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18th Century: Algonquian Tribes living in the region east of New York State, commenced to relocate to north central New York State where they sought refugee among the Algonquin's and Iroquois of that region. Historians claim they were primarily Mohegan and Pequot but also included Algonquian's from the Narragansett, Montauk, Niantic, and Tunxis. Many of them were converts to Christianity which made them alien to the more powerful Algonquin's. Their willingness to accept Christianity was not welcomed by the Algonquin's of New York State. From the late 18th century to the beginning of the 19th century, two groups emerged. One were traditional, while the other were more open to contact with the whites. Many of the more open Indians were mixed bloods. The whites often negotiated with them instead of the traditional group. The traditional group merged with the Algonquin's of New York State.
Early 19th Century: A period of great unrest corrupted the Brothertown Indians as the whites were forcing their way ever to the west. The two groups of Brothertown Indians became unwilling to cooperate. The traditionalist wanted to follow the Seven Fires Prophecy and migrate to the west away from the whites, while the more open group wanted to remain. Another group emerged from the more open Brothertown Indians. They were largely mixed bloods who favored joining the whites. The Brothertown Indians settled down to live on the New York Iroquois Reservations. Among the Iroquois were many who were also traditionalists as well as of predominantly Algonquin blood.
1785: The traditionalists commenced to relocate to north central New York State. Among them were many from the more open group. Their presence among the New York State Algonquin's was a bit uneasy. The New York State Algonquin's lived from Niagara Falls, on over to Oneida Lake, and to the north. The region was very dangerous at the time and remained that way until after the War of 1812. During the Revolutionary War on up to the War of 1812, the whites made alliances with the Iroquois and the more open Brothertown Indians. It caused much trouble with the Algonquin's and their Iroquois allies. Many of the Algonquin's, Brothertown Indians, and Iroquois commenced to flee mainly to the north, as well as to the west.
1815: The War of 1812 ended. Leaders from the traditionalists merged with the Algonquin's, while the more open group became neutral. Many from the more open group settle down to live on the New York State Iroquois Reservations with the Algonquin's and Iroquois. During the Revolutionary War, many of the New York State Algonquin's, Iroquois, and Brothertown Indians were allowed to relocate to Algonquin land in southern Ontario, by the Algonquin's of that region who are also known as the Chippewa's, Mississauga's, Ojibwa's, Ottawa's, Potawatomi's, Saginaw's, and Swan Creek and Black River Chippewa's. The Algonquin's and Brothertown Indians who remained to live on the New York State Iroquois Reservation's, were forced to assimilate among the Iroquois.
1821: An 860,000 acre Reservation was set aside for the Brothertown Indians and Iroquois, on Algonquin (Menominee) land in Wisconsin.
1822: Another tract of Algonquin land in eastern Wisconsin, was set aside for the Brothertown and other Indians. It covered 6,720,000 acres. The land was located almost along the entire western shore of Lake Michigan. The Algonquin's set aside 153,000 acres for the Brothertown Indians.
1830: Migrated from New York settling near Lake Winnebago in Wisconsin
1838: On January 15, 1838 many of the Brothertown traditionalists and their Iroquois allies, signed a treaty with the United States in which many of the New York Reservations which had been set aside years earlier, were eradicated. Several of the Reservations were located within Algonquin (Chippewa) territory. That be in the Niagara Falls region. One is known as the Buffalo Creek Reservation. The Niagara County Reservation was also eradicated, as was the Tuscarora Reservation. Another was the Cattaraugus Reservation. And also the Allegany Reservation and Tonawanda Reservation, to the south, were eradicated. However, the strong Chippewa presence kept the Reservations in place with, however, much of the Reservations lands being lost to the whites. The United States did not want anymore Indians migrating to the west. They knew future trouble would occur. Only the Buffalo Creek Reservation was lost except 9 acres. The 1838 treaty also included the Brothertown Indians and Iroquois of Wisconsin. Many of the New York State and Wisconsin Brothertown Indians, joined with the Chippewa's and Iroquois and migrated to Kansas and Oklahoma, in 1838-1839. Their descendants still live in Kansas and Oklahoma.
1839: March 3, Brothertown Indians became citizens of the United States
Allegany Reservation of New York.
Buffalo Creek Reservation of New York.
Cattaraugus Reservation of New York.
St. Regis Reservation of New York.
Tonawanda Reservation of New York.
Tuscarora Reservation of New York.
Additional References to the History of the Tribe
History of the Brothertown Indians from the Milwaukee Public Museum
Additional History from Earthlink site.
Brothertown Indian Nation
PO Box 2206
Fond du Lac WI 54936-2206
82 S Macy Street
Fond du Lac WI 54936-2206
Phone: (920) 929-9964
Fax: (920) 929-9965
|Tribe||Agency||Location of Original Records||
M234 RG 75 Rolls
|Brothertown||Green Bay (Menominee) Agency, 1824-1961||Washington D.C. and Chicago||315-36||-|
|Brothertown||Six Nations Agency, 1824-34||Washington D.C.||832||-|
- 1838 January 15, at Buffalo Creek,with the New York Indians
Constitution of the Brothertown Indians; approved 1939, amended 2007
Tribal Website of the Brothertown Indian Nation
Wikipedia article on the Brothertown Indians
www.archive.org/stream/samsonoccom00loverich/samsonoccom00loverich_djvu.txt Full Text of Samson Occom and the Christian Indians of New England
- Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
- Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 Available online.
- Klein, Barry T., ed. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat 317923332; FHL book 970.1 R259e.
- Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. WorldCat 37475188; FHL book 970.1 G131g.
- Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean
- Vol. 2 -- Great Basin, Southwest, Middle America
- Vol. 3 -- Arctic, Subarctic, Great Plains, Plateau
- Vol. 4 -- California, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Islands
- Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .
- Volume 1 -- Not yet published
- Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- WorldCat 234303751
- Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- WorldCat 255572371
- Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- WorldCat 19331914; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4.
- Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- WorldCat 299653808; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5.
- Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat 247493742; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6.
- Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- WorldCat 247493311
- Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 13240086; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8.
- Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- WorldCat 26140053; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9.
- Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- WorldCat 301504096; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10.
- Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- WorldCat 256516416; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11.
- Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- WorldCat 39401371; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12.
- Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- WorldCat 48209643
- Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- WorldCat 254277176
- Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 356517503; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15.
- Volume 16 -- Not yet published
- Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- WorldCat 43957746
- Volume 18 -- Not yet published
- Volume 19 -- Not yet published
- Volume 20 -- Not yet published
- Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.
- Waldman, Carl. Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. New York, New York: Facts on File, 2006. 3rd ed. WorldCat 14718193; FHL book 970.1 W146e 2006.