
*'''Prior to 1850:''' moved west and south to the Rocky Mountains and the Missouri River areas  
*:They raided the camps of the Crow, Assiniboin, Cree, Kutenai, Kalispel (or Pend d'Oreille) and Flathead in search of horses  
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*:They raided the camps of the [[Crow Indians|Crow,]] [[Assiniboin Indians|Assiniboin]], [[Cree Indians|Cree]], [[Kutenai Indians|Kutenai,]] [[Kalispel Indians|Kalispel ]](or Pend d'Oreille) and [[Flathead Indians|Flathead]] tribes in search of horses  
 
*'''1855:''' Treaty (Lame Bull's Treaty)<br>  
 
*'''1855:''' Treaty (Lame Bull's Treaty)<br>  
 
*'''1865:''' Treaty at Fort Sully involving the Blackfeet Band of Sioux, often mistaken for the Blackfeet Tribe<br>  
 
*'''1865:''' Treaty at Fort Sully involving the Blackfeet Band of Sioux, often mistaken for the Blackfeet Tribe<br>  
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*For additional history of the tribe, [http://www.neokistomi.com/blackfeet.html read more....]  
 
*For additional history of the tribe, [http://www.neokistomi.com/blackfeet.html read more....]  
 
*For a history of the Blackfeet, told from their own perspective, see their [http://www.blackfeetnation.com/about-the-blackfeet/our-history.html history from the tribal website].
 
*For a history of the Blackfeet, told from their own perspective, see their [http://www.blackfeetnation.com/about-the-blackfeet/our-history.html history from the tribal website].
 
=== Tribal Headquarters  ===
 
 
Blackfeet Nation<br>1 Agency Square<br>Browning, MT 59417<br>Phone: 406.338.7521<br>Fax: 406.338.7530
 
  
 
=== Records  ===
 
=== Records  ===
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The following [[Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs|agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs]] had jurisdiction over the Blackfeet for the time periods indicated. BIA agencies were responsible to keep such records as census rolls, allotment (land) records, annuity rolls, school records, correspondence, and other records of individual Indians under their jurisdiction. For details, see the page for the respective agency.  
 
The following [[Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs|agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs]] had jurisdiction over the Blackfeet for the time periods indicated. BIA agencies were responsible to keep such records as census rolls, allotment (land) records, annuity rolls, school records, correspondence, and other records of individual Indians under their jurisdiction. For details, see the page for the respective agency.  
  
The agencies which had jurisdiction over a major portion of the Blackfeet in the United States were:  
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The agencies which had jurisdiction over portions of the Blackfeet in the United States were:  
  
:[[Blackfeet Indian Agency (Montana)|Blackfeet Agency]], 1890-  
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:[[Blackfeet Indian Agency (Montana)|Blackfeet Agency]], 1855-present
 
:Blood Agency, 1890-1896, 1907-1913  
 
:Blood Agency, 1890-1896, 1907-1913  
 
:Piegan Agency, 1890-1913  
 
:Piegan Agency, 1890-1913  
 
:[[Rocky Boy's Indian Agency (Montana)|Rocky Boy's Agency]], 1907-1913
 
:[[Rocky Boy's Indian Agency (Montana)|Rocky Boy's Agency]], 1907-1913
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The Blackfeet Tribe was also under the jurisdictions of the following Superintendencies
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[[Montana Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Montana Superintendency]]
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[[Washington Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Washington Superintendency]]
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[[Central Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Central Superintendency]]
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[[Dakota Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Dakota Superintendency]]
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[[Idaho Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Idaho Superintendency]]
  
 
==== Census (a specific type of record kept by the BIA Agencies)  ====
 
==== Census (a specific type of record kept by the BIA Agencies)  ====
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The following table lists the census rolls for the Blackfeet Indians:  
 
The following table lists the census rolls for the Blackfeet Indians:  
  
{| cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" border="1"
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{| border="1" cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1"
 
|-
 
|-
 
! scope="col" | Agency  
 
! scope="col" | Agency  
 
! scope="col" | Location of Original Records  
 
! scope="col" | Location of Original Records  
 
! scope="col" |  
 
! scope="col" |  
Post- 1885 Census<br>M595 RG 75<br>693 Rolls<br>Roll Number  
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Post- 1885 Census<br>M595 RG 75 -- 692 Rolls<br>Roll Number  
  
 
! scope="col" |  
 
! scope="col" |  
FHL<br> Film Number  
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FHL<br>Film Number  
  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Blackfeet Agency, 1890-1939  
 
| Blackfeet Agency, 1890-1939  
| &nbsp;National Archives in Washington D.C.  
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| National Archives in Washington D.C.  
 
| Rolls 3-11  
 
| Rolls 3-11  
| 573849-573857
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| {{FHL|573849-573857}}
 
|}
 
|}
  
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The following table lists some of the correspondence records relating to the Blackfeet Indians:  
 
The following table lists some of the correspondence records relating to the Blackfeet Indians:  
  
{| cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" border="1"
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{| border="1" cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1"
 
|-
 
|-
 
! scope="col" | BIA Field Office  
 
! scope="col" | BIA Field Office  
 
! scope="col" | Location of Original Records  
 
! scope="col" | Location of Original Records  
 
! scope="col" |  
 
! scope="col" |  
Pre-1880 Correspondence<br> M234, RG 75, 962 Rolls<br> Roll Number  
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Pre-1880 Correspondence<br>M234, RG 75 -- 962 Rolls<br>Roll Number  
  
 
! scope="col" |  
 
! scope="col" |  
FHL <br> Film Number  
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FHL <br>Film Number  
  
 
|-
 
|-
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| National Archives in Washington D.C.  
 
| National Archives in Washington D.C.  
 
| Rolls 883-888  
 
| Rolls 883-888  
| 1661613-1661618
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| {{FHL |1661613-1661618}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Upper Platte, 1846-1870  
 
| Upper Platte, 1846-1870  
 
| National Archives in Washington D.C.  
 
| National Archives in Washington D.C.  
 
| Rolls 889-896  
 
| Rolls 889-896  
| 1661619-1661626
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| {{ FHL |1661619-1661626}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Blackfeet Agency, 1855-1869  
 
| Blackfeet Agency, 1855-1869  
 
| National Archives in Washington D.C.  
 
| National Archives in Washington D.C.  
 
| Roll 30  
 
| Roll 30  
| 1660760
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| {{FHL |1660760}}
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Montana Superintendency, 1864-1880<br>  
 
| Montana Superintendency, 1864-1880<br>  
 
| National Archives in Washington D.C. and Kansas City Regional Archives of NARA  
 
| National Archives in Washington D.C. and Kansas City Regional Archives of NARA  
 
| Rolls 488-518  
 
| Rolls 488-518  
| 1661218-1661248
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| {{FHL |1661218-1661248}}
 
|}
 
|}
  
<br>Some correspondence for the following field offices may be included in the records of those offices preserved in the research facilities indicated.
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<br>Some correspondence for the following field offices may be included in the records of those offices preserved in the research facilities indicated.  
  
{| cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" border="1"
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{| border="1" cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1"
 
|-
 
|-
 
! scope="col" | BIA Field Office  
 
! scope="col" | BIA Field Office  
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! scope="col" | General Agency Records<br>  
 
! scope="col" | General Agency Records<br>  
 
! scope="col" |  
 
! scope="col" |  
FHL<br> Film Number  
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FHL<br>Film Number  
  
 
|-
 
|-
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| -
 
| -
 
|}
 
|}
 
<br>
 
  
 
==== Treaties  ====
 
==== Treaties  ====
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*September 17, 1851, referred to in treaty, at Fort Laramie  
 
*September 17, 1851, referred to in treaty, at Fort Laramie  
*&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/bla0736.htm 1855]&nbsp; October 17,  
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*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/bla0736.htm 1855] October 17,  
*&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/bla0898.htm 1865]&nbsp; October 19, at Fort Sully -- this treaty was with the Blackfeet band of Sioux Indians, not the Blackfeet Tribe. They are two different entities or groups.  
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*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/bla0898.htm 1865] October 19, at Fort Sully -- this treaty was with the Blackfeet band of Sioux Indians, not the Blackfeet Tribe. They are two different entities or groups.  
 
*April 29, 1868, at Fort Laramie
 
*April 29, 1868, at Fort Laramie
  
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Some vital records for the Blackfeet Indians include:  
 
Some vital records for the Blackfeet Indians include:  
  
*Blackfeet Agency, M595, Births and Deaths 1924-1932, FHL Film: 573855 and 573856; 1916-1938, FHL film: 573857
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*Blackfeet Agency, M595, Births and Deaths 1924-1932, {{FHL | 573855}} &amp; {{FHL| 573856}} 1916-1938, {{FHL |573857}}
  
 
=== Important Web Sites  ===
 
=== Important Web Sites  ===
  
*[http://www.blackfeetnation.com/ Official Web Site] of the Blackfeet Indians of Montana
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{{Wikipedia|Blackfoot}}
*[http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/blackfeet/blackfeetindiantribe.htm History of the Blackfeet] from Frederick Webb Hodge's ''Indians of North America...''
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*[http://www.narf.org/nill/Constitutions/BlackfeetConst/bfconttoc.htm Constitution and By-laws] for the Blackfeet Tribe of the Blackfeet Indian Reservation of Montana, adopted in 1935 and subsequently amended.  
 
*[http://www.narf.org/nill/Constitutions/BlackfeetConst/bfconttoc.htm Constitution and By-laws] for the Blackfeet Tribe of the Blackfeet Indian Reservation of Montana, adopted in 1935 and subsequently amended.  
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*[http://www.angelfire.com/ar/waakomimm/genealogy.html Genealogy website] for the Blackfoot Indians
 
*[http://www.tribalnations.mt.gov/blackfeet.asp State Office of Indian Affairs] website regarding the Blackfeet Indians  
 
*[http://www.tribalnations.mt.gov/blackfeet.asp State Office of Indian Affairs] website regarding the Blackfeet Indians  
*Blackfoot Indians [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blackfoot Wikipedia]
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*[http://www.blackfeetnation.com/ Tribal Web Site] of the Blackfeet Indians of Montana
*[http://www.angelfire.com/ar/waakomimm/genealogy.html Genealogy website] for the Blackfoot Indians
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=== References  ===
 
=== References  ===
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==== Blackfeet Tribe  ====
 
==== Blackfeet Tribe  ====
  
*DeMarce, Roxanne. Blackfeet Heritage, 1907-1908; Blackfeet Indian Reservation, Browning, Montana. Browing, Montana: Blackfeet Heritage Program, [1980]. FHL book 970.3 Si29b.  
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*Carlson, Paul H. ''The Plains Indians''. College Station, Texas: Texas A&amp;M University Press, c1998. {{FHL |970.1 C197 }}
*Gilham, Robert C. (comp.) Blackfeet Nation Family History: A Compilation of Records of Members of the Blackfeet Nation and Some Non-Indian Relatives. Riverton, Utah: R.C. Gilham, [199-?]. 4 volumes. (All on FH film 2056034)
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*DeMarce, Roxanne. Blackfeet Heritage, 1907-1908; Blackfeet Indian Reservation, Browning, Montana. Browing, Montana: Blackfeet Heritage Program, [1980]. {{ FHL | book 970.3 Si29b}}.  
 +
*Gilham, Robert C. (comp.) Blackfeet Nation Family History: A Compilation of Records of Members of the Blackfeet Nation and Some Non-Indian Relatives. Riverton, Utah: R.C. Gilham, [199-?]. 4 volumes. (All on {{FHL | 2056034}})
  
 
:Vol. 1 -- Joseph to Double Blaze, George  
 
:Vol. 1 -- Joseph to Double Blaze, George  
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*[http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/075.html Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75], Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.  
 
*[http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/075.html Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75], Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.  
 
*Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/ Available online].  
 
*Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/ Available online].  
*Klein, Barry T., ed. ''Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian''. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. {{WorldCat|317923332}}; {{FHL|970.1 R259e|book}}; [http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=no:037475188 WorldCat 37475188]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=1122745&disp=Reference+encyclopedia+of+the+American+I%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 R259e].  
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*Klein, Barry T., ed. ''Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian''. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. {{WorldCat|317923332}}; {{FHL|970.1 R259e|book}}; [http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=no:037475188 WorldCat 37475188]; {{FHL|1122745|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 R259e}}.  
*Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. [http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=no:037475188 WorldCat 37475188]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=831087&disp=The+Gale+encyclopedia+of+Native+American%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 G131g].
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*Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. [http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=no:037475188 WorldCat 37475188]; {{FHL|831087|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 G131g}}.
  
 
:Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean  
 
:Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean  
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:Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/234303751&referer=brief_results WorldCat 234303751]<br>  
 
:Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/234303751&referer=brief_results WorldCat 234303751]<br>  
 
:Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/255572371&referer=brief_results WorldCat 255572371]<br>  
 
:Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/255572371&referer=brief_results WorldCat 255572371]<br>  
:Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/19331914&referer=brief_results WorldCat 19331914]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4].  
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:Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/19331914&referer=brief_results WorldCat 19331914]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4}}.  
:Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/299653808&referer=brief_results WorldCat 299653808]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5].  
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:Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/299653808&referer=brief_results WorldCat 299653808]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5}}.  
:Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/247493742&referer=brief_results WorldCat 247493742]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6].  
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:Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/247493742&referer=brief_results WorldCat 247493742]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6}}.  
 
:Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/247493311&referer=brief_results WorldCat 247493311]  
 
:Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/247493311&referer=brief_results WorldCat 247493311]  
:Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/13240086&referer=brief_results WorldCat 13240086]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8].  
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:Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/13240086&referer=brief_results WorldCat 13240086]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8}}.  
:Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/26140053&referer=brief_results WorldCat 26140053]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9].  
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:Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/26140053&referer=brief_results WorldCat 26140053]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9}}.  
:Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/301504096&referer=brief_results WorldCat 301504096]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10].  
+
:Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/301504096&referer=brief_results WorldCat 301504096]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10}}.  
:Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/256516416&referer=brief_results WorldCat 256516416]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11].  
+
:Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/256516416&referer=brief_results WorldCat 256516416]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11}}.  
:Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/39401371&referer=brief_results WorldCat 39401371]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12].  
+
:Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/39401371&referer=brief_results WorldCat 39401371]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12}}.  
 
:Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/48209643&referer=brief_results WorldCat 48209643]  
 
:Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/48209643&referer=brief_results WorldCat 48209643]  
 
:Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/254277176&referer=brief_results WorldCat 254277176]  
 
:Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/254277176&referer=brief_results WorldCat 254277176]  
:Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/256517503&referer=brief_results WorldCat 356517503]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15].  
+
:Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/256517503&referer=brief_results WorldCat 356517503]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15}}.  
 
:Volume 16 -- Not yet published  
 
:Volume 16 -- Not yet published  
 
:Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/43957746&referer=brief_results WorldCat 43957746]  
 
:Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/43957746&referer=brief_results WorldCat 43957746]  
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*Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/indianlocation.htm Available online].  
 
*Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/indianlocation.htm Available online].  
*Waldman, Carl. ''Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes''. New York, New York: Facts on File, 2006. 3rd ed. [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/14718193?referer=list_view WorldCat 14718193]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=1465222&disp=Encyclopedia+of+Native+American+tribes%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 W146e 2006].
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*Waldman, Carl. ''Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes''. New York, New York: Facts on File, 2006. 3rd ed. [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/14718193?referer=list_view WorldCat 14718193]; {{FHL|1465222|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 W146e 2006}}.
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{{featured article}}
  
[[Category:Indian_Tribes_of_the_United_States]] [[Category:Indian_Tribes_of_North_America]]
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[[Category:Montana Indian Tribes]] [[Category:First Nations of Alberta]]

Revision as of 03:11, 2 September 2012

Michael.jpg

To get started with American Indian Research Indians of Montana > Blackfeet Indians

Blackfeet
Blackfeet IndiansThree chiefs Piegan.jpg
Population
1909 4,635 [1]
1858 abt. 7,000 [2]
1790 abt. 9,000 [3]

Regions with significant populations
Ancestral Homelands: Along the Saskatchewan River in Canada and the upper Missouri River in the United States

Descendants:
Blackfeet Reservation in Montana.
Portions of the tribe also reside on three reserves in the Province of Alberta in Canada.

Status

Federally recognized

Linguistic Group

Algonquian

Other Related Ethnic Groups

Siksika or North Blackfeet; Kainah or Bloods; Piegan

Alternate Names and Spellings: Blackfeet[4], Blackfoot and Blackfoot Nation[5]; Pecunnie, Pikuni[6], Siksika

Contents

Famous: Mona Darkfeather

Tribal Headquarters

Blackfeet Nation
1 Agency Square
Browning, MT 59417
Phone: 1-1-406-338-7521
Fax: 1.406.338.7530

History

Chief Mountain Blackfeet Indians.jpg
Originally the Blackfeet lived in the Saskatchewan River Valley of Saskatchewan, Canada, and the upper plains of the United States. By 1850 the tribe had moved to the Rocky Mountains and Missouri River areas.

Smallpox epidemics depopulated the tribe through the 1800's, especially during the years of 1837, 1845, 1857, 1869 and 1870 when the disease was most virulent. In the 1837 epidemic, approximately 6,000 members of the tribe were killed by the disease[7].

Intertribal conflicts occurred somewhat frequently when the Blackfeet raided neighboring tribes to acquire horses.

In the 1855 Treaty, also known as Lame Bull's Treaty, much of the Blackfeet territory became a common hunting grounds for Piegan, GrosVentres, Blackfeet, Nez Perces, Flathead, and Blood

A treaty between the United States government and the Blackfeet Band of Sioux (often mistaken as the Blackfeet Tribe) was signed in 1865. This treaty did not include the Blackfeet Indians of Montana.

Advancement by settlers to the west created conflict and military actions were taken. One such action occurred in 1870 when a military unit under the direction of Colonel E. M. Baker attacked the winter camp of the Blackfeet on the Marias River, killing 170 men, women, and children and taking 140 prisoners.

With efforts begun as early as 1880, the Jesuits formally dedicated the Holy Family Mission on the Blackfeet Reservation in 1890. They also established a mission school on the reservation in 1895. The Mission was closed in 1941. An inventory of the records of this mission is available through the Northwest Digital Archives[8].

In 1888 the Blackfeet were gathered to the Blackfeet Reservation with headquarters at the present town of Browning, Montana. In the years 1907 to 1911, land on this reservation was allotted to individual members of the tribe.

Under the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, the Blackfeet Indians became a federally-recognized tribe, with their own Constitution and By-Laws, approved and ratified in the fall of 1935.

Brief Timeline

  • 1700s and 1800s: Living in Canada
  • 1837, 1845, 1857, 1869-70: Smallpox epidemics
  • Prior to 1850: moved west and south to the Rocky Mountains and the Missouri River areas
    They raided the camps of the Crow, Assiniboin, Cree, Kutenai, Kalispel (or Pend d'Oreille) and Flathead tribes in search of horses
  • 1855: Treaty (Lame Bull's Treaty)
  • 1865: Treaty at Fort Sully involving the Blackfeet Band of Sioux, often mistaken for the Blackfeet Tribe
  • 1870: Colonel E. M. Baker attacked the Blackfeet winter camp on the Marias River in Montana, killing 173 men, women and children and taking more that 140 prisoners.
  • 1877: ceded land in Canada
  • 1880s: settled on reservations in the United States and Canada
  • 1886: ceded land
  • 1888: gathered to Blackfeet Reservation
  • 1895: ceded land
  • 1907-1911: land on the Blackfeet Reservation was allotted to individual members of the tribe
  • 1935: Adopted Constitution and By-Laws

Additional References to the History of the Tribe

Records

Agencies

The following agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs had jurisdiction over the Blackfeet for the time periods indicated. BIA agencies were responsible to keep such records as census rolls, allotment (land) records, annuity rolls, school records, correspondence, and other records of individual Indians under their jurisdiction. For details, see the page for the respective agency.

The agencies which had jurisdiction over portions of the Blackfeet in the United States were:

Blackfeet Agency, 1855-present
Blood Agency, 1890-1896, 1907-1913
Piegan Agency, 1890-1913
Rocky Boy's Agency, 1907-1913

The Blackfeet Tribe was also under the jurisdictions of the following Superintendencies

Montana Superintendency

Washington Superintendency

Central Superintendency

Dakota Superintendency

Idaho Superintendency

Census (a specific type of record kept by the BIA Agencies)

The Bureau of Indian Affairs compiled annual Indian Census Rolls on many of the reservations from 1885 to 1940. They list the names of individuals, their age, and other details about each person enumerated. For more information about these records, click here.

The following table lists the census rolls for the Blackfeet Indians:

Agency Location of Original Records

Post- 1885 Census
M595 RG 75 -- 692 Rolls
Roll Number

FHL
Film Number

Blackfeet Agency, 1890-1939 National Archives in Washington D.C. Rolls 3-11 FHL 573849-573857


Correspondence

There are several sets of correspondence between the supervising offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the local offices -- agencies, subagencies, etc. The correspondence is often historical in nature, including reports of the conditions among local groups of Indians, hostilities, plans for building facilities, activities of traders or missionaries, etc. Occasionally, there will be names of individuals but little detail about them. For more information about American Indian correspondence, click here.

The following table lists some of the correspondence records relating to the Blackfeet Indians:

BIA Field Office Location of Original Records

Pre-1880 Correspondence
M234, RG 75 -- 962 Rolls
Roll Number

FHL
Film Number

Upper Missouri Agency, 1824-1874 National Archives in Washington D.C. Rolls 883-888 FHL 1661613-1661618
Upper Platte, 1846-1870 National Archives in Washington D.C. Rolls 889-896 FHL 1661619-1661626
Blackfeet Agency, 1855-1869 National Archives in Washington D.C. Roll 30 FHL 1660760
Montana Superintendency, 1864-1880
National Archives in Washington D.C. and Kansas City Regional Archives of NARA Rolls 488-518 FHL 1661218-1661248


Some correspondence for the following field offices may be included in the records of those offices preserved in the research facilities indicated.

BIA Field Office Location of Original Records General Agency Records

FHL
Film Number

Cheyenne River/Standing Rock, 1862-1957 Washington D.C. and Kansas City Regional Archives of NARA
- -
Blackfeet Agency, 1873-1927 Washington D. C. and Denver Regional Archives of NARA
- -
Blackfeet Agency, 1875-1952 Washington D.C. and Seattle Regional Archives of NARA
- -

Treaties

During the latter part of the 18th Century and most of the 19th Century, treaties were negotiated between the federal government and individual Indian tribes. The treaties provide helpful information about the history of the tribe, but usually only include the names of those persons who signed the treaty. For more information about treaties, click here.

Treaties to which the Blackfeet Indians were a part were:

  • September 17, 1851, referred to in treaty, at Fort Laramie
  • 1855 October 17,
  • 1865 October 19, at Fort Sully -- this treaty was with the Blackfeet band of Sioux Indians, not the Blackfeet Tribe. They are two different entities or groups.
  • April 29, 1868, at Fort Laramie

Tribal Office Records

The Tribal Office is responsible for enrollment records, vital records, tribal police records, tribal court records, employment records and many others. They are an entirely different set of records from those kept by the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Most of them remain in the Tribal Office. For details, contact that office at the address for the Tribal Headquarters listed above.

Vital Records

Prior to the Indian Reorganization Act, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, through their agencies, may have recorded some vital events. Some were recorded on health forms, such as the "Sanitary Record of Sick, Injured, Births, Deaths, etc." Others were recorded as supplements to the "Indian Census Rolls." Some were included in the uinindexed reports and other correspondence of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

Some vital records for the Blackfeet Indians include:

Important Web Sites

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has more about this subject: Blackfoot

References

  1. Frederick Webb Hodge. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906.
  2. Frederick Webb Hodge. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906.
  3. Frederick Webb Hodge. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906.
  4. The official tribal name is Blackfeet, as recognized by the U.S. Government and as used by the tribe itself on their official website.
  5. The name Blackfoot was used by the federal government in the Treaty of 1855.
  6. State Office of Indian Affairs website for the Blackfeet Indians
  7. Our History, from the Tribal website of the Blackfeet Nation.
  8. Northwest Digital Archives (NWDA) provides access to archival and manuscript collections in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Alaska, and Washington

Bibliography

Blackfeet Tribe

  • Carlson, Paul H. The Plains Indians. College Station, Texas: Texas A&M University Press, c1998. FHL 970.1 C197
  • DeMarce, Roxanne. Blackfeet Heritage, 1907-1908; Blackfeet Indian Reservation, Browning, Montana. Browing, Montana: Blackfeet Heritage Program, [1980]. FHL book 970.3 Si29b.
  • Gilham, Robert C. (comp.) Blackfeet Nation Family History: A Compilation of Records of Members of the Blackfeet Nation and Some Non-Indian Relatives. Riverton, Utah: R.C. Gilham, [199-?]. 4 volumes. (All on FHL 2056034)
Vol. 1 -- Joseph to Double Blaze, George
Vol. 2 -- Double Blaze, Hamilton to Little Dog, Maggie
Vol. 3 -- Little Dog, Mary to Running
Vol. 4 -- Running After Buffalo to Ziegler
Index

General

  • Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
  • Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 Available online.
  • Klein, Barry T., ed. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat 317923332; FHL 970.1 R259e; WorldCat 37475188; FHL book 970.1 R259e.
  • Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. WorldCat 37475188; FHL book 970.1 G131g.
Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean
Vol. 2 -- Great Basin, Southwest, Middle America
Vol. 3 -- Arctic, Subarctic, Great Plains, Plateau
Vol. 4 -- California, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Islands
  • Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .
Volume 1 -- Not yet published
Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- WorldCat 234303751
Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- WorldCat 255572371
Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- WorldCat 19331914; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4.
Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- WorldCat 299653808; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5.
Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat 247493742; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6.
Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- WorldCat 247493311
Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 13240086; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8.
Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- WorldCat 26140053; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9.
Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- WorldCat 301504096; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10.
Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- WorldCat 256516416; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11.
Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- WorldCat 39401371; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12.
Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- WorldCat 48209643
Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- WorldCat 254277176
Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 356517503; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15.
Volume 16 -- Not yet published
Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- WorldCat 43957746
Volume 18 -- Not yet published
Volume 19 -- Not yet published
Volume 20 -- Not yet published