C genealogical glossary terms

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'''C'''  
 
'''C'''  
  
===== Cabinda, Brazil =====
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===== Cabinda, Brazil =====
  
 
*A term used in Brazilian Catholic Church registers to describe a person from the Cabinda region of Angola. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
 
*A term used in Brazilian Catholic Church registers to describe a person from the Cabinda region of Angola. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
  
===== Cabo-verde, Brazil =====
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===== Cabo-verde, Brazil =====
  
*A term used in Brazilian Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of Indian and African. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.  
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*A term used in Brazilian Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of Indian and African. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
  
===== Caboclo, Brazil =====
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===== Caboclo, Brazil =====
  
*A term used in Brazilian Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.  
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*A term used in Brazilian Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
  
===== Cabra, Brazil =====
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===== Cabra, Brazil =====
  
*A term used in Brazilian Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of African and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.  
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*A term used in Brazilian Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of African and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
  
Cadastral map
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Cadastral map  
  
*A map that shows the people who own land in an area. Also called land ownership map.  
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*A map that shows the people who own land in an area. Also called land ownership map.
  
Cadency
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Cadency  
  
*A mark on a coat of arms showing a younger son's birth order.  
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*A mark on a coat of arms showing a younger son's birth order.
  
===== Cafuzo, Brazil =====
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===== Cafuzo, Brazil =====
  
*A term used in Brazilian Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of Indian and African. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.  
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*A term used in Brazilian Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of Indian and African. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
  
===== Cajun =====
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===== Cajun =====
  
*A descendant of French settlers who came from the Acadia region of Canada, or present-day New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, to the United States. They settled in Louisiana in the swamps and slow-moving streams called bayous. They still maintain a unique cultural identity and speak both English and a dialect of French. Most are Roman Catholic.  
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*A descendant of French settlers who came from the Acadia region of Canada, or present-day New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, to the United States. They settled in Louisiana in the swamps and slow-moving streams called bayous. They still maintain a unique cultural identity and speak both English and a dialect of French. Most are Roman Catholic.
  
===== Calculated date =====
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===== Calculated date =====
  
*An event date that is derived from the date of another event in a person's life. For example, if the United States 1860 census lists a person as being 20 years old, a calculated birth date would be 1839 or 1840.  
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*An event date that is derived from the date of another event in a person's life. For example, if the United States 1860 census lists a person as being 20 years old, a calculated birth date would be 1839 or 1840.
  
===== Call number =====
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===== Call number =====
  
*The number used to identify a book, microfilm, microfiche, or other source in a library or archive. Library materials are stored and retrieved by call number.  
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*The number used to identify a book, microfilm, microfiche, or other source in a library or archive. Library materials are stored and retrieved by call number.
  
===== Calpamulato =====
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===== Calpamulato =====
  
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian, African, and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.  
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*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian, African, and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
  
===== Calvert Papers =====
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===== Calvert Papers =====
  
*A manuscript collection of land and other records compiled by the Calvert family, who were proprietors of the Colony of Maryland until the Revolutionary War. The Maryland Historical Society in Baltimore, Maryland, has this collection.  
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*A manuscript collection of land and other records compiled by the Calvert family, who were proprietors of the Colony of Maryland until the Revolutionary War. The Maryland Historical Society in Baltimore, Maryland, has this collection.
  
===== Calvin M. McClung Collection =====
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===== Calvin M. McClung Collection =====
  
*A collection of biographical material about residents of Tennessee. It consists of 15,000 published volumes and 300,000 manuscripts arranged in surname folders. These contain correspondence, pedigrees, and abstracts of records.  
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*A collection of biographical material about residents of Tennessee. It consists of 15,000 published volumes and 300,000 manuscripts arranged in surname folders. These contain correspondence, pedigrees, and abstracts of records.
  
===== Calvinistic Methodists, Wales =====
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===== Calvinistic Methodists, Wales =====
  
*A religion that began to spread throughout Wales during the late 1730s. At first leaders advocated reforming the Church of England but not separating from it. Members would meet weekly for singing and preaching but attend their local parishes for communion. In 1811, however, the Methodists began ordaining their own ministers and keeping their own records. Their beliefs are based on the teachings of John Calvin. Today the religion is known as the Presbyterian Church of Wales.  
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*A religion that began to spread throughout Wales during the late 1730s. At first leaders advocated reforming the Church of England but not separating from it. Members would meet weekly for singing and preaching but attend their local parishes for communion. In 1811, however, the Methodists began ordaining their own ministers and keeping their own records. Their beliefs are based on the teachings of John Calvin. Today the religion is known as the Presbyterian Church of Wales.
  
===== Cambujo =====
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===== Cambujo =====
  
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian (3/4) and African (1/4). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.  
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*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian (3/4) and African (1/4). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
  
===== Cambur =====
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===== Cambur =====
  
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian (1/2), African (1/4), and Spanish Caucasian (1/4). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.  
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*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian (1/2), African (1/4), and Spanish Caucasian (1/4). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
  
===== Canada East =====
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===== Canada East =====
  
*An area that comprises modern-day Québec. Before 1841 it was called Lower Canada. From 1841 to 1867 Canada East and Canada West (modern-day Ontario) formed the Province of Canada.  
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*An area that comprises modern-day Québec. Before 1841 it was called Lower Canada. From 1841 to 1867 Canada East and Canada West (modern-day Ontario) formed the Province of Canada.
  
===== Canada GenWeb =====
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===== Canada GenWeb =====
  
*A computer term for a site on the World Wide Web that lists genealogical databases, libraries, bulletin boards, and resources available on the Internet for people interested in doing genealogical research about Canadians.  
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*A computer term for a site on the World Wide Web that lists genealogical databases, libraries, bulletin boards, and resources available on the Internet for people interested in doing genealogical research about Canadians.
  
===== Canada West =====
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===== Canada West =====
  
*An area that comprises modern-day Ontario. Before 1841 it was called Upper Canada. From 1841 to 1867 Canada West and Canada East (modern-day Québec) formed the Province of Canada.  
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*An area that comprises modern-day Ontario. Before 1841 it was called Upper Canada. From 1841 to 1867 Canada West and Canada East (modern-day Québec) formed the Province of Canada.
  
===== Canadian border crossing lists, Canada =====
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===== Canadian border crossing lists, Canada =====
  
*Lists of passengers being transported from Canada into the United States. Canadian shipping companies began keeping these records in 1895. There are two type of manifests: lists of people traveling by train and lists of people traveling by boat. The manifests may include the person's name, port or station of entry, date of entry, age, literacy, last residence, previous visits to the United States, and birthplace. Sometimes officials only recorded the information on the index card rather than on the manifest. Beginning in 1908 the companies began keeping similar records of people arriving in Canada from the United States. These records are not indexed and are not available through the Family History Library™. Also called border crossing manifests, passenger lists, or manifests.  
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*Lists of passengers being transported from Canada into the United States. Canadian shipping companies began keeping these records in 1895. There are two type of manifests: lists of people traveling by train and lists of people traveling by boat. The manifests may include the person's name, port or station of entry, date of entry, age, literacy, last residence, previous visits to the United States, and birthplace. Sometimes officials only recorded the information on the index card rather than on the manifest. Beginning in 1908 the companies began keeping similar records of people arriving in Canada from the United States. These records are not indexed and are not available through the Family History Library™. Also called border crossing manifests, passenger lists, or manifests.
  
===== Canadian border crossing lists, United States =====
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===== Canadian border crossing lists, United States =====
  
*Lists, or manifests, kept by Canada and the United States to document all people who crossed the border from Canada into the United States for any purpose. These lists began in 1895 and are on microfilm up to 1954.  
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*Lists, or manifests, kept by Canada and the United States to document all people who crossed the border from Canada into the United States for any purpose. These lists began in 1895 and are on microfilm up to 1954.
  
===== Canadian Expeditionary Force =====
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===== Canadian Expeditionary Force =====
  
*The Canadian army that served in World War I.  
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*The Canadian army that served in World War I.
  
===== Canadian Pacific Railroad =====
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===== Canadian Pacific Railroad =====
  
*A railroad that extended across Canada from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. It was completed in 1885 and allowed for more rapid settlement of Canada's interior lands.  
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*A railroad that extended across Canada from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. It was completed in 1885 and allowed for more rapid settlement of Canada's interior lands.
  
===== Canton =====
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===== Canton =====
  
*A division of a place in France, Québec (Canada), and Switzerland. In France cantons are divisions of a district (arrondissement). In Québec cantons are townships. In Switzerland cantons are the major divisions of the country, similar to states in the United States or provinces in Canada.  
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*A division of a place in France, Québec (Canada), and Switzerland. In France cantons are divisions of a district (arrondissement). In Québec cantons are townships. In Switzerland cantons are the major divisions of the country, similar to states in the United States or provinces in Canada.
  
===== Cantons de l'Est, Canada =====
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===== Cantons de l'Est, Canada =====
  
*Townships in eastern Québec, located directly north of the state of Vermont. Cantons de l'Est is a direct French translation of the English term Eastern Townships. These townships were originally settled by English-speaking Protestants, many of whom had connections to American Loyalists.  
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*Townships in eastern Québec, located directly north of the state of Vermont. Cantons de l'Est is a direct French translation of the English term Eastern Townships. These townships were originally settled by English-speaking Protestants, many of whom had connections to American Loyalists.
  
===== Cape Breton, Canada =====
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===== Cape Breton, Canada =====
  
*A large island off of the coast of Nova Scotia. In the early 1600s it became a French colony, but in 1763 France ceded it to Great Britain as part of the Treaty of Paris, which ended the Seven Years War (French and Indian War). Britain made the island part of Nova Scotia. In 1784 the island separated from Nova Scotia, but the two areas reunited in 1820. Thousands of Scots moved to the island from the 1790s to the 1830s.  
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*A large island off of the coast of Nova Scotia. In the early 1600s it became a French colony, but in 1763 France ceded it to Great Britain as part of the Treaty of Paris, which ended the Seven Years War (French and Indian War). Britain made the island part of Nova Scotia. In 1784 the island separated from Nova Scotia, but the two areas reunited in 1820. Thousands of Scots moved to the island from the 1790s to the 1830s.
  
===== Cape Fear Valley =====
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===== Cape Fear Valley =====
  
*The region along the Cape Fear River in North Carolina.  
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*The region along the Cape Fear River in North Carolina.
  
===== Capellanías, military =====
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===== Capellanías, military =====
  
*A type of military record used in Latin America, translated as military parish records. These are records that military chaplains kept of sacraments performed for soldiers and their families.  
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*A type of military record used in Latin America, translated as military parish records. These are records that military chaplains kept of sacraments performed for soldiers and their families.
  
===== Capellanías,land =====
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===== Capellanías,land =====
  
*A type of land grant in Latin America. These land grants covered lands that individuals and families ceded to the Catholic Church. Related documents include wills, court records, land titles, and contracts. Information about the individuals and families involved may also be included.  
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*A type of land grant in Latin America. These land grants covered lands that individuals and families ceded to the Catholic Church. Related documents include wills, court records, land titles, and contracts. Information about the individuals and families involved may also be included.
  
===== Capital case =====
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===== Capital case =====
  
*A type of criminal court case in which the defendant could receive the death penalty.  
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*A type of criminal court case in which the defendant could receive the death penalty.
  
===== Captain =====
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===== Captain =====
  
*An army, marine, or air force officer who commands a military company; also a naval officer who commands a warship.  
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*An army, marine, or air force officer who commands a military company; also a naval officer who commands a warship.
  
===== Card index =====
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===== Card index =====
  
*An index to a set of records. In a card index, each index entry appears on a separate card, and the cards are arranged alphabetically or by some other method. Many United States censuses have card indexes.  
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*An index to a set of records. In a card index, each index entry appears on a separate card, and the cards are arranged alphabetically or by some other method. Many United States censuses have card indexes.
  
===== Card Membership, Latter-day Saint =====
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===== Card Membership, Latter-day Saint =====
  
*A printed form used to record membership information of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from 1941 to the present. Most wards now use an electronic version of the form. Before the electronic version was used, the forms were separate and were bound in books. When a member moves from a ward, the membership record is returned to Church headquarters and sent to the member’s new ward or branch.  
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*A printed form used to record membership information of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from 1941 to the present. Most wards now use an electronic version of the form. Before the electronic version was used, the forms were separate and were bound in books. When a member moves from a ward, the membership record is returned to Church headquarters and sent to the member’s new ward or branch.
  
===== Carey Act of 1894 =====
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===== Carey Act of 1894 =====
  
*A federal law that provided for the reclamation and homesteading of desert land in public land states. It established new settlements in northern Wyoming.  
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*A federal law that provided for the reclamation and homesteading of desert land in public land states. It established new settlements in northern Wyoming.
  
===== Carpenter =====
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===== Carpenter =====
  
*A person who works with wood; also the officer in the British navy who examined the wooden parts of a ship.  
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*A person who works with wood; also the officer in the British navy who examined the wooden parts of a ship.
  
===== Cartas de dote =====
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===== Cartas de dote =====
  
*The Spanish term for dowry records.  
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*The Spanish term for dowry records.
  
===== Casamentos =====
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===== Casamentos =====
  
*A Portuguese word for marriages.  
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*A Portuguese word for marriages.
  
===== Casamiento =====
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===== Casamiento =====
*A Spanish term for marriage. Also used in the Philippines.
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===== Case file number =====
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*A Spanish term for marriage. Also used in the Philippines.
  
*An identification number assigned to a case file.
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===== Case file number  =====
  
===== Case file, court records =====
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*An identification number assigned to a case file.
  
*A file containing the documentation related to a specific court case.
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===== Case file, court records  =====
  
===== Case file, land =====
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*A file containing the documentation related to a specific court case.
  
*A file of records related to an individual’s acquisition of land. The case file may contain the individual’s application, records of payment, or certification that he or she has completed all requirements for owning the land. These are the most helpful land records for family history researchers.
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===== Case file, land =====
  
===== Case file, probate =====
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*A file of records related to an individual’s acquisition of land. The case file may contain the individual’s application, records of payment, or certification that he or she has completed all requirements for owning the land. These are the most helpful land records for family history researchers.
  
*A file of all documents relating to the settlement of an individual’s estate. Also called estate file, estate packet, loose papers, probate estate papers, or probate packet.
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===== Case file, probate =====
  
===== Cash entry =====
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*A file of all documents relating to the settlement of an individual’s estate. Also called estate file, estate packet, loose papers, probate estate papers, or probate packet.
  
*The process of purchasing land from the federal government.
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===== Cash entry  =====
  
===== Cash entry files =====
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*The process of purchasing land from the federal government.
  
*The collection of records relating to a person's purchase of federal land.
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===== Cash entry files  =====
  
===== Castizo, Puerto Rico =====
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*The collection of records relating to a person's purchase of federal land.
  
*In Puerto Rico, a term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of Indian, African, and Caucasian. In Guatemala, the term refers to a person who is a mix of Caucasian and Indian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
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===== Castizo, Puerto Rico =====
  
===== Catalog =====
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*In Puerto Rico, a term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of Indian, African, and Caucasian. In Guatemala, the term refers to a person who is a mix of Caucasian and Indian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
  
*A description of items available in a library's or archive's collection. A catalog usually gives you the call number or other information needed to find the item within the collection.
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===== Catalog  =====
  
===== Catholic mission =====
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*A description of items available in a library's or archive's collection. A catalog usually gives you the call number or other information needed to find the item within the collection.
  
*A settlement established by Catholic priests to convert the Native Americans to Catholicism and to maintain the authority of the country from which the priests came. Missions provided the Native Americans with food, clothing, education in a trade, and sometimes housing. In return, the Native Americans worked, took instruction in the Catholic Church, and agreed to live by the customs of the priests' country. Spanish missions were established in Georgia, Florida, Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and California. French missions were established in the Great Lakes area.
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===== Catholic mission  =====
  
===== Catholic Records in Montréal, Canada =====
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*A settlement established by Catholic priests to convert the Native Americans to Catholicism and to maintain the authority of the country from which the priests came. Missions provided the Native Americans with food, clothing, education in a trade, and sometimes housing. In return, the Native Americans worked, took instruction in the Catholic Church, and agreed to live by the customs of the priests' country. Spanish missions were established in Georgia, Florida, Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and California. French missions were established in the Great Lakes area.
  
*A card index to Catholic Church records in Montréal, Canada.
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===== Catholic Records in Montréal, Canada =====
  
===== Catholic Relief Acts, Ireland =====
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*A card index to Catholic Church records in Montréal, Canada.
  
*A series of laws passed to restore to Roman Catholics in Ireland the rights that had been taken away in the Penal Laws passed between 1695 and 1728.
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===== Catholic Relief Acts, Ireland =====
  
===== Cementerios =====
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*A series of laws passed to restore to Roman Catholics in Ireland the rights that had been taken away in the Penal Laws passed between 1695 and 1728.
  
*A Spanish term for cemeteries and cemetery records. Also used in the Philippines.
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===== Cementerios  =====
  
===== Cemeteries, Family History Library Catalog™ =====
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*A Spanish term for cemeteries and cemetery records. Also used in the Philippines.
  
*A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize cemetery records (records that contain information about where people are buried).
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===== Cemeteries, Family History Library Catalog™  =====
  
===== Cemeteries, PERiodical Source Index =====
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*A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize cemetery records (records that contain information about where people are buried).
  
*A record type used in the Locality and Research Methodologies sections of the PERiodical Source Index (PERSI) to identify articles that contain information about cemeteries and cemetery records.
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===== Cemeteries, PERiodical Source Index =====
  
===== Cemetery =====
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*A record type used in the Locality and Research Methodologies sections of the PERiodical Source Index (PERSI) to identify articles that contain information about cemeteries and cemetery records.
  
*A place where deceased individuals are buried.
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===== Cemetery  =====
  
===== Cemetery Inscription Card Index, North Carolina =====
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*A place where deceased individuals are buried.
  
*A project completed by the federal government as part of the Historical Records Survey to index North Carolina cemetery records.
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===== Cemetery Inscription Card Index, North Carolina =====
  
===== Cemetery Locator File, Indiana =====
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*A project completed by the federal government as part of the Historical Records Survey to index North Carolina cemetery records.
  
*An alphabetical list of cemeteries in Indiana. This file is at the Indiana State Library. The Family History Library™ has a microfilm copy.
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===== Cemetery Locator File, Indiana =====
  
===== Censo =====
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*An alphabetical list of cemeteries in Indiana. This file is at the Indiana State Library. The Family History Library™ has a microfilm copy.
  
*The word used in Spanish and Portuguese for census. The Catholic Church and the government took censuses. Some censuses were taken of military men and their families in outlying areas.
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===== Censo  =====
  
===== Census district =====
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*The word used in Spanish and Portuguese for census. The Catholic Church and the government took censuses. Some censuses were taken of military men and their families in outlying areas.
  
*A geographical area in which a supervisor or marshal was required to take a census. Before 1880 in the United States, census districts were called subdivisions. Starting in 1880 they were called enumeration districts.
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===== Census district  =====
  
*In Canada, census districts are voting districts, not counties. Though the census district may have the same name as a county, it may not include the same townships.  
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*A geographical area in which a supervisor or marshal was required to take a census. Before 1880 in the United States, census districts were called subdivisions. Starting in 1880 they were called enumeration districts.
  
===== Census index =====
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*In Canada, census districts are voting districts, not counties. Though the census district may have the same name as a county, it may not include the same townships.
  
*An alphabetical list of some or all of the people on a census that identifies where within the census an individual can be found.
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===== Census index  =====
  
===== Census of Confederate Veterans, Arkansas =====
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*An alphabetical list of some or all of the people on a census that identifies where within the census an individual can be found.
  
*A special census taken in 1911 in Arkansas of all living veterans who served in the Confederate Army.
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===== Census of Confederate Veterans, Arkansas  =====
  
===== Census Place Index, 1881 British Census =====
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*A special census taken in 1911 in Arkansas of all living veterans who served in the Confederate Army.
  
*An index to the 1881 British Census that is organized alphabetically by surname then alphabetically by the census place.
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===== Census Place Index, 1881 British Census =====
  
===== Census schedule =====
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*An index to the 1881 British Census that is organized alphabetically by surname then alphabetically by the census place.
  
*A type of list in a census. A census can have many types of schedules, such as a population or mortality schedule.
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===== Census schedule =====
  
===== Census, Family History Library Catalog™ =====
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*A type of list in a census. A census can have many types of schedules, such as a population or mortality schedule.
  
*A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize censuses (official counts and descriptions of the people living in a country, colony, state, county, township, or city).
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===== Census, Family History Library Catalog™  =====
  
===== Census, general =====
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*A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize censuses (official counts and descriptions of the people living in a country, colony, state, county, township, or city).
  
*An official count and description of the people living in a country, colony, state, county, township, or city.
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===== Census, general  =====
  
===== Census, PERiodical Source Index =====
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*An official count and description of the people living in a country, colony, state, county, township, or city.
  
*A record type used in the Locality and Research Methodologies sections of the PERiodical Source Index (PERSI) to identify articles that contain information about census records.
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===== Census, PERiodical Source Index =====
  
===== Central Bureau of Statistics, Sweden =====
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*A record type used in the Locality and Research Methodologies sections of the PERiodical Source Index (PERSI) to identify articles that contain information about census records.
  
*An office that keeps statistics about the Swedish population. Swedish ministers were required to send extracts of their records to this office. The Swedish term for the bureau is Statistika Centralbyrån.
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===== Central Bureau of Statistics, Sweden  =====
  
===== Central Estadística, Philippines =====
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*An office that keeps statistics about the Swedish population. Swedish ministers were required to send extracts of their records to this office. The Swedish term for the bureau is Statistika Centralbyrån.
  
*A government office, translated as the Central Office of Statistics, established by the Spanish in the Philippines in 1899. It was charged with gathering birth, marriage, and death information from parish priests.
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===== Central Estadística, Philippines =====
  
===== Central provinces, Canada =====
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*A government office, translated as the Central Office of Statistics, established by the Spanish in the Philippines in 1899. It was charged with gathering birth, marriage, and death information from parish priests.
  
*A grouping of Canadian provinces comprising Québec and Ontario.
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===== Central provinces, Canada  =====
  
===== Century Farm Applications, Iowa =====
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*A grouping of Canadian provinces comprising Québec and Ontario.
  
*A collection of records gathered by the Iowa American Revolution Bicentennial Commission. These records contain information about farm owners in Iowa whose property had remained in the family for 100 years or longer.
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===== Century Farm Applications, Iowa =====
  
===== Certificate of arrival =====
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*A collection of records gathered by the Iowa American Revolution Bicentennial Commission. These records contain information about farm owners in Iowa whose property had remained in the family for 100 years or longer.
  
*A document given to immigrants upon their arrival in the United States. The certificate is proof of how long they have been living in the United States and is a required part of the naturalization process. It is kept in the case file with the petition for citizenship.
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===== Certificate of arrival =====
  
===== Certificate of Naturalization (Form 2207) =====
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*A document given to immigrants upon their arrival in the United States. The certificate is proof of how long they have been living in the United States and is a required part of the naturalization process. It is kept in the case file with the petition for citizenship.
  
*A form given to a former alien as proof that he or she has become a citizen of the United States.
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===== Certificate of Naturalization (Form 2207)  =====
  
===== Certificate, general =====
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*A form given to a former alien as proof that he or she has become a citizen of the United States.
  
*A record that documents an individual's or group's accomplishment or participation in an event.
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===== Certificate, general  =====
  
===== Certificate, immigration =====
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*A record that documents an individual's or group's accomplishment or participation in an event.
  
*A legal document given to immigrants after they have met all immigration requirements and have been sworn in as citizens of the United States. Also called a Certificate of Naturalization and Form 2207.
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===== Certificate, immigration  =====
  
===== Certificats =====
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*A legal document given to immigrants after they have met all immigration requirements and have been sworn in as citizens of the United States. Also called a Certificate of Naturalization and Form 2207.
  
*A French term for marriage certificate, a record that documents the date and place of a couple's marriage.
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===== Certificats  =====
  
===== Chamizo =====
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*A French term for marriage certificate, a record that documents the date and place of a couple's marriage.
  
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian, African, and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
+
===== Chamizo  =====
  
===== Chancery case =====
+
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian, African, and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
  
*A court case in which parties disputing over a matter that does not involve a violation of law ask a court to make a fair decision. Chancery cases commonly involve disputes over property rights or probate matters. Also called equity case.
+
===== Chancery case =====
  
===== Chancery court, Arkansas =====
+
*A court case in which parties disputing over a matter that does not involve a violation of law ask a court to make a fair decision. Chancery cases commonly involve disputes over property rights or probate matters. Also called equity case.
  
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over equity, divorce, probate, and adoption cases.
+
===== Chancery court, Arkansas  =====
  
===== Chancery court, Delaware =====
+
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over equity, divorce, probate, and adoption cases.
  
*A court in Delaware with countywide jurisdiction over equity matters.
+
===== Chancery court, Delaware =====
  
===== Chancery court, England =====
+
*A court in Delaware with countywide jurisdiction over equity matters.
  
*A court in England that hears equity cases. Records from this court include disputes over land and property rights, debts, inheritance, trusts, and fraud. The court began operating in 1199 and continues today.
+
===== Chancery court, England =====
  
===== Chancery court, general =====
+
*A court in England that hears equity cases. Records from this court include disputes over land and property rights, debts, inheritance, trusts, and fraud. The court began operating in 1199 and continues today.
  
*A court that administers justice and decides controversies in accordance with the rules of equity as opposed to the rules of law. These courts commonly hear cases that involve disputes over property rights or probate matters. Also called equity court.
+
===== Chancery court, general  =====
  
===== Chancery court, Maryland =====
+
*A court that administers justice and decides controversies in accordance with the rules of equity as opposed to the rules of law. These courts commonly hear cases that involve disputes over property rights or probate matters. Also called equity court.
  
*A court in Maryland with statewide jurisdiction over equity cases, such as divorces, name changes, mortgage foreclosures, civil damage suits, and guardianships. This court existed from 1668 to 1851.
+
===== Chancery court, Maryland =====
  
===== Chancery court, Mississippi =====
+
*A court in Maryland with statewide jurisdiction over equity cases, such as divorces, name changes, mortgage foreclosures, civil damage suits, and guardianships. This court existed from 1668 to 1851.
  
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over equity cases, divorce, land grants, probates, and guardianships.
+
===== Chancery court, Mississippi  =====
  
===== Chancery court, Tennessee =====
+
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over equity cases, divorce, land grants, probates, and guardianships.
  
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over property title disputes.
+
===== Chancery court, Tennessee  =====
  
===== Chancery register =====
+
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over property title disputes.
  
*A record kept by a court of chancery.
+
===== Chancery register  =====
  
===== Chapel of ease, Church of England =====
+
*A record kept by a court of chancery.
  
*A small division within a large parish of the Church of England. A chapel of ease has its own chapel to serve members who live too far away to attend the parish church. Chapels of ease often keep their own christening, marriage, and burial registers. Also called a chapelry.
+
===== Chapel of ease, Church of England =====
  
===== Chapelry, Church of England =====
+
*A small division within a large parish of the Church of England. A chapel of ease has its own chapel to serve members who live too far away to attend the parish church. Chapels of ease often keep their own christening, marriage, and burial registers. Also called a chapelry.
  
*A small division within a large parish of the Church of England. A chapelry has its own chapel to serve members who live too far away to attend the parish church. Chapelries often keep their own christening, marriage, and burial registers. Also called a chapel of ease.
+
===== Chapelry, Church of England =====
  
===== Chaplain =====
+
*A small division within a large parish of the Church of England. A chapelry has its own chapel to serve members who live too far away to attend the parish church. Chapelries often keep their own christening, marriage, and burial registers. Also called a chapel of ease.
  
*A clergyman in charge of a chapel; also a person who serves in the military as a clergyman. The chaplain is considered an officer.
+
===== Chaplain  =====
  
===== Charles Carroll Gardner's Collections, New Jersey =====
+
*A clergyman in charge of a chapel; also a person who serves in the military as a clergyman. The chaplain is considered an officer.
  
*Several collections of information about families from northeastern New Jersey, especially those from Essex County.
+
===== Charles Carroll Gardner's Collections, New Jersey =====
  
===== Charles D. Parkhurst manuscripts =====
+
*Several collections of information about families from northeastern New Jersey, especially those from Essex County.
  
*A collection of compiled genealogies about people from New London, Connecticut.  
+
===== Charles D. Parkhurst manuscripts  =====
  
===== Charles R. Hale Collection, Connecticut =====
+
*A collection of compiled genealogies about people from New London, Connecticut.
  
*A collection of cemetery records from Connecticut. The collection has cemetery inscriptions from more than 2,000 cemeteries. It also includes notices of deaths and marriages listed in newspapers.
+
===== Charles R. Hale Collection, Connecticut  =====
  
===== Cherokee =====
+
*A collection of cemetery records from Connecticut. The collection has cemetery inscriptions from more than 2,000 cemeteries. It also includes notices of deaths and marriages listed in newspapers.
  
*A powerful tribe of Native Americans who originally lived in the southeastern United States. In 1838 United States troops forced the Cherokee tribe to move to Indian Territory, which is now part of Oklahoma. This forced exodus became known as the Trail of Tears. About 1,000 Cherokee escaped into the Great Smoky Mountains. They eventually bought land, and the government allowed them to stay. This group became the Eastern Band of Cherokee. Most Cherokee now live in northeastern Oklahoma, though some still live in North Carolina. The Cherokee were considered part of the Five Civilized Tribes.
+
===== Cherokee =====
  
===== Cherokee Outlet =====
+
*A powerful tribe of Native Americans who originally lived in the southeastern United States. In 1838 United States troops forced the Cherokee tribe to move to Indian Territory, which is now part of Oklahoma. This forced exodus became known as the Trail of Tears. About 1,000 Cherokee escaped into the Great Smoky Mountains. They eventually bought land, and the government allowed them to stay. This group became the Eastern Band of Cherokee. Most Cherokee now live in northeastern Oklahoma, though some still live in North Carolina. The Cherokee were considered part of the Five Civilized Tribes.
  
*A section of land allocated to the Cherokees by treaty. Treaties made in 1828 and 1833 guaranteed this land to the tribe. The tribe could not place homes on it. It was to be used as an "outlet." The tribe sold the land to the United States in 1891, and it became part of Oklahoma Territory. Also called Cherokee Strip.
+
===== Cherokee Outlet  =====
  
===== Cherokee Removal (1838) =====
+
*A section of land allocated to the Cherokees by treaty. Treaties made in 1828 and 1833 guaranteed this land to the tribe. The tribe could not place homes on it. It was to be used as an "outlet." The tribe sold the land to the United States in 1891, and it became part of Oklahoma Territory. Also called Cherokee Strip.
  
*A forced exodus that occurred when the United States government forced the Cherokee to move from their lands in the southeastern United States to Indian Territory, which is now part of Oklahoma. The Cherokee called this march the Trail of Tears because so many people died along the way.
+
===== Cherokee Removal (1838)  =====
  
===== Cherokee War (1760-1761) =====
+
*A forced exodus that occurred when the United States government forced the Cherokee to move from their lands in the southeastern United States to Indian Territory, which is now part of Oklahoma. The Cherokee called this march the Trail of Tears because so many people died along the way.
  
*A war between the Cherokee and white settlers in South Carolina. The treaty that ended the war opened up much of frontier South Carolina for settlement.
+
===== Cherokee War (1760-1761)  =====
  
===== Chevalier =====
+
*A war between the Cherokee and white settlers in South Carolina. The treaty that ended the war opened up much of frontier South Carolina for settlement.
  
*The French term for the highest ranking title in the French gentry (petite noblesse). A chevalier is equivalent to a British knight.
+
===== Chevalier  =====
  
===== Chicago fire, USA =====
+
*The French term for the highest ranking title in the French gentry (petite noblesse). A chevalier is equivalent to a British knight.
  
*A fire that started on the Southwest side of Chicago on 8 October 1871. The fire burned for over 24 hours, destroying downtown Chicago and many Northside homes. Many of Chicago’s public records were also burned. At least three hundred people died, and 98,500 were left homeless. The fire caused an estimated $200 million in damage.
+
===== Chicago fire, USA  =====
  
===== Chicago, Illinois =====
+
*A fire that started on the Southwest side of Chicago on 8 October 1871. The fire burned for over 24 hours, destroying downtown Chicago and many Northside homes. Many of Chicago’s public records were also burned. At least three hundred people died, and 98,500 were left homeless. The fire caused an estimated $200 million in damage.
  
*A city in Cook County, Illinois.
+
===== Chicago, Illinois =====
  
===== Chickasaw =====
+
*A city in Cook County, Illinois.
  
*A tribe of Native Americans who originally lived in northern Mississippi, western Tennessee, and northwestern Alabama. In 1837 they moved to Indian Territory.
+
===== Chickasaw  =====
  
===== China =====
+
*A tribe of Native Americans who originally lived in northern Mississippi, western Tennessee, and northwestern Alabama. In 1837 they moved to Indian Territory.
  
*A term used in Brazilian and Argentinean Catholic Church registers to describe a female Indian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
+
===== China  =====
  
===== Chinese =====
+
*A term used in Brazilian and Argentinean Catholic Church registers to describe a female Indian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
  
*Pertaining to something or someone from China; also the languages used by the people of China and other countries.
+
===== Chinese  =====
  
===== Chino =====
+
*Pertaining to something or someone from China; also the languages used by the people of China and other countries.
  
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian, African, and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
+
===== Chino  =====
  
===== Choctaw =====
+
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian, African, and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
  
*A tribe of Native Americans who originally lived in southern Alabama and Mississippi. In 1830 they ceded their land to the United States in exchange for a large tract of land in what is now southeastern Oklahoma. Most members of the tribe moved there between 1831 and 1833.
+
===== Choctaw  =====
  
===== Cholo =====
+
*A tribe of Native Americans who originally lived in southern Alabama and Mississippi. In 1830 they ceded their land to the United States in exchange for a large tract of land in what is now southeastern Oklahoma. Most members of the tribe moved there between 1831 and 1833.
  
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
+
===== Cholo  =====
  
===== Christen, religious =====
+
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
  
*To baptize an individual or to give an infant a name.
+
===== Christen, religious  =====
  
===== Christen, shipping =====
+
*To baptize an individual or to give an infant a name.
  
*To name a new ship on its first voyage.  
+
===== Christen, shipping  =====
 +
 
 +
*To name a new ship on its first voyage.
  
 
Christening records: Records created when an individual is christened (a religious ceremony in which an individual is baptized or an infant is given a name).  
 
Christening records: Records created when an individual is christened (a religious ceremony in which an individual is baptized or an infant is given a name).  
  
===== Christian Church =====
+
===== Christian Church =====
  
*A Protestant religion formed in Kentucky in 1809 by Thomas Campbell, Alexander Campbell, and Barton W. Stone. Its full name is the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ). The church practices baptism by immersion, but most congregations will accept people as members if they were baptized into another church.  
+
*A Protestant religion formed in Kentucky in 1809 by Thomas Campbell, Alexander Campbell, and Barton W. Stone. Its full name is the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ). The church practices baptism by immersion, but most congregations will accept people as members if they were baptized into another church.
  
===== Christian name =====
+
===== Christian name =====
  
*A first name, often from the Bible, used to identify an individual. Also called first name or given name.  
+
*A first name, often from the Bible, used to identify an individual. Also called first name or given name.
  
===== Christian Reformed Church =====
+
===== Christian Reformed Church =====
  
*A church founded in 1857 in the United States by people who separated from the Dutch Reformed Church (now called the Reformed Church in America). It adopted its current name in 1904. The church follows the teachings of John Calvin and Huldrych Zwingli, maintaining a conservative, orthodox interpretation of doctrine and practices. It used to conduct its services and keep its records in Dutch.  
+
*A church founded in 1857 in the United States by people who separated from the Dutch Reformed Church (now called the Reformed Church in America). It adopted its current name in 1904. The church follows the teachings of John Calvin and Huldrych Zwingli, maintaining a conservative, orthodox interpretation of doctrine and practices. It used to conduct its services and keep its records in Dutch.
  
===== Church Almanac, Latter-day Saint =====
+
===== Church Almanac, Latter-day Saint =====
  
*A book currently published every other year by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints that gives information about Church leaders, historical events related to the Church, and statistics related to Church members around the world.  
+
*A book currently published every other year by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints that gives information about Church leaders, historical events related to the Church, and statistics related to Church members around the world.
  
===== Church archive =====
+
===== Church archive =====
  
*An archive where a church stores its records and documents.  
+
*An archive where a church stores its records and documents.
  
===== Church cemetery =====
+
===== Church cemetery =====
  
*A church-owned cemetery where that church's members, leaders, and others are buried.  
+
*A church-owned cemetery where that church's members, leaders, and others are buried.
  
===== Church census =====
+
===== Church census =====
  
*A list and description of members of a church that is taken to track growth and update membership records. Church censuses are a major source of family history information for members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.  
+
*A list and description of members of a church that is taken to track growth and update membership records. Church censuses are a major source of family history information for members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
  
===== Church Directories, Family History Library Catalog™ =====
+
===== Church Directories, Family History Library Catalog™ =====
  
*A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize lists of churches' organizational divisions and officials, including the names of the places and congregations where the officials have served.  
+
*A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize lists of churches' organizational divisions and officials, including the names of the places and congregations where the officials have served.
  
===== Church directory =====
+
===== Church directory =====
  
*A list of a church's organizational divisions and officials, including the names of the places and congregations where the officials have served. A church directory may also contain historical information about the local congregations, complete addresses of the churches, and the address of the church headquarters where additional records may be kept.  
+
*A list of a church's organizational divisions and officials, including the names of the places and congregations where the officials have served. A church directory may also contain historical information about the local congregations, complete addresses of the churches, and the address of the church headquarters where additional records may be kept.
  
===== Church History, Family History Library Catalog™ =====
+
===== Church History, Family History Library Catalog™ =====
  
*A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize information about the history of various churches.  
+
*A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize information about the history of various churches.
  
===== Church history, general =====
+
===== Church history, general =====
  
*An account of the events surrounding a specific church or the events related to all of the religions and religious developments in an area.  
+
*An account of the events surrounding a specific church or the events related to all of the religions and religious developments in an area.
  
===== Church marriage register =====
+
===== Church marriage register =====
  
*A record kept by a church of marriages performed by a priest or other church authority.  
+
*A record kept by a church of marriages performed by a priest or other church authority.
  
===== Church of England =====
+
===== Church of England =====
  
*The state church of England. It was established in 1534 by King Henry VIII who, when Pope Clement VII refused to grant him a divorce, compelled Parliament to pass the Act of Supremacy. This act made the king of England, not the pope, the head of the church in England. Doctrines of the church are based on the Nicene and Apostles' Creeds and the Book of Common Prayer. The clergy are divided into bishops, priests, and deacons. The Church of England is now part of the Anglican Communion.  
+
*The state church of England. It was established in 1534 by King Henry VIII who, when Pope Clement VII refused to grant him a divorce, compelled Parliament to pass the Act of Supremacy. This act made the king of England, not the pope, the head of the church in England. Doctrines of the church are based on the Nicene and Apostles' Creeds and the Book of Common Prayer. The clergy are divided into bishops, priests, and deacons. The Church of England is now part of the Anglican Communion.
  
===== Church of Ireland =====
+
===== Church of Ireland =====
  
*An independent Anglican Church in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. It is the largest Protestant church in Ireland. The Church of Ireland separated from the Church of England in 1871.  
+
*An independent Anglican Church in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. It is the largest Protestant church in Ireland. The Church of Ireland separated from the Church of England in 1871.
  
===== Church of Scotland =====
+
===== Church of Scotland =====
  
*The Presbyterian Church in Scotland. The Church of Scotland was once the state church.  
+
*The Presbyterian Church in Scotland. The Church of Scotland was once the state church.
  
===== Church of the Brethren =====
+
===== Church of the Brethren =====
  
*A religion that developed in 1708 in Germany under Alexander Mack. Persecution in Germany led many members to immigrate to Germantown, Pennsylvania. The Brethren stress obedience to Christ and living the gospel according to the New Testament. They practice trine baptism (baptism by immersion in which an individual is immersed three times, once for each member of the Trinity) and refuse to take oaths or serve in the military. They are also called Dunkards or Dunkers.  
+
*A religion that developed in 1708 in Germany under Alexander Mack. Persecution in Germany led many members to immigrate to Germantown, Pennsylvania. The Brethren stress obedience to Christ and living the gospel according to the New Testament. They practice trine baptism (baptism by immersion in which an individual is immersed three times, once for each member of the Trinity) and refuse to take oaths or serve in the military. They are also called Dunkards or Dunkers.
  
===== Church of the Nazarene =====
+
===== Church of the Nazarene =====
  
*A Protestant religion established in Texas in 1908. The church follows the early teachings of Methodism and sponsors many schools, liberal arts colleges, and theological seminaries.  
+
*A Protestant religion established in Texas in 1908. The church follows the early teachings of Methodism and sponsors many schools, liberal arts colleges, and theological seminaries.
  
===== Church Records, Family History Library Catalog™ =====
+
===== Church Records, Family History Library Catalog™ =====
  
*A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize records kept by churches, such as baptism records, marriage records, and burial records.  
+
*A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize records kept by churches, such as baptism records, marriage records, and burial records.
  
===== Church records, general =====
+
===== Church records, general =====
  
*Records kept by religious institutions.  
+
*Records kept by religious institutions.
  
===== Church unit boundaries, Latter-day Saint =====
+
===== Church unit boundaries, Latter-day Saint =====
  
*The jurisdictions of various congregations of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.  
+
*The jurisdictions of various congregations of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
  
===== Church, PERiodical Source Index =====
+
===== Church, PERiodical Source Index =====
  
*A record type used in the Locality and Research Methodologies sections of the PERiodical Source Index (PERSI) to identify articles that contain information about church records.  
+
*A record type used in the Locality and Research Methodologies sections of the PERiodical Source Index (PERSI) to identify articles that contain information about church records.
  
===== Churchwarden account =====
+
===== Churchwarden account =====
  
*Records kept by a churchwarden.  
+
*Records kept by a churchwarden.
  
===== Churchwarden, Church of England =====
+
===== Churchwarden, Church of England =====
  
*A lay officer in a parish or district of the Church of England. The churchwarden helps the minister with various administrative duties and represents the parishioners in church matters. Most parishes have two churchwardens, who are elected on Easter Tuesday. Before large parishes were broken down into divisions, they may have had up to four churchwardens to represent various areas of the parish. Also called churchman, churchmaster, church reeve, and kirkmaster.  
+
*A lay officer in a parish or district of the Church of England. The churchwarden helps the minister with various administrative duties and represents the parishioners in church matters. Most parishes have two churchwardens, who are elected on Easter Tuesday. Before large parishes were broken down into divisions, they may have had up to four churchwardens to represent various areas of the parish. Also called churchman, churchmaster, church reeve, and kirkmaster.
  
===== Cimarrón =====
+
===== Cimarrón =====
  
*A term used in Mexican and Guatemalan Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of Indian (1/4), African (1/2), and Spanish Caucasian (1/4). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.  
+
*A term used in Mexican and Guatemalan Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of Indian (1/4), African (1/2), and Spanish Caucasian (1/4). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
  
===== Circuit court guardian docket =====
+
===== Circuit court guardian docket =====
  
*A list of guardian judgments made by the circuit court.  
+
*A list of guardian judgments made by the circuit court.
  
===== Circuit court of appeals =====
+
===== Circuit court of appeals =====
  
*The former name of the United States Court of Appeals. The court of appeals may review and revise decisions made by federal district courts. The United States Supreme Court may review and revise decisions made by the circuit courts of appeals.  
+
*The former name of the United States Court of Appeals. The court of appeals may review and revise decisions made by federal district courts. The United States Supreme Court may review and revise decisions made by the circuit courts of appeals.
  
===== Circuit court, Alabama =====
+
===== Circuit court, Alabama =====
  
*A court in Alabama with countywide jurisdiction over felonies, major criminal and civil cases, and appeals from inferior courts.  
+
*A court in Alabama with countywide jurisdiction over felonies, major criminal and civil cases, and appeals from inferior courts.
  
===== Circuit court, New Jersey =====
+
===== Circuit court, New Jersey =====
  
*A court in New Jersey with countywide jurisdiction over civil and equity cases such as mortgage foreclosures, name changes, marriages, adoptions, estate partitions, naturalizations, debts, and probate suits. Circuit courts were replaced by superior courts in 1947.  
+
*A court in New Jersey with countywide jurisdiction over civil and equity cases such as mortgage foreclosures, name changes, marriages, adoptions, estate partitions, naturalizations, debts, and probate suits. Circuit courts were replaced by superior courts in 1947.
  
===== Circuit court, Ohio =====
+
===== Circuit court, Ohio =====
  
*A court in Ohio with countywide jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases, including equity and divorce cases.  
+
*A court in Ohio with countywide jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases, including equity and divorce cases.
  
===== Circuit court, USA =====
+
===== Circuit court, USA =====
  
*A court used in many states of the United States. The court generally has jurisdiction over several towns, counties, or districts in the state. Circuit courts have jurisdiction over both criminal and civil matters.  
+
*A court used in many states of the United States. The court generally has jurisdiction over several towns, counties, or districts in the state. Circuit courts have jurisdiction over both criminal and civil matters.
  
===== Circuit court, Virginia =====
+
===== Circuit court, Virginia =====
  
*A court in Virginia with circuitwide jurisdiction. Circuit courts were created in 1851 and continue today.  
+
*A court in Virginia with circuitwide jurisdiction. Circuit courts were created in 1851 and continue today.
  
===== Circuit court, Wisconsin =====
+
===== Circuit court, Wisconsin =====
  
*A court in Wisconsin with countywide jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases and some appeals.  
+
*A court in Wisconsin with countywide jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases and some appeals.
  
 
Circuit superior court of law and chancery, Virginia: A court in Virginia with districtwide jurisdiction. In 1851 these courts were replaced by circuit courts.  
 
Circuit superior court of law and chancery, Virginia: A court in Virginia with districtwide jurisdiction. In 1851 these courts were replaced by circuit courts.  
  
===== Circuit superior court of law, West Virginia =====
+
===== Circuit superior court of law, West Virginia =====
  
*A court in West Virginia with circuitwide jurisdiction. Circuit superior courts of law were used from 1809 to 1852.  
+
*A court in West Virginia with circuitwide jurisdiction. Circuit superior courts of law were used from 1809 to 1852.
  
===== Circumcision register, Jewish =====
+
===== Circumcision register, Jewish =====
  
*A book containing information about Jewish circumcisions. They include the Hebrew given name of the child, the date of circumcision in the Hebrew calendar, and the father's Hebrew given name. Also called Mohel books.  
+
*A book containing information about Jewish circumcisions. They include the Hebrew given name of the child, the date of circumcision in the Hebrew calendar, and the father's Hebrew given name. Also called Mohel books.
  
===== Citizen, early England and Wales =====
+
===== Citizen, early England and Wales =====
  
*A freeman who lived in a city.  
+
*A freeman who lived in a city.
  
===== Citizenship =====
+
===== Citizenship =====
  
*The allegiance of an individual to a government and its laws and customs. In return, the individual is granted all rights allowed by the government.  
+
*The allegiance of an individual to a government and its laws and customs. In return, the individual is granted all rights allowed by the government.
  
===== Citizenship book, Danish =====
+
===== Citizenship book, Danish =====
  
*A list of people who received the rights to citizenship extended by a city. Citizenship rights included the right to engage in business in the city, protection under the law, and permission to live in the city without being expelled. Citizenship books include the names of the people granted citizenship and their age, social and economic status, occupation and training, and sometimes birthplace and names of relatives. Until the twentieth century, only males of the middle or upper class, usually merchants and tradesmen, were granted citizenship. The Danish citizenship books are called borgerskabprotokoller.  
+
*A list of people who received the rights to citizenship extended by a city. Citizenship rights included the right to engage in business in the city, protection under the law, and permission to live in the city without being expelled. Citizenship books include the names of the people granted citizenship and their age, social and economic status, occupation and training, and sometimes birthplace and names of relatives. Until the twentieth century, only males of the middle or upper class, usually merchants and tradesmen, were granted citizenship. The Danish citizenship books are called borgerskabprotokoller.
  
===== Citizenship book, Germany =====
+
===== Citizenship book, Germany =====
  
*A book used to record the names of people who had received the rights to citizenship. These books were frequently kept in Germany, where they were called Bürgerbücher or Bürgerlisten.  
+
*A book used to record the names of people who had received the rights to citizenship. These books were frequently kept in Germany, where they were called Bürgerbücher or Bürgerlisten.
  
===== City census =====
+
===== City census =====
  
*A census taken by a city rather than a state or federal government.  
+
*A census taken by a city rather than a state or federal government.
  
===== City court, Kansas =====
+
===== City court, Kansas =====
  
*A court in Kansas with citywide jurisdiction over minor criminal cases and traffic matters. Also called magistrate court.  
+
*A court in Kansas with citywide jurisdiction over minor criminal cases and traffic matters. Also called magistrate court.
  
 
City court, Utah: A court used in Utah between 1906 and 1977. City courts had limited jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases in a county. They were replaced by the circuit court system in 1977.  
 
City court, Utah: A court used in Utah between 1906 and 1977. City courts had limited jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases in a county. They were replaced by the circuit court system in 1977.  
  
===== City directory =====
+
===== City directory =====
  
*A list of the names, addresses, and telephone numbers (if applicable) of the people living in a city. City directories may also provide other information about individuals such as their profession, trade, or place of employment.  
+
*A list of the names, addresses, and telephone numbers (if applicable) of the people living in a city. City directories may also provide other information about individuals such as their profession, trade, or place of employment.
  
===== City livery company, England =====
+
===== City livery company, England =====
  
*A craft or trade association in London that is descended from the medieval trade guilds. The term livery originally referred to the distinctive uniform that each guild (or company) used on special occasions. Eventually the term was used to refer to the collective membership of the company.  
+
*A craft or trade association in London that is descended from the medieval trade guilds. The term livery originally referred to the distinctive uniform that each guild (or company) used on special occasions. Eventually the term was used to refer to the collective membership of the company.
  
===== City map =====
+
===== City map =====
  
*A map that shows the streets and sometimes political divisions of a large city.  
+
*A map that shows the streets and sometimes political divisions of a large city.
  
===== City records =====
+
===== City records =====
  
*Records, such as those for births and deaths, kept at a city level.  
+
*Records, such as those for births and deaths, kept at a city level.
  
===== Civil case =====
+
===== Civil case =====
  
*A lawsuit involving a violation of laws when an individual (but not society) is harmed, such as property damage, trespass, or libel. Civil cases seek enforcement of private rights or compensation for infringement on private rights.  
+
*A lawsuit involving a violation of laws when an individual (but not society) is harmed, such as property damage, trespass, or libel. Civil cases seek enforcement of private rights or compensation for infringement on private rights.
  
===== Civil court, Florida =====
+
===== Civil court, Florida =====
  
*A court in Florida that exists in counties with more than 100,000 residents. In these counties, civil courts take the place of county courts.  
+
*A court in Florida that exists in counties with more than 100,000 residents. In these counties, civil courts take the place of county courts.
  
===== Civil court, general =====
+
===== Civil court, general =====
  
*A court that hears civil cases (lawsuits involving a violation of laws when an individual but not society is harmed, such as property damage, trespass, or libel). Civil cases seek enforcement of private rights or compensation for infringement of private rights.  
+
*A court that hears civil cases (lawsuits involving a violation of laws when an individual but not society is harmed, such as property damage, trespass, or libel). Civil cases seek enforcement of private rights or compensation for infringement of private rights.
  
===== Civil district, Denmark =====
+
===== Civil district, Denmark =====
  
*An area covered by a Danish court. In Danish they are called herred and birke.  
+
*An area covered by a Danish court. In Danish they are called herred and birke.
  
===== Civil government =====
+
===== Civil government =====
  
*A government that has authority over a country or other non-church unit.  
+
*A government that has authority over a country or other non-church unit.
  
===== Civil law =====
+
===== Civil law =====
  
*The laws in a country that define the rights and obligations that people owe one another. Civil law covers issues such as the borrowing and lending of money, contracts, land and property ownership, marriage, divorce, adoption, and injury due to the actions of another person. In the Canadian province of Québec civil law is based on a French code of laws. In other provinces, civil law is based on English common law.  
+
*The laws in a country that define the rights and obligations that people owe one another. Civil law covers issues such as the borrowing and lending of money, contracts, land and property ownership, marriage, divorce, adoption, and injury due to the actions of another person. In the Canadian province of Québec civil law is based on a French code of laws. In other provinces, civil law is based on English common law.
  
===== Civil marriage register =====
+
===== Civil marriage register =====
  
*A government record of marriages performed by various civil and religious officials. A register is usually a record in a bound book.  
+
*A government record of marriages performed by various civil and religious officials. A register is usually a record in a bound book.
  
 
Civil parish, Ireland: An administrative division of a county in Ireland. Before the Reformation, the civil parish was an ecclesiastical division.  
 
Civil parish, Ireland: An administrative division of a county in Ireland. Before the Reformation, the civil parish was an ecclesiastical division.  
  
===== Civil registration office =====
+
===== Civil registration office =====
  
*A local government office that keeps the government's local birth, marriage, and death records. Some civil registration offices may also have records regarding divorces.  
+
*A local government office that keeps the government's local birth, marriage, and death records. Some civil registration offices may also have records regarding divorces.
  
===== Civil Registration, Family History Library Catalog™ =====
+
===== Civil Registration, Family History Library Catalog™ =====
  
*A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize birth, marriage, divorce, and death records kept by civil governments. Birth, marriage, divorce, and death records from the United States and all Canadian provinces except Québec are cataloged under the subject heading "Vital Records."  
+
*A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize birth, marriage, divorce, and death records kept by civil governments. Birth, marriage, divorce, and death records from the United States and all Canadian provinces except Québec are cataloged under the subject heading "Vital Records."
  
===== Civil registration, general =====
+
===== Civil registration, general =====
  
*Birth, marriage, divorce, and death records kept by a government. In the United States, civil registration is called vital records.  
+
*Birth, marriage, divorce, and death records kept by a government. In the United States, civil registration is called vital records.
  
===== Civil Secretary, Canada =====
+
===== Civil Secretary, Canada =====
  
*A government official in Upper Canada (Ontario) who served as a private secretary to the lieutenant-governor of the province. He received letters and petitions. This position does not exist in modern-day Ontario.  
+
*A government official in Upper Canada (Ontario) who served as a private secretary to the lieutenant-governor of the province. He received letters and petitions. This position does not exist in modern-day Ontario.
  
===== Civil War, American =====
+
===== Civil War, American =====
  
*A term for the American Civil War, 1861 to 1865. Also called the War between the States and the War of Secession.  
+
*A term for the American Civil War, 1861 to 1865. Also called the War between the States and the War of Secession.
  
===== Civil war, general =====
+
===== Civil war, general =====
  
*A type of war in which two or more factions within the same country are at war with each other.  
+
*A type of war in which two or more factions within the same country are at war with each other.
  
===== Claim =====
+
===== Claim =====
  
*A request made in a court of law.  
+
*A request made in a court of law.
  
===== Claim registers =====
+
===== Claim registers =====
  
*Records of claims made against a deceased person's estate.  
+
*Records of claims made against a deceased person's estate.
  
===== Claims docket =====
+
===== Claims docket =====
  
*A list of court cases.  
+
*A list of court cases.
  
===== Clarence Torrey Collection, New England =====
+
===== Clarence Torrey Collection, New England =====
  
*A collection of marriage records gathered by Clarence Torrey. It lists marriages that occurred during the 1600s in colonial New England. Its proper name is New England Marriages Prior to 1700.  
+
*A collection of marriage records gathered by Clarence Torrey. It lists marriages that occurred during the 1600s in colonial New England. Its proper name is New England Marriages Prior to 1700.
  
===== Class 1 settler =====
+
===== Class 1 settler =====
  
*A settler who was part of a system that filed headright grants by time period. These particular settlers arrived in Texas before 1 March 1836 and received headright land grants from Spain and Mexico.  
+
*A settler who was part of a system that filed headright grants by time period. These particular settlers arrived in Texas before 1 March 1836 and received headright land grants from Spain and Mexico.
  
===== Class 2 settler =====
+
===== Class 2 settler =====
  
*A settler who was part of a system that filed headright grants by time period. These particular settlers arrived in Texas from 2 March 1836 to 1 October 1837 and received headright land grants from the Republic of Texas.  
+
*A settler who was part of a system that filed headright grants by time period. These particular settlers arrived in Texas from 2 March 1836 to 1 October 1837 and received headright land grants from the Republic of Texas.
  
===== Class 3 settler =====
+
===== Class 3 settler =====
  
*A settler who was part of a system that filed headright grants by time period. These particular settlers arrived in Texas from 1 October 1837 to 1 January 1840 and received headright land grants from the Republic of Texas.  
+
*A settler who was part of a system that filed headright grants by time period. These particular settlers arrived in Texas from 1 October 1837 to 1 January 1840 and received headright land grants from the Republic of Texas.
  
===== Class 4 settler =====
+
===== Class 4 settler =====
  
*A settler who was part of a system that filed headright grants by time period. These particular settlers arrived in Texas from 1 January 1840 to 1 January 1842 and received headright land grants from the Republic of Texas.  
+
*A settler who was part of a system that filed headright grants by time period. These particular settlers arrived in Texas from 1 January 1840 to 1 January 1842 and received headright land grants from the Republic of Texas.
  
===== Clergy directory =====
+
===== Clergy directory =====
  
*A list of the religious leaders in an area or religion.  
+
*A list of the religious leaders in an area or religion.
  
===== Clerical register of souls, Norway =====
+
===== Clerical register of souls, Norway =====
  
*A census taken by the Lutheran clergy in Norway during the mid-1700s. It lists all members of a family and all persons living with the family. In Norwegian this census is called a sjeleregister.  
+
*A census taken by the Lutheran clergy in Norway during the mid-1700s. It lists all members of a family and all persons living with the family. In Norwegian this census is called a sjeleregister.
  
===== Clerical survey records, Sweden =====
+
===== Clerical survey records, Sweden =====
  
*A roll kept in Sweden that lists all members of a parish, their place of residence, and their knowledge of catechism. The Evangelical Lutheran Church (Svenska Kyrkan) passed a law in 1686 requiring ministers to keep these records. Some records exist for as early as 1700, but most start much later. From about 1820, surveys are available for most parishes. In Swedish the word for clerical survey records is husförslängder.  
+
*A roll kept in Sweden that lists all members of a parish, their place of residence, and their knowledge of catechism. The Evangelical Lutheran Church (Svenska Kyrkan) passed a law in 1686 requiring ministers to keep these records. Some records exist for as early as 1700, but most start much later. From about 1820, surveys are available for most parishes. In Swedish the word for clerical survey records is husförslängder.
  
===== Clerk =====
+
===== Clerk =====
  
*An individual charged with keeping records.  
+
*An individual charged with keeping records.
  
===== Clerk of the court =====
+
===== Clerk of the court =====
  
*A government official who keeps the records of a court.  
+
*A government official who keeps the records of a court.
  
===== Clipping file =====
+
===== Clipping file =====
  
*A file of obituaries and other articles cut out of newspapers.  
+
*A file of obituaries and other articles cut out of newspapers.
  
===== Coast Guard =====
+
===== Coast Guard =====
  
*The branch of a nation's armed forces that is employed to protect and police a nation's coastline. In Great Britain, the Coast Guard was originally formed to prevent smuggling.  
+
*The branch of a nation's armed forces that is employed to protect and police a nation's coastline. In Great Britain, the Coast Guard was originally formed to prevent smuggling.
  
===== Coat of arms =====
+
===== Coat of arms =====
  
*An emblem used on shields and other implements of war. Coats of arms, invented in the Holy Land during the Crusades, were introduced to England by Richard I. They were originally painted on the shields of Christian soldiers to identify them. Later, the Crown granted the right to use a coat of arms to an individual to identify him in battle. Then a coat of arms became a reward for performing a heroic deed, making a notable achievement, or holding a prominent position.  
+
*An emblem used on shields and other implements of war. Coats of arms, invented in the Holy Land during the Crusades, were introduced to England by Richard I. They were originally painted on the shields of Christian soldiers to identify them. Later, the Crown granted the right to use a coat of arms to an individual to identify him in battle. Then a coat of arms became a reward for performing a heroic deed, making a notable achievement, or holding a prominent position.
  
===== Codicil =====
+
===== Codicil =====
  
*A signed supplement, change, or addition to a will.  
+
*A signed supplement, change, or addition to a will.
  
===== Cofradías, Spain =====
+
===== Cofradías, Spain =====
  
*An organization in Spain whose membership was restricted to persons of hidalgo status (untitled Spanish nobility). In Spanish, the terms órdenes militares, confradías and confraternidades refer to military orders of chivalry that were established during the Crusades (1100–1450) to provide a fraternal religious life among the Spanish nobility. The orders were dedicated to retaking Spain from the Moors and protecting pilgrimages to the Holy Land. These orders functioned under the direction of the Pope and were independent of other ecclesiastical or civil authority. However, as the orders grew in wealth and power, they came into conflict with the Spanish Crown. By 1587 most of the orders fell under the control of the monarch. The orders became honorary in nature.  
+
*An organization in Spain whose membership was restricted to persons of hidalgo status (untitled Spanish nobility). In Spanish, the terms órdenes militares, confradías and confraternidades refer to military orders of chivalry that were established during the Crusades (1100–1450) to provide a fraternal religious life among the Spanish nobility. The orders were dedicated to retaking Spain from the Moors and protecting pilgrimages to the Holy Land. These orders functioned under the direction of the Pope and were independent of other ecclesiastical or civil authority. However, as the orders grew in wealth and power, they came into conflict with the Spanish Crown. By 1587 most of the orders fell under the control of the monarch. The orders became honorary in nature.
  
===== Cohabitation certificates =====
+
===== Cohabitation certificates =====
  
*A record that states the legal marital status of freed slaves.  
+
*A record that states the legal marital status of freed slaves.
  
===== Collection Fabien, Canada =====
+
===== Collection Fabien, Canada =====
  
*A collection of Catholic marriage records at the National Archives of Canada. It covers marriages that occurred from 1657 to 1974 in counties surrounding Montréal and on both the Québec and Ontario sides of the Ottawa River Valley.Collection Gagnon, Canada<br>Collection Gagnon, Canada: A collection of marriage indexes, church records, and vital records about French Canadians. This collection is at the city library of Montreal.  
+
*A collection of Catholic marriage records at the National Archives of Canada. It covers marriages that occurred from 1657 to 1974 in counties surrounding Montréal and on both the Québec and Ontario sides of the Ottawa River Valley.Collection Gagnon, Canada<br>Collection Gagnon, Canada: A collection of marriage indexes, church records, and vital records about French Canadians. This collection is at the city library of Montreal.
  
===== Collection Rhode Island Family Records =====
+
===== Collection Rhode Island Family Records =====
  
*A collection of will abstracts and family records created by Martha A. Benns. The collection is available at the Rhode Island Historical Society and the Family History Library™.  
+
*A collection of will abstracts and family records created by Martha A. Benns. The collection is available at the Rhode Island Historical Society and the Family History Library™.
  
===== Collections, Family History Library Catalog™ =====
+
===== Collections, Family History Library Catalog™ =====
  
*A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize collections of genealogical or historical information gathered by a person or group and then made available for public research.  
+
*A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize collections of genealogical or historical information gathered by a person or group and then made available for public research.
  
===== Collective biography =====
+
===== Collective biography =====
  
*A group of biographies about a specific group of people, such as merchants, students of an academy, or prominent citizens in an area.  
+
*A group of biographies about a specific group of people, such as merchants, students of an academy, or prominent citizens in an area.
  
===== Collective naturalization, USA =====
+
===== Collective naturalization, USA =====
  
*The process of granting a group of people United States citizenship. This happened in 1803 for residents of the Louisiana Purchase, in 1845 for residents of Texas, in 1868 for African-Americans, in 1898 for residents of Hawaii, and in 1924 for Native Americans. No individual naturalization records were made for people granted collective naturalization.  
+
*The process of granting a group of people United States citizenship. This happened in 1803 for residents of the Louisiana Purchase, in 1845 for residents of Texas, in 1868 for African-Americans, in 1898 for residents of Hawaii, and in 1924 for Native Americans. No individual naturalization records were made for people granted collective naturalization.
  
===== Collectors' roll =====
+
===== Collectors' roll =====
  
*A list of property owners and how much tax they paid in a given year.  
+
*A list of property owners and how much tax they paid in a given year.
  
===== Colonel =====
+
===== Colonel =====
  
*Usually the senior staff or administrative officer in the army, air force, or marines who commands a regiment. The British often gave this as an honorary title to members of noble families.  
+
*Usually the senior staff or administrative officer in the army, air force, or marines who commands a regiment. The British often gave this as an honorary title to members of noble families.
  
===== Colonial census =====
+
===== Colonial census =====
  
*A list and description of the population of a colony.  
+
*A list and description of the population of a colony.
  
===== Colonial land records =====
+
===== Colonial land records =====
  
*Records kept about land matters during colonial times. These records were kept at the colony level but not at the county level.  
+
*Records kept about land matters during colonial times. These records were kept at the colony level but not at the county level.
  
===== Colonial naturalization =====
+
===== Colonial naturalization =====
  
*A naturalization that occurred during a country's colonial period.  
+
*A naturalization that occurred during a country's colonial period.
  
===== Colonial period, Latin America =====
+
===== Colonial period, Latin America =====
  
*The period of time from 1492 to the 1820s when Spain and Portugal controlled Latin America. During this period, the Spanish and Portuguese exploited native resources, suppressed native cultures, imported slaves from Africa, and established Catholic missions that oversaw the conversion (sometimes forced) of the native peoples to Catholicism. The native-born Spanish controlled the local governments, even pure-blooded Spaniards who had been born in the New World had little influence. The colonial period ended as the various countries in Latin America won their independence and established their own governments.  
+
*The period of time from 1492 to the 1820s when Spain and Portugal controlled Latin America. During this period, the Spanish and Portuguese exploited native resources, suppressed native cultures, imported slaves from Africa, and established Catholic missions that oversaw the conversion (sometimes forced) of the native peoples to Catholicism. The native-born Spanish controlled the local governments, even pure-blooded Spaniards who had been born in the New World had little influence. The colonial period ended as the various countries in Latin America won their independence and established their own governments.
  
===== Colonial records =====
+
===== Colonial records =====
  
*Records kept about a colony or by a colonial government.  
+
*Records kept about a colony or by a colonial government.
  
===== Colonial Wars =====
+
===== Colonial Wars =====
  
*Wars that occurred in what is now the United States between the French, Spanish, and British governments and between the colonists and Native Americans.  
+
*Wars that occurred in what is now the United States between the French, Spanish, and British governments and between the colonists and Native Americans.
  
===== Colonization Policy =====
+
===== Colonization Policy =====
  
*Agreements made by the Mexican government during the 1820s to allow Americans to colonize Texas. Moses Austin was the first American to receive permission to form a colony, but he died before he could establish it. Stephen F. Austin, his son, organized the first colony at Washington-on-the-Bravos. Other colonies soon formed. By 1830 the Mexican government was alarmed at the number of American colonists in Mexico and halted the immigration.  
+
*Agreements made by the Mexican government during the 1820s to allow Americans to colonize Texas. Moses Austin was the first American to receive permission to form a colony, but he died before he could establish it. Stephen F. Austin, his son, organized the first colony at Washington-on-the-Bravos. Other colonies soon formed. By 1830 the Mexican government was alarmed at the number of American colonists in Mexico and halted the immigration.
  
===== Colonizer =====
+
===== Colonizer =====
  
*A person who moves from an established area to a colony.  
+
*A person who moves from an established area to a colony.
  
 
Colony of New York: An English colony established in 1664 when Peter Stuyvesant, the Dutch governor of New Netherland, surrendered to the English. The Dutch formally gave the colony of New Netherland to the English. The English renamed it New York, calling it after the Duke of York, who would later become King James II of England.  
 
Colony of New York: An English colony established in 1664 when Peter Stuyvesant, the Dutch governor of New Netherland, surrendered to the English. The Dutch formally gave the colony of New Netherland to the English. The English renamed it New York, calling it after the Duke of York, who would later become King James II of England.  
  
===== Colorado Territory =====
+
===== Colorado Territory =====
  
*A territory established in 1861 that comprised all of the present-day state of Colorado.  
+
*A territory established in 1861 that comprised all of the present-day state of Colorado.
  
===== Commander =====
+
===== Commander =====
  
*An officer in the navy or coast guard who ranks above a lieutenant commander and below a captain. The commander is usually second in command of the ship.  
+
*An officer in the navy or coast guard who ranks above a lieutenant commander and below a captain. The commander is usually second in command of the ship.
  
===== Commercial directory =====
+
===== Commercial directory =====
  
*An alphabetical list of craftsmen, tradesmen, merchants, and others in business within a given area.  
+
*An alphabetical list of craftsmen, tradesmen, merchants, and others in business within a given area.
  
===== Commercial on-line service =====
+
===== Commercial on-line service =====
  
*A business such as America On-line and CompuServe that is established to provide computer users with various types of services, including E-mail and access to the Internet.  
+
*A business such as America On-line and CompuServe that is established to provide computer users with various types of services, including E-mail and access to the Internet.
  
===== Commissariat court, Scotland =====
+
===== Commissariat court, Scotland =====
  
*A Scottish court with jurisdiction over executory (probate) and civil matters until 1823. Most of the civil matters concerned debt. Also called commissary court.  
+
*A Scottish court with jurisdiction over executory (probate) and civil matters until 1823. Most of the civil matters concerned debt. Also called commissary court.
  
===== Commissary court, Church of England =====
+
===== Commissary court, Church of England =====
  
*The highest court in a diocese of the Church of England. These courts also had superior jurisdiction over lesser courts in probate matters. Commissary courts are also called episcopal, bishop's, diocesan, exchequer, and consistory courts.  
+
*The highest court in a diocese of the Church of England. These courts also had superior jurisdiction over lesser courts in probate matters. Commissary courts are also called episcopal, bishop's, diocesan, exchequer, and consistory courts.
  
===== Commissary court, Scotland =====
+
===== Commissary court, Scotland =====
  
*A Scottish court with jurisdiction over executory (probate) and civil matters until 1823. Most of the civil matters concerned debt. Also called commissariat court.  
+
*A Scottish court with jurisdiction over executory (probate) and civil matters until 1823. Most of the civil matters concerned debt. Also called commissariat court.
  
===== Commissioned officer =====
+
===== Commissioned officer =====
  
*A military officer who holds the rank of second lieutenant, ensign, or above.  
+
*A military officer who holds the rank of second lieutenant, ensign, or above.
  
===== Commissioners court, Texas =====
+
===== Commissioners court, Texas =====
  
*A court in Texas with countywide jurisdiction.  
+
*A court in Texas with countywide jurisdiction.
  
===== Commodore, British =====
+
===== Commodore, British =====
  
*An officer in the British navy who commands a squadron.  
+
*An officer in the British navy who commands a squadron.
  
===== Common pleas court, West Virginia =====
+
===== Common pleas court, West Virginia =====
  
*A court created by special acts of the West Virginia legislature. Its jurisdiction varies, but it may include limited civil and domestic cases and appeals from municipal and justice courts.  
+
*A court created by special acts of the West Virginia legislature. Its jurisdiction varies, but it may include limited civil and domestic cases and appeals from municipal and justice courts.
  
===== Commonwealth, USA =====
+
===== Commonwealth, USA =====
  
*A term used in the official names of four states in the United States: Pennsylvania, Kentucky, Massachusetts, and Virginia.  
+
*A term used in the official names of four states in the United States: Pennsylvania, Kentucky, Massachusetts, and Virginia.
  
===== Commune =====
+
===== Commune =====
  
*The French word for community.  
+
*The French word for community.
  
===== Community cemetery =====
+
===== Community cemetery =====
  
*A cemetery owned by a civil government.  
+
*A cemetery owned by a civil government.
  
 
Compact disc: A disc similar to the music and audio discs available in many stores. A compact disc can store large amounts of information and can be read by computers equipped with compact disc drives.  
 
Compact disc: A disc similar to the music and audio discs available in many stores. A compact disc can store large amounts of information and can be read by computers equipped with compact disc drives.  
  
===== Compact disc catalog =====
+
===== Compact disc catalog =====
  
*The Family History Library Catalog™ on compact disc.  
+
*The Family History Library Catalog™ on compact disc.
  
===== Compact disc index =====
+
===== Compact disc index =====
  
*A computerized index to a set of records that is stored on a compact disc.  
+
*A computerized index to a set of records that is stored on a compact disc.
  
===== Compendium =====
+
===== Compendium =====
  
*A collection or compilation of information gathered from other sources.  
+
*A collection or compilation of information gathered from other sources.
  
===== Compiled biography =====
+
===== Compiled biography =====
  
*A compilation of the histories of people’s lives. The people selected for a compiled biography usually have something in common, such as an occupation, place of origin or residence, or experience in a historical event. Also called a biographical encyclopedia or biographical dictionary.  
+
*A compilation of the histories of people’s lives. The people selected for a compiled biography usually have something in common, such as an occupation, place of origin or residence, or experience in a historical event. Also called a biographical encyclopedia or biographical dictionary.
  
===== Compiled record: =====
+
===== Compiled record: =====
  
* collection of information that has been gathered and interpreted from many sources.  
+
*collection of information that has been gathered and interpreted from many sources.
  
===== Compiled service records =====
+
===== Compiled service records =====
  
*All of the records concerning people who served in the military. These records are usually indexed.  
+
*All of the records concerning people who served in the military. These records are usually indexed.
  
===== Compiled source =====
+
===== Compiled source =====
  
 
*A collection of information that has been gathered and interpreted from many sources.
 
*A collection of information that has been gathered and interpreted from many sources.
  
===== Complete record =====
+
===== Complete record =====
  
*A complete transcript of probate cases involving the titles to real property.  
+
*A complete transcript of probate cases involving the titles to real property.
  
===== Compound surname =====
+
===== Compound surname =====
  
*A surname (last name) that has two parts, such as McKay, MacDouglas, Van Dyke, or DeWess.  
+
*A surname (last name) that has two parts, such as McKay, MacDouglas, Van Dyke, or DeWess.
  
===== Computer bulletin board system =====
+
===== Computer bulletin board system =====
  
*A computer service that allows people to enter information that other people can then read or download. Users can also post questions for others to answer, answer questions posted by others, or read questions and answers already on the service. Many bulletin boards focus on a particular topic. Also called a computer message board or computer news group.  
+
*A computer service that allows people to enter information that other people can then read or download. Users can also post questions for others to answer, answer questions posted by others, or read questions and answers already on the service. Many bulletin boards focus on a particular topic. Also called a computer message board or computer news group.
  
===== Computer chat session =====
+
===== Computer chat session =====
  
*A computer resource that allows people to send messages to each other in real time. This may also be called a conference.  
+
*A computer resource that allows people to send messages to each other in real time. This may also be called a conference.
  
===== Computer interest group =====
+
===== Computer interest group =====
  
*A group of people who share a common interest and use computer on-line services to share information, learn about the particular topic, promote projects, or publish newsletters.  
+
*A group of people who share a common interest and use computer on-line services to share information, learn about the particular topic, promote projects, or publish newsletters.
  
===== Computer lecture session =====
+
===== Computer lecture session =====
  
*A computer program that allows an individual to conduct a “classroom lecture” through a computer network or on-line service.  
+
*A computer program that allows an individual to conduct a “classroom lecture” through a computer network or on-line service.
  
===== Computer message board =====
+
===== Computer message board =====
  
*A computer service that allows people to enter information that other people can then read or download. Users can also post questions for others to answer, answer questions posted by others, or read questions and answers already on the service. Many computer message boards focus on a particular topic. Also called a computer bulletin board system (BBS) or computer news group.  
+
*A computer service that allows people to enter information that other people can then read or download. Users can also post questions for others to answer, answer questions posted by others, or read questions and answers already on the service. Many computer message boards focus on a particular topic. Also called a computer bulletin board system (BBS) or computer news group.
  
===== Computer network =====
+
===== Computer network =====
  
*A group of computers electronically connected to each other so they can share information and programs.  
+
*A group of computers electronically connected to each other so they can share information and programs.
  
===== Computer news group =====
+
===== Computer news group =====
  
*A computer service that allows people to enter information that other people can then read or download. Users can also post questions for others to answer, answer questions posted by others, or read questions and answers already on the service. Many news groups focus on a particular topic. Also called a computer bulletin board system (BBS) or computer message board.  
+
*A computer service that allows people to enter information that other people can then read or download. Users can also post questions for others to answer, answer questions posted by others, or read questions and answers already on the service. Many news groups focus on a particular topic. Also called a computer bulletin board system (BBS) or computer message board.
  
===== Computer number =====
+
===== Computer number =====
  
*A number used to identify each entry in the Family History Library Catalog™. Using the Computer Number search is the fastest way to find a record in the catalog.  
+
*A number used to identify each entry in the Family History Library Catalog™. Using the Computer Number search is the fastest way to find a record in the catalog.
  
===== Computer on-line services =====
+
===== Computer on-line services =====
  
*The various features available to computer users through networks and modems, such as E-mail and Internet access. Computer on-line services usually refer to commercial organizations, such as America On-line or CompuServe, that provide such services for a fee.  
+
*The various features available to computer users through networks and modems, such as E-mail and Internet access. Computer on-line services usually refer to commercial organizations, such as America On-line or CompuServe, that provide such services for a fee.
  
===== Computer record =====
+
===== Computer record =====
  
*A record that is stored in a computer-readable format.  
+
*A record that is stored in a computer-readable format.
  
===== Computerized phone directory =====
+
===== Computerized phone directory =====
  
*A list of people's names, addresses, and telephone numbers that can be searched by computer.  
+
*A list of people's names, addresses, and telephone numbers that can be searched by computer.
  
===== Comstock Lode =====
+
===== Comstock Lode =====
  
*A large gold and silver deposit discovered in central Nevada, near Virginia City, in 1859. It attracted many miners from California, and Virginia City became one of the largest, most prosperous cities in the Rocky Mountain West. Mining began to fade in the 1880s, and the population of Nevada declined as a result.  
+
*A large gold and silver deposit discovered in central Nevada, near Virginia City, in 1859. It attracted many miners from California, and Virginia City became one of the largest, most prosperous cities in the Rocky Mountain West. Mining began to fade in the 1880s, and the population of Nevada declined as a result.
  
===== Comte =====
+
===== Comte =====
  
*The third highest ranking title in the French peerage. A comte ranks below a marquis (marquess) and above a vicomte (viscount). A comte is equal to a count in other parts of continental Europe and an earl in Great Britain.  
+
*The third highest ranking title in the French peerage. A comte ranks below a marquis (marquess) and above a vicomte (viscount). A comte is equal to a count in other parts of continental Europe and an earl in Great Britain.
  
===== Concession, Canada =====
+
===== Concession, Canada =====
  
*A division of a township in eastern Canada.  
+
*A division of a township in eastern Canada.
  
===== Conde =====
+
===== Conde =====
  
*The third highest raking title of Spanish nobility. A conde (equivalent in rank to a count or earl) ranks below a marqués (marques or marquis) and above a vizconde (viscount).  
+
*The third highest raking title of Spanish nobility. A conde (equivalent in rank to a count or earl) ranks below a marqués (marques or marquis) and above a vizconde (viscount).
  
===== Confederacy =====
+
===== Confederacy =====
  
*The southern states that seceded from the United States in 1861. These states were Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia.  
+
*The southern states that seceded from the United States in 1861. These states were Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia.
  
===== Confederate prisoners =====
+
===== Confederate prisoners =====
  
*Men who served in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War and were taken as prisoners of war.  
+
*Men who served in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War and were taken as prisoners of war.
  
===== Confederate scrip lands =====
+
===== Confederate scrip lands =====
  
*Land grants issued by Texas to Confederate veterans who were permanently disabled in the American Civil War or to widows of soldiers who were killed during the war.  
+
*Land grants issued by Texas to Confederate veterans who were permanently disabled in the American Civil War or to widows of soldiers who were killed during the war.
  
===== Confirmación =====
+
===== Confirmación =====
  
*A Spanish term meaning confirmation. Also used in the Philippines. The plural is confirmaciones.  
+
*A Spanish term meaning confirmation. Also used in the Philippines. The plural is confirmaciones.
  
===== Confirmações =====
+
===== Confirmações =====
  
*A Portuguese word for confirmations.  
+
*A Portuguese word for confirmations.
  
===== Confirmation record =====
+
===== Confirmation record =====
  
*A record created by a church when an individual is confirmed.  
+
*A record created by a church when an individual is confirmed.
  
===== Confirmation, general =====
+
===== Confirmation, general =====
  
*A church rite that allows an individual to become a member of a church.  
+
*A church rite that allows an individual to become a member of a church.
  
 
Confirmation, Latter-day Saint: An ordinance of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in which an individual becomes a member of the Church and receives the gift of the Holy Ghost.  
 
Confirmation, Latter-day Saint: An ordinance of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in which an individual becomes a member of the Church and receives the gift of the Holy Ghost.  
  
===== Conflict between Denmark and Sweden (1643-1645) =====
+
===== Conflict between Denmark and Sweden (1643-1645) =====
  
*A military action in which Sweden invaded and defeated Denmark and Jutland. In 1645 the Treaty of Christianopel forced Denmark to cede some of its possessions to Sweden.  
+
*A military action in which Sweden invaded and defeated Denmark and Jutland. In 1645 the Treaty of Christianopel forced Denmark to cede some of its possessions to Sweden.
  
===== Confraternidades, Spain =====
+
===== Confraternidades, Spain =====
  
*An organization in Spain whose membership was restricted to persons of hidalgo status (untitled Spanish nobility). In Spanish, the terms órdenes militares, confradías and confraternidades refer to military orders of chivalry that were established during the Crusades (1100–1450) to provide a fraternal religious life among the Spanish nobility. The orders were dedicated to retaking Spain from the Moors and protecting pilgrimages to the Holy Land. These orders functioned under the direction of the Pope and were independent of other ecclesiastical or civil authority. However, as the orders grew in wealth and power, they came into conflict with the Spanish Crown. By 1587 most of the orders fell under the control of the monarch. The orders became honorary in nature.  
+
*An organization in Spain whose membership was restricted to persons of hidalgo status (untitled Spanish nobility). In Spanish, the terms órdenes militares, confradías and confraternidades refer to military orders of chivalry that were established during the Crusades (1100–1450) to provide a fraternal religious life among the Spanish nobility. The orders were dedicated to retaking Spain from the Moors and protecting pilgrimages to the Holy Land. These orders functioned under the direction of the Pope and were independent of other ecclesiastical or civil authority. However, as the orders grew in wealth and power, they came into conflict with the Spanish Crown. By 1587 most of the orders fell under the control of the monarch. The orders became honorary in nature.
  
===== Congo =====
+
===== Congo =====
  
*A term used in Brazilian Catholic Church registers to describe a person who is from the Congo region of Africa. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.  
+
*A term used in Brazilian Catholic Church registers to describe a person who is from the Congo region of Africa. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
  
===== Congregation =====
+
===== Congregation =====
  
*A group of people who support the same parish or branch of a church or regularly meet together for religious services. The term can also refer to any gathering of people.  
+
*A group of people who support the same parish or branch of a church or regularly meet together for religious services. The term can also refer to any gathering of people.
  
===== Congregationalist Church =====
+
===== Congregationalist Church =====
  
*A group of Protestant churches whose beliefs are based on the teachings of John Calvin. They support the right of individual congregations to rule themselves, including selecting their own ministers, and oppose government interference in religion. Congregationalism developed out of the Separatist movement in Great Britain, where they are also known as Independents. In 1931 the Congregationalist churches in the United States merged with three smaller churches to form the Congregational Christian Churches. In 1957 they merged with the Evangelical and Reformed Churches to form the United Church of Christ. However, several Congregational groups did not join. In 1972 Congregationalist and Presbyterians congregations in England united to form the United Reformed Church. Welsh and Scottish congregations did not join.  
+
*A group of Protestant churches whose beliefs are based on the teachings of John Calvin. They support the right of individual congregations to rule themselves, including selecting their own ministers, and oppose government interference in religion. Congregationalism developed out of the Separatist movement in Great Britain, where they are also known as Independents. In 1931 the Congregationalist churches in the United States merged with three smaller churches to form the Congregational Christian Churches. In 1957 they merged with the Evangelical and Reformed Churches to form the United Church of Christ. However, several Congregational groups did not join. In 1972 Congregationalist and Presbyterians congregations in England united to form the United Reformed Church. Welsh and Scottish congregations did not join.
  
===== Congress lands =====
+
===== Congress lands =====
  
*Land in Ohio that was owned by the United States government and sold by general acts of Congress. Congress lands included land sold to the Ohio Company and John Cleves Symmes. Much of the land was reserved for soldiers who had served in the Revolutionary War and refugees from Canada who had supported the colonies during the war. Much of the reserved land was not claimed, and it reverted back to being Congress land. Most of what is now the state of Ohio was Congress land. The term Congress land can also refer to any federal land disposed of by acts of Congress.  
+
*Land in Ohio that was owned by the United States government and sold by general acts of Congress. Congress lands included land sold to the Ohio Company and John Cleves Symmes. Much of the land was reserved for soldiers who had served in the Revolutionary War and refugees from Canada who had supported the colonies during the war. Much of the reserved land was not claimed, and it reverted back to being Congress land. Most of what is now the state of Ohio was Congress land. The term Congress land can also refer to any federal land disposed of by acts of Congress.
  
===== Conscription =====
+
===== Conscription =====
  
*Mandatory enrollment for military service.  
+
*Mandatory enrollment for military service.
  
===== Conscription list =====
+
===== Conscription list =====
  
*A type of military record used in Latin America, translated as listas de quintas or conscripciones. These are lists of new recruits and, in some cases, all males eligible for military service. In many cases, these records are found in town or municipal archives. They can serve as a type of census of all the males who lived in a community at the time the list was compiled.  
+
*A type of military record used in Latin America, translated as listas de quintas or conscripciones. These are lists of new recruits and, in some cases, all males eligible for military service. In many cases, these records are found in town or municipal archives. They can serve as a type of census of all the males who lived in a community at the time the list was compiled.
  
===== Conseil Superieur, French Louisiana =====
+
===== Conseil Superieur, French Louisiana =====
  
*The judicial arm of government in French Louisiana. It handled all judicial matters in the colony. The administrative arm of government was called the conseil de regie. These two branches often met together, and it is difficult to distinguish them. The conseil superieur is also called the French Superior Council.  
+
*The judicial arm of government in French Louisiana. It handled all judicial matters in the colony. The administrative arm of government was called the conseil de regie. These two branches often met together, and it is difficult to distinguish them. The conseil superieur is also called the French Superior Council.
  
===== Consent papers =====
+
===== Consent papers =====
  
*A document signed by the parents of children who are legally too young to marry to give them permission to marry.  
+
*A document signed by the parents of children who are legally too young to marry to give them permission to marry.
  
===== Consistory court, Church of England =====
+
===== Consistory court, Church of England =====
  
*The highest court in a diocese of the Church of England. These courts also had superior jurisdiction over lesser courts in probate matters. Consistory courts are also called episcopal, commissary, diocesan, exchequer, and bishop's courts.  
+
*The highest court in a diocese of the Church of England. These courts also had superior jurisdiction over lesser courts in probate matters. Consistory courts are also called episcopal, commissary, diocesan, exchequer, and bishop's courts.
  
===== Contents =====
+
===== Contents =====
  
*The information contained in a record.  
+
*The information contained in a record.
  
===== Continental Line =====
+
===== Continental Line =====
  
*Troops who were part of the regular Revolutionary War army raised by the Continental Congress. They were not part of state militia units.  
+
*Troops who were part of the regular Revolutionary War army raised by the Continental Congress. They were not part of state militia units.
  
===== Continental pedigree =====
+
===== Continental pedigree =====
  
*A table that lists the name and date and place of birth, marriage, and death for an individual and a specified number of his or her ancestors. This chart is also called an ahnentafel chart.  
+
*A table that lists the name and date and place of birth, marriage, and death for an individual and a specified number of his or her ancestors. This chart is also called an ahnentafel chart.
  
===== Contract =====
+
===== Contract =====
  
* A legally binding agreement between parties.  
+
*A legally binding agreement between parties.
  
===== Contrat de mariage =====
+
===== Contrat de mariage =====
  
*A French term for marriage contract, a document created to protect the legal rights and property of a couple who are to be married.  
+
*A French term for marriage contract, a document created to protect the legal rights and property of a couple who are to be married.
  
===== Contrato de compra-venta =====
+
===== Contrato de compra-venta =====
  
*The Spanish term for a contract documenting the purchase and sale of goods.  
+
*The Spanish term for a contract documenting the purchase and sale of goods.
  
===== Cook =====
+
===== Cook =====
  
*In the British military, an officer who prepares food. In the United States military, the cook is an enlisted man rather than an officer.  
+
*In the British military, an officer who prepares food. In the United States military, the cook is an enlisted man rather than an officer.
  
===== Cook County, Illinois =====
+
===== Cook County, Illinois =====
  
*The county in Illinois of which Chicago is a part.  
+
*The county in Illinois of which Chicago is a part.
  
===== Copulerede =====
+
===== Copulerede =====
  
*A Danish word for marriages.  
+
*A Danish word for marriages.
  
===== Copyhold records, Denmark =====
+
===== Copyhold records, Denmark =====
  
*Danish land contracts that document agreements between the landowner and farmers wishing to lease crown-held land. These contracts were made before 1850 and include the name of the former occupant, his reason for leaving the farm, the name and sometimes birthplace of the new leaseholder, the new leaseholder's relationship to the former leaseholder (if any), the date of transfer, and a description of the land. If there was no breach of contract, the landowner could not evict the leaseholder. In Danish these records are called fæsteprotokoller.  
+
*Danish land contracts that document agreements between the landowner and farmers wishing to lease crown-held land. These contracts were made before 1850 and include the name of the former occupant, his reason for leaving the farm, the name and sometimes birthplace of the new leaseholder, the new leaseholder's relationship to the former leaseholder (if any), the date of transfer, and a description of the land. If there was no breach of contract, the landowner could not evict the leaseholder. In Danish these records are called fæsteprotokoller.
  
===== Copyright =====
+
===== Copyright =====
  
*The exclusive legal right to reproduce, publish, and sell an original literary or artistic work that is granted for a specific time to the author or originator.  
+
*The exclusive legal right to reproduce, publish, and sell an original literary or artistic work that is granted for a specific time to the author or originator.
  
===== Corbin Manuscript Collection, Massachusetts =====
+
===== Corbin Manuscript Collection, Massachusetts =====
  
*A manuscript collection of information about people from central and western Massachusetts. It includes local histories, church records, town records, genealogies, and transcripts of Bible and cemetery records. It is helpful for the years 1650 to 1850.  
+
*A manuscript collection of information about people from central and western Massachusetts. It includes local histories, church records, town records, genealogies, and transcripts of Bible and cemetery records. It is helpful for the years 1650 to 1850.
  
===== Cornet, British =====
+
===== Cornet, British =====
  
*The fifth-ranking commissioned officer in a British infantry. The cornet carries the colors. The rank is equal with the ensign in the cavalry.  
+
*The fifth-ranking commissioned officer in a British infantry. The cornet carries the colors. The rank is equal with the ensign in the cavalry.
  
===== Cornish =====
+
===== Cornish =====
  
*A member of the ethno-linguistic group which originated in Cornwall. A speaker of the Brythonic Celtic language of Cornwall.  
+
*A member of the ethno-linguistic group which originated in Cornwall. A speaker of the Brythonic Celtic language of Cornwall.
  
===== Coroner =====
+
===== Coroner =====
  
*A public official who inquires into deaths of people who did not die under the care of a physician or people whose deaths may not have been due to natural causes.  
+
*A public official who inquires into deaths of people who did not die under the care of a physician or people whose deaths may not have been due to natural causes.
  
===== Coroner's inquest =====
+
===== Coroner's inquest =====
  
*The records relating to a coroner's examination of a body to determine the cause of death.  
+
*The records relating to a coroner's examination of a body to determine the cause of death.
  
===== Corporation court, Virginia =====
+
===== Corporation court, Virginia =====
  
*A court formed in 1850 in independent cities, such as Richmond, to handle minor civil and criminal cases and equity, probate, and orphan matters. In 1902, the circuit courts assumed the duties of the corporation courts.  
+
*A court formed in 1850 in independent cities, such as Richmond, to handle minor civil and criminal cases and equity, probate, and orphan matters. In 1902, the circuit courts assumed the duties of the corporation courts.
  
===== Corrected record of birth =====
+
===== Corrected record of birth =====
  
*A document showing a change or addition to a birth certificate.  
+
*A document showing a change or addition to a birth certificate.
  
===== Correctional Institutions, Family History Library Catalog™ =====
+
===== Correctional Institutions, Family History Library Catalog™ =====
  
*A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize information about jails, prisons, halfway houses, and other correctional institutions.  
+
*A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize information about jails, prisons, halfway houses, and other correctional institutions.
  
===== Correspondence =====
+
===== Correspondence =====
  
*The exchange of written communication, such as a letter and a response.  
+
*The exchange of written communication, such as a letter and a response.
  
===== Council of probate, Rhode Island =====
+
===== Council of probate, Rhode Island =====
  
*A probate court in Rhode Island. The council of probate is also known as the general council.  
+
*A probate court in Rhode Island. The council of probate is also known as the general council.
  
===== Council of Trent =====
+
===== Council of Trent =====
  
*A series of conferences held between 1545 and 1563 in Trent, Italy. The focus of the council was to define Catholic beliefs and counteract the Protestant Reformation. The council also formalized record-keeping practices that were being followed in much of the Catholic world.  
+
*A series of conferences held between 1545 and 1563 in Trent, Italy. The focus of the council was to define Catholic beliefs and counteract the Protestant Reformation. The council also formalized record-keeping practices that were being followed in much of the Catholic world.
  
 
Council, Virginia: The legislative body and court of appeals for the colony of Virginia during its earliest period.  
 
Council, Virginia: The legislative body and court of appeals for the colony of Virginia during its earliest period.  
  
===== Count =====
+
===== Count =====
  
*A title of nobility in continental Europe, equal in rank to a British earl. Generally, a count ranks below a marquess and above a viscount. In German, a count is called a Graf. In Spain, Portugal, and Latin America, a count is called a conde. In France, a count is called a comte.  
+
*A title of nobility in continental Europe, equal in rank to a British earl. Generally, a count ranks below a marquess and above a viscount. In German, a count is called a Graf. In Spain, Portugal, and Latin America, a count is called a conde. In France, a count is called a comte.
  
===== Counter Reformation =====
+
===== Counter Reformation =====
  
*A religious movement that occurred during the 1500s and 1600s as the Catholic Church tried to unify its beliefs and stop the spread of Protestantism. It led to a series of wars that occurred when Catholic governments tried to stop the spread of Protestantism in their countries. These wars include civil war in France (1565–1648), rebellion in the Netherlands (1585–1604), conflicts between Spain and England (1585–1604), and the Thirty Years War (1618–1648).  
+
*A religious movement that occurred during the 1500s and 1600s as the Catholic Church tried to unify its beliefs and stop the spread of Protestantism. It led to a series of wars that occurred when Catholic governments tried to stop the spread of Protestantism in their countries. These wars include civil war in France (1565–1648), rebellion in the Netherlands (1585–1604), conflicts between Spain and England (1585–1604), and the Thirty Years War (1618–1648).
  
===== Country of arrival =====
+
===== Country of arrival =====
  
*The country to which an immigrant moves.  
+
*The country to which an immigrant moves.
  
===== Country of origin =====
+
===== Country of origin =====
  
*The country from which an individual moved.  
+
*The country from which an individual moved.
  
===== County =====
+
===== County =====
  
*A division within a country, state, or province.  
+
*A division within a country, state, or province.
  
===== County commissioner =====
+
===== County commissioner =====
  
*An elected official who sits on the council that creates county laws and ordinances.  
+
*An elected official who sits on the council that creates county laws and ordinances.
  
===== County commissioner's court, Illinois =====
+
===== County commissioner's court, Illinois =====
  
*A court in Illinois with countywide jurisdiction over disputes concerning county roads, turnpikes, canals, taxes, and licenses. These courts have evolved into administrative rather than judicial bodies.  
+
*A court in Illinois with countywide jurisdiction over disputes concerning county roads, turnpikes, canals, taxes, and licenses. These courts have evolved into administrative rather than judicial bodies.
  
===== County commissioner's court, Maine =====
+
===== County commissioner's court, Maine =====
  
*A court in Maine with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases. From 1699 to 1831 county commissioner's courts were called courts of general sessions. They were replaced by the district courts in 1961.  
+
*A court in Maine with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases. From 1699 to 1831 county commissioner's courts were called courts of general sessions. They were replaced by the district courts in 1961.
  
===== County court orders, Kentucky =====
+
===== County court orders, Kentucky =====
  
*Land grants sold by counties in Kentucky beginning in 1835.  
+
*Land grants sold by counties in Kentucky beginning in 1835.
  
===== County court, Alabama =====
+
===== County court, Alabama =====
  
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases. These courts have also been called inferior courts, superior courts, chancery courts, intermediate courts, common pleas courts, civil courts, criminal courts, law and equity courts, general sessions courts, and law and juvenile courts.  
+
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases. These courts have also been called inferior courts, superior courts, chancery courts, intermediate courts, common pleas courts, civil courts, criminal courts, law and equity courts, general sessions courts, and law and juvenile courts.
  
===== County court, Arkansas =====
+
===== County court, Arkansas =====
  
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over juvenile cases, taxes, claims, and county expenditures.  
+
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over juvenile cases, taxes, claims, and county expenditures.
  
===== County court, Canada =====
+
===== County court, Canada =====
  
*A provincial court in Canada that handles certain types of criminal cases and civil cases involving more than a specified amount of money. Also called a midlevel county court or judicial district court. Many provinces no longer use these courts.  
+
*A provincial court in Canada that handles certain types of criminal cases and civil cases involving more than a specified amount of money. Also called a midlevel county court or judicial district court. Many provinces no longer use these courts.
  
===== County court, Colorado =====
+
===== County court, Colorado =====
  
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over misdemeanors, preliminary hearings, the issuance of some warrants, some bail matters, minor civil cases, probates, and some appeals.  
+
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over misdemeanors, preliminary hearings, the issuance of some warrants, some bail matters, minor civil cases, probates, and some appeals.
  
===== County court, Connecticut =====
+
===== County court, Connecticut =====
  
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over civil, minor criminal, chancery, and divorce cases. These courts existed from 1666 to 1855.  
+
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over civil, minor criminal, chancery, and divorce cases. These courts existed from 1666 to 1855.
  
 
County court, Florida: A court with countywide jurisdiction over probates, marriages, administration, and guardianships.  
 
County court, Florida: A court with countywide jurisdiction over probates, marriages, administration, and guardianships.  
  
===== County court, general =====
+
===== County court, general =====
  
*A court with jurisdiction over a county.  
+
*A court with jurisdiction over a county.
  
===== County court, Illinois =====
+
===== County court, Illinois =====
  
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases. In some counties, the county courts also have jurisdiction over probates.  
+
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases. In some counties, the county courts also have jurisdiction over probates.
  
===== County court, Kansas =====
+
===== County court, Kansas =====
  
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over some criminal cases, including traffic violations, and minor civil cases.  
+
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over some criminal cases, including traffic violations, and minor civil cases.
  
===== County court, Kentucky =====
+
===== County court, Kentucky =====
  
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over criminal and civil cases, bonds, deeds, probates, and juvenile matters. After 1852 most criminal cases were heard by the circuit or quarterly courts.  
+
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over criminal and civil cases, bonds, deeds, probates, and juvenile matters. After 1852 most criminal cases were heard by the circuit or quarterly courts.
  
===== County court, Maryland =====
+
===== County court, Maryland =====
  
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over criminal and civil cases. In 1851 the county courts were replaced by circuit courts.  
+
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over criminal and civil cases. In 1851 the county courts were replaced by circuit courts.
  
===== County court, Massachusetts =====
+
===== County court, Massachusetts =====
  
*A court in Massachusetts with countywide jurisdiction. County courts are also called quarter courts or inferior quarter courts.  
+
*A court in Massachusetts with countywide jurisdiction. County courts are also called quarter courts or inferior quarter courts.
  
===== County court, Michigan =====
+
===== County court, Michigan =====
  
*A court with countywide jurisdiction. Michigan abolished these courts in 1833. Few of the remaining records have genealogical value.  
+
*A court with countywide jurisdiction. Michigan abolished these courts in 1833. Few of the remaining records have genealogical value.
  
===== County court, Mississippi =====
+
===== County court, Mississippi =====
  
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over misdemeanors, some law and equity cases, and appeals from other courts.  
+
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over misdemeanors, some law and equity cases, and appeals from other courts.
  
===== County court, Nebraska =====
+
===== County court, Nebraska =====
  
*A countywide court with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases and juvenile and probate actions.  
+
*A countywide court with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases and juvenile and probate actions.
  
===== County court, New Jersey =====
+
===== County court, New Jersey =====
  
*A court in New Jersey with countywide jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases. County courts replaced the courts of common pleas, oyer and terminer, general quarter sessions, special sessions, and orphan's courts. In 1978 county courts were replaced by the superior courts.  
+
*A court in New Jersey with countywide jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases. County courts replaced the courts of common pleas, oyer and terminer, general quarter sessions, special sessions, and orphan's courts. In 1978 county courts were replaced by the superior courts.
  
===== County court, New York =====
+
===== County court, New York =====
  
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over criminal cases, minor equity cases, and some appeals. These are the major trial courts for each county in New York.  
+
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over criminal cases, minor equity cases, and some appeals. These are the major trial courts for each county in New York.
  
===== County court, North Carolina =====
+
===== County court, North Carolina =====
  
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over civil cases, estate settlements, land entries, military pension declarations, and criminal cases. These courts were abolished in 1868.  
+
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over civil cases, estate settlements, land entries, military pension declarations, and criminal cases. These courts were abolished in 1868.
  
===== County court, North Dakota =====
+
===== County court, North Dakota =====
  
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases, probates, and guardianships.  
+
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases, probates, and guardianships.
  
===== County court, Ohio =====
+
===== County court, Ohio =====
  
*A court in Ohio with countywide jurisdiction over minor criminal cases and civil cases.  
+
*A court in Ohio with countywide jurisdiction over minor criminal cases and civil cases.
  
===== County court, Oregon =====
+
===== County court, Oregon =====
  
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over probate, juvenile cases, and civil cases under $500.  
+
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over probate, juvenile cases, and civil cases under $500.
  
===== County court, Pennsylvania =====
+
===== County court, Pennsylvania =====
  
*A court in Pennsylvania with countywide jurisdiction over equity and estate cases, civil cases, and criminal cases (except for capital crimes). The courts also performed many executive duties, such as laying out roads, registering marks and brands, levying taxes, supervising indentured servants, and so forth. The justices of county courts also met as an orphan's court to deal with orphan matters. County courts were used from 1682 to 1722.  
+
*A court in Pennsylvania with countywide jurisdiction over equity and estate cases, civil cases, and criminal cases (except for capital crimes). The courts also performed many executive duties, such as laying out roads, registering marks and brands, levying taxes, supervising indentured servants, and so forth. The justices of county courts also met as an orphan's court to deal with orphan matters. County courts were used from 1682 to 1722.
  
===== County court, South Carolina =====
+
===== County court, South Carolina =====
  
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases. These courts existed between 1785 to 1798.  
+
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases. These courts existed between 1785 to 1798.
  
 
County court, Texas: A court with countywide jurisdiction over major criminal cases, civil cases, and naturalizations.  
 
County court, Texas: A court with countywide jurisdiction over major criminal cases, civil cases, and naturalizations.  
  
===== County court, Virginia =====
+
===== County court, Virginia =====
  
*A court in Virginia with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases and equity, probate, and orphan matters. County courts existed from 1618 to 1902, when they were replaced by circuit courts. Also called monthly courts (1618–1634) and courts of the shire.  
+
*A court in Virginia with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases and equity, probate, and orphan matters. County courts existed from 1618 to 1902, when they were replaced by circuit courts. Also called monthly courts (1618–1634) and courts of the shire.
  
===== County court, Wisconsin =====
+
===== County court, Wisconsin =====
  
*A court in Wisconsin with countywide jurisdiction over criminal and civil cases, probates, juvenile matters and dependency and neglect matters. From 1854 to 1913 the county courts handled probate matters but did not have criminal or civil jurisdiction.  
+
*A court in Wisconsin with countywide jurisdiction over criminal and civil cases, probates, juvenile matters and dependency and neglect matters. From 1854 to 1913 the county courts handled probate matters but did not have criminal or civil jurisdiction.
  
===== County courthouse, archive =====
+
===== County courthouse, archive =====
  
*A building that houses county offices and county records.  
+
*A building that houses county offices and county records.
  
===== County courthouse, court records =====
+
===== County courthouse, court records =====
  
*A building that houses a county-level court of law.  
+
*A building that houses a county-level court of law.
  
===== County directory =====
+
===== County directory =====
  
*A list of the names and addresses of people living in a county.  
+
*A list of the names and addresses of people living in a county.
  
===== County history =====
+
===== County history =====
  
*A written account of the events that took place in a county. County histories often include biographical sketches of county residents.  
+
*A written account of the events that took place in a county. County histories often include biographical sketches of county residents.
  
===== County justice court, North Dakota =====
+
===== County justice court, North Dakota =====
  
*A court in North Dakota with jurisdiction in counties that do not have county courts. They have jurisdiction over misdemeanors and civil cases.  
+
*A court in North Dakota with jurisdiction in counties that do not have county courts. They have jurisdiction over misdemeanors and civil cases.
  
===== County map =====
+
===== County map =====
  
*A map that shows the land in a county.  
+
*A map that shows the land in a county.
  
===== County probate court, Arizona =====
+
===== County probate court, Arizona =====
  
*A court in Arizona with countywide jurisdiction over paying a deceased person's debts and distributing his or her property. Since 1912 the superior courts have handled probates.  
+
*A court in Arizona with countywide jurisdiction over paying a deceased person's debts and distributing his or her property. Since 1912 the superior courts have handled probates.
  
===== County probate court, Utah =====
+
===== County probate court, Utah =====
  
*A court in Utah with countywide jurisdiction over probate actions. These courts were used from 1850 to 1896.  
+
*A court in Utah with countywide jurisdiction over probate actions. These courts were used from 1850 to 1896.
  
===== County record office =====
+
===== County record office =====
  
*An archive that houses records for a particular county in England, Scotland, and Wales.  
+
*An archive that houses records for a particular county in England, Scotland, and Wales.
  
===== County records =====
+
===== County records =====
  
*Records, such as birth, marriage, death, and land records, kept by a county government.  
+
*Records, such as birth, marriage, death, and land records, kept by a county government.
  
===== County registrar =====
+
===== County registrar =====
  
*A county official charged with keeping deed records.  
+
*A county official charged with keeping deed records.
  
===== County seat =====
+
===== County seat =====
  
*The town that houses a county's governmental offices. Also called a county town.  
+
*The town that houses a county's governmental offices. Also called a county town.
  
===== County surrogate court indexes, New Jersey =====
+
===== County surrogate court indexes, New Jersey =====
  
*Indexes to probate records kept by the county surrogate courts in New Jersey.  
+
*Indexes to probate records kept by the county surrogate courts in New Jersey.
  
===== County surrogate court, New Jersey =====
+
===== County surrogate court, New Jersey =====
  
*A court that began handling New Jersey probate cases in 1804.  
+
*A court that began handling New Jersey probate cases in 1804.
  
===== County town =====
+
===== County town =====
  
*The town that houses a county's governmental offices. Also called a county seat.  
+
*The town that houses a county's governmental offices. Also called a county seat.
  
===== Countywide index =====
+
===== Countywide index =====
  
*An index to a group of records covering a single county. For example, a countywide index may cover one county of a state within a federal census.  
+
*An index to a group of records covering a single county. For example, a countywide index may cover one county of a state within a federal census.
  
===== Court calendar =====
+
===== Court calendar =====
  
*Lists of cases heard by a court. Court calendars may list the names of the plaintiff and defendant, the date the case was heard, the case file number, and all documents related to the case. They are also called dockets.  
+
*Lists of cases heard by a court. Court calendars may list the names of the plaintiff and defendant, the date the case was heard, the case file number, and all documents related to the case. They are also called dockets.
  
===== Court case file =====
+
===== Court case file =====
  
*A packet or bundle of the loose documents relating to a court case, such as copies of evidence, testimonies, bonds, depositions, correspondence, and petitions.  
+
*A packet or bundle of the loose documents relating to a court case, such as copies of evidence, testimonies, bonds, depositions, correspondence, and petitions.
  
===== Court clerk =====
+
===== Court clerk =====
  
*An officer of the court who files pleadings, motions, and judgments and keeps records of court proceedings.  
+
*An officer of the court who files pleadings, motions, and judgments and keeps records of court proceedings.
  
===== Court decree =====
+
===== Court decree =====
  
*A record of a court’s decision on a case. Also called a court judgment or court order.  
+
*A record of a court’s decision on a case. Also called a court judgment or court order.
  
===== Court directory =====
+
===== Court directory =====
  
*A list of city officers, government officials, and private residents.  
+
*A list of city officers, government officials, and private residents.
  
===== Court executions, New Jersey =====
+
===== Court executions, New Jersey =====
  
*Recorded actions taken by a New Jersey court of chancery.  
+
*Recorded actions taken by a New Jersey court of chancery.
  
===== Court for trial of Negroes, Pennsylvania =====
+
===== Court for trial of Negroes, Pennsylvania =====
  
*A court in Pennsylvania with countywide jurisdiction over African-Americans who were accused of committing crimes. This court existed from 1700 to 1780.  
+
*A court in Pennsylvania with countywide jurisdiction over African-Americans who were accused of committing crimes. This court existed from 1700 to 1780.
  
===== Court judgment =====
+
===== Court judgment =====
  
*A record of a court’s decision on a case. Also called a court decree or court order.  
+
*A record of a court’s decision on a case. Also called a court decree or court order.
  
===== Court minutes =====
+
===== Court minutes =====
  
*Brief daily accounts of all actions taken by a court. Minutes list the names of the plaintiff and defendant and briefly describe the action taken.  
+
*Brief daily accounts of all actions taken by a court. Minutes list the names of the plaintiff and defendant and briefly describe the action taken.
  
===== Court of appeal, Ohio =====
+
===== Court of appeal, Ohio =====
  
*A court in Ohio with countywide jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases, including equity and divorce cases.  
+
*A court in Ohio with countywide jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases, including equity and divorce cases.
  
===== Court of appeals deed book, Kentucky =====
+
===== Court of appeals deed book, Kentucky =====
  
*A record of disputes and litigation that occurred over land rights in Kentucky.  
+
*A record of disputes and litigation that occurred over land rights in Kentucky.
  
===== Court of appeals, California =====
+
===== Court of appeals, California =====
  
*A statewide court in California that hears cases appealed from lower courts.  
+
*A statewide court in California that hears cases appealed from lower courts.
  
===== Court of appeals, Canada =====
+
===== Court of appeals, Canada =====
  
*A division of a provincial superior or supreme court in Canada. The court hears appeals of civil and criminal cases from the Trial Division (Court of Queens' Bench) and from lower courts.  
+
*A division of a provincial superior or supreme court in Canada. The court hears appeals of civil and criminal cases from the Trial Division (Court of Queens' Bench) and from lower courts.
  
===== Court of appeals, Colorado =====
+
===== Court of appeals, Colorado =====
  
*An intermediate court in Colorado with statewide jurisdiction over appeals from district courts, the Denver Superior Court, probate courts, and juvenile courts.  
+
*An intermediate court in Colorado with statewide jurisdiction over appeals from district courts, the Denver Superior Court, probate courts, and juvenile courts.
  
===== Court of appeals, Maryland =====
+
===== Court of appeals, Maryland =====
  
*The highest court in Maryland. It has statewide jurisdiction over criminal, civil, and probate appeals.  
+
*The highest court in Maryland. It has statewide jurisdiction over criminal, civil, and probate appeals.
  
===== Court of appeals, Oklahoma =====
+
===== Court of appeals, Oklahoma =====
  
*An intermediate court in Oklahoma with statewide jurisdiction to hear appeals from lower courts.  
+
*An intermediate court in Oklahoma with statewide jurisdiction to hear appeals from lower courts.
  
===== Court of arches, England =====
+
===== Court of arches, England =====
  
*A court that heard appeals from the Prerogative Court of Canterbury.  
+
*A court that heard appeals from the Prerogative Court of Canterbury.
  
===== Court of assistants, Connecticut =====
+
===== Court of assistants, Connecticut =====
  
*The main court of jurisdiction in Connecticut for all matters of law, including appeals from town and borough courts. The court of assistants lasted from 1665 to 1711.  
+
*The main court of jurisdiction in Connecticut for all matters of law, including appeals from town and borough courts. The court of assistants lasted from 1665 to 1711.
  
===== Court of assizes, New York =====
+
===== Court of assizes, New York =====
  
*The highest provincial court in New York from 1665 to 1683. It was located in New York City and heard civil, criminal, and probate cases.  
+
*The highest provincial court in New York from 1665 to 1683. It was located in New York City and heard civil, criminal, and probate cases.
  
===== Court of chancery, New Jersey =====
+
===== Court of chancery, New Jersey =====
  
*A court in New Jersey with statewide jurisdiction that gradually received jurisdiction over civil and equity cases, mortgage foreclosures, lis pendens, land partitions, payment of debt, probate suits, lunacy inquisitions, naturalizations, divorces, and child custody. These functions are now handled by the superior courts.  
+
*A court in New Jersey with statewide jurisdiction that gradually received jurisdiction over civil and equity cases, mortgage foreclosures, lis pendens, land partitions, payment of debt, probate suits, lunacy inquisitions, naturalizations, divorces, and child custody. These functions are now handled by the superior courts.
  
===== Court of chancery, New York =====
+
===== Court of chancery, New York =====
  
*A court in New York with statewide jurisdiction over civil equity matters such as mortgage foreclosures, real property proceedings, sales of estates in dower and curtesy, naturalizations, matrimonial disputes, divorces, guardianships, and child custody. It absorbed the court of probate and had appellate jurisdiction over surrogates' courts. After 1847 equity responsibilities were assigned to the state's supreme court.  
+
*A court in New York with statewide jurisdiction over civil equity matters such as mortgage foreclosures, real property proceedings, sales of estates in dower and curtesy, naturalizations, matrimonial disputes, divorces, guardianships, and child custody. It absorbed the court of probate and had appellate jurisdiction over surrogates' courts. After 1847 equity responsibilities were assigned to the state's supreme court.
  
===== Court of chancery, Ontario, Canada =====
+
===== Court of chancery, Ontario, Canada =====
  
*A court with jurisdiction over equity cases in Ontario. (Equity cases are court cases in which parties are disputing over a matter that is not a violation of law, and the court is asked to make a fair decision.) This court was established in 1837.  
+
*A court with jurisdiction over equity cases in Ontario. (Equity cases are court cases in which parties are disputing over a matter that is not a violation of law, and the court is asked to make a fair decision.) This court was established in 1837.
  
===== Court of chancery, South Carolina =====
+
===== Court of chancery, South Carolina =====
  
*A type of court used in South Carolina from 1671 to the 1790s. It handled land and inheritance matters for the entire colony.  
+
*A type of court used in South Carolina from 1671 to the 1790s. It handled land and inheritance matters for the entire colony.
  
===== Court of chancery/equity, Pennsylvania =====
+
===== Court of chancery/equity, Pennsylvania =====
  
*A court in Pennsylvania with jurisdiction over equity cases.  
+
*A court in Pennsylvania with jurisdiction over equity cases.
  
===== Court of civil appeals, Alabama =====
+
===== Court of civil appeals, Alabama =====
  
*A court in Alabama with statewide jurisdiction over civil cases appealed from lower courts.  
+
*A court in Alabama with statewide jurisdiction over civil cases appealed from lower courts.
  
 
Court of common law: A court with jurisdiction over criminal cases.  
 
Court of common law: A court with jurisdiction over criminal cases.  
  
===== Court of common pleas, Delaware =====
+
===== Court of common pleas, Delaware =====
  
*A court in Delaware with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil suits, minor criminal cases, appeals from lesser courts, adoption cases, and cases to terminate parental rights. Courts of common pleas operated from 1701 to 1831, when the authority of the court of common pleas was given to the superior courts. Before 1792 the courts of common pleas also heard cases now handled by the chancery courts.  
+
*A court in Delaware with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil suits, minor criminal cases, appeals from lesser courts, adoption cases, and cases to terminate parental rights. Courts of common pleas operated from 1701 to 1831, when the authority of the court of common pleas was given to the superior courts. Before 1792 the courts of common pleas also heard cases now handled by the chancery courts.
  
===== Court of common pleas, England =====
+
===== Court of common pleas, England =====
  
*One of the four superior courts at Westminster. It heard civil cases between commoners. In 1873 it became the Common Pleas division of the High Court of Justice, which was merged with the Queen's Bench division in 1880.  
+
*One of the four superior courts at Westminster. It heard civil cases between commoners. In 1873 it became the Common Pleas division of the High Court of Justice, which was merged with the Queen's Bench division in 1880.
  
 
Court of common pleas, general: A countywide court, usually having civil and criminal jurisdiction.  
 
Court of common pleas, general: A countywide court, usually having civil and criminal jurisdiction.  
  
===== Court of common pleas, Indiana =====
+
===== Court of common pleas, Indiana =====
  
*A court that existed from 1790 to 1817 and from 1853 to 1873. It heard insanity, guardianship, probate, naturalization, equity, criminal, and civil cases.  
+
*A court that existed from 1790 to 1817 and from 1853 to 1873. It heard insanity, guardianship, probate, naturalization, equity, criminal, and civil cases.
  
===== Court of common pleas, Missouri =====
+
===== Court of common pleas, Missouri =====
  
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases before the 1880s. Not all counties in Missouri had courts of common pleas.  
+
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases before the 1880s. Not all counties in Missouri had courts of common pleas.
  
===== Court of common pleas, New Hampshire =====
+
===== Court of common pleas, New Hampshire =====
  
*A court in New Hampshire with jurisdiction over civil matters from 1769 to 1820 and from 1824 to 1859.  
+
*A court in New Hampshire with jurisdiction over civil matters from 1769 to 1820 and from 1824 to 1859.
  
===== Court of common pleas, New Jersey =====
+
===== Court of common pleas, New Jersey =====
  
*A court in New Jersey with countywide jurisdiction over civil cases and appeals from the justice and small cause courts.  
+
*A court in New Jersey with countywide jurisdiction over civil cases and appeals from the justice and small cause courts.
  
===== Court of common pleas, New York =====
+
===== Court of common pleas, New York =====
  
*A court established in each city or county in New York to handle civil cases such as marriages, naturalizations, name changes, probates, exemptions from military duty, lunacy cases, tavern licenses, insolvency cases, old age assistance, manumissions, the laying of roads, settlements of boundary disputes, and child support and custody. These courts also handled appeals from the justices of the peace. These courts existed from 1691 to 1847, when they were replaced by county courts.  
+
*A court established in each city or county in New York to handle civil cases such as marriages, naturalizations, name changes, probates, exemptions from military duty, lunacy cases, tavern licenses, insolvency cases, old age assistance, manumissions, the laying of roads, settlements of boundary disputes, and child support and custody. These courts also handled appeals from the justices of the peace. These courts existed from 1691 to 1847, when they were replaced by county courts.
  
===== Court of common pleas, Ohio =====
+
===== Court of common pleas, Ohio =====
  
*A court in Ohio with districtwide jurisdiction over felonies, marriages, major civil cases, juvenile matters, probates (until 1852), naturalizations (until 1860 and after 1906), chancery matters (until 1900), and divorces (until 1894).  
+
*A court in Ohio with districtwide jurisdiction over felonies, marriages, major civil cases, juvenile matters, probates (until 1852), naturalizations (until 1860 and after 1906), chancery matters (until 1900), and divorces (until 1894).
  
===== Court of common pleas, Pennsylvania =====
+
===== Court of common pleas, Pennsylvania =====
  
*A court in Pennsylvania with countywide jurisdiction over criminal and civil cases including real estate, bankruptcy, tax collection, naturalization, and divorce. The court was created in 1722 and is still used today.  
+
*A court in Pennsylvania with countywide jurisdiction over criminal and civil cases including real estate, bankruptcy, tax collection, naturalization, and divorce. The court was created in 1722 and is still used today.
  
===== Court of common pleas, Rhode Island =====
+
===== Court of common pleas, Rhode Island =====
  
*A court in Rhode Island with countywide jurisdiction over most criminal and civil matters. These courts were established in 1730 and continue today.  
+
*A court in Rhode Island with countywide jurisdiction over most criminal and civil matters. These courts were established in 1730 and continue today.
  
===== Court of common pleas, South Carolina =====
+
===== Court of common pleas, South Carolina =====
  
*A court that had statewide jurisdiction over guardianship and civil cases until 1790, when district courts assumed these cases. Courts of common pleas continue to operate today.  
+
*A court that had statewide jurisdiction over guardianship and civil cases until 1790, when district courts assumed these cases. Courts of common pleas continue to operate today.
  
===== Court of common pleas, West Virginia =====
+
===== Court of common pleas, West Virginia =====
  
*A court established in some counties. The court has limited jurisdiction over civil and domestic cases. It also hears appeals from municipal and justice courts. These courts have also been called criminal courts, intermediate courts, and statutory courts.  
+
*A court established in some counties. The court has limited jurisdiction over civil and domestic cases. It also hears appeals from municipal and justice courts. These courts have also been called criminal courts, intermediate courts, and statutory courts.
  
===== Court of criminal appeals, Alabama =====
+
===== Court of criminal appeals, Alabama =====
  
*A court in Alabama with statewide jurisdiction over criminal cases appealed from lower courts.  
+
*A court in Alabama with statewide jurisdiction over criminal cases appealed from lower courts.
  
===== Court of criminal appeals, Oklahoma =====
+
===== Court of criminal appeals, Oklahoma =====
  
*A court in Oklahoma that hears appeals of criminal cases from lower courts.  
+
*A court in Oklahoma that hears appeals of criminal cases from lower courts.
  
===== Court of delegates, England =====
+
===== Court of delegates, England =====
  
*A court that heard final appeals from the court of arches until 1832. It was formerly the great court of appeal in all ecclesiastical cases.  
+
*A court that heard final appeals from the court of arches until 1832. It was formerly the great court of appeal in all ecclesiastical cases.
  
===== Court of equity, South Carolina =====
+
===== Court of equity, South Carolina =====
  
*A court in South Carolina with countywide jurisdiction over property matters. Courts of equity were used from 1791 to 1900.  
+
*A court in South Carolina with countywide jurisdiction over property matters. Courts of equity were used from 1791 to 1900.
  
===== Court of First Instance, Philippines =====
+
===== Court of First Instance, Philippines =====
  
*A court in the Philippines with jurisdiction over land records, wills, etc.  
+
*A court in the Philippines with jurisdiction over land records, wills, etc.
  
===== Court of general quarter session, New Hampshire =====
+
===== Court of general quarter session, New Hampshire =====
  
*A court in New Hampshire with jurisdiction over civil and criminal matters from 1769 to 1794 and from 1820 to 1824.  
+
*A court in New Hampshire with jurisdiction over civil and criminal matters from 1769 to 1794 and from 1820 to 1824.
  
===== Court of general quarter sessions, Delaware =====
+
===== Court of general quarter sessions, Delaware =====
  
*A court in Delaware with jurisdiction over all criminal cases except capital crimes. These courts have existed since 1676 and continue to operate today.  
+
*A court in Delaware with jurisdiction over all criminal cases except capital crimes. These courts have existed since 1676 and continue to operate today.
  
===== Court of general sessions of the peace, New York =====
+
===== Court of general sessions of the peace, New York =====
  
*A court in New York with countywide jurisdiction over criminal cases such as desertions, apprenticeship disputes, bastardy, and other violations of vice and immorality laws. These courts existed from 1665 to 1962, handling probate matters from 1665 to 1683 and then only criminal cases after 1691. Their jurisdiction was transferred to the county court in 1847, except in New York County, where they continued until 1962.  
+
*A court in New York with countywide jurisdiction over criminal cases such as desertions, apprenticeship disputes, bastardy, and other violations of vice and immorality laws. These courts existed from 1665 to 1962, handling probate matters from 1665 to 1683 and then only criminal cases after 1691. Their jurisdiction was transferred to the county court in 1847, except in New York County, where they continued until 1962.
  
===== Court of general sessions, Maine =====
+
===== Court of general sessions, Maine =====
  
*A court in Maine with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases. These courts became the county commissioner's courts in 1831 and were replaced by the district courts in 1961.  
+
*A court in Maine with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases. These courts became the county commissioner's courts in 1831 and were replaced by the district courts in 1961.
  
===== Court of general sessions, South Carolina =====
+
===== Court of general sessions, South Carolina =====
  
*A court in South Carolina with statewide jurisdiction over criminal cases. This court was used from 1769 to 1790.  
+
*A court in South Carolina with statewide jurisdiction over criminal cases. This court was used from 1769 to 1790.
  
===== Court of ordinary, Georgia =====
+
===== Court of ordinary, Georgia =====
  
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over homesteads, land warrants, licenses, indentures, paupers, voting registers, and marriages. From 1777 to 1798 and after 1852 these courts also had jurisdiction over probates.  
+
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over homesteads, land warrants, licenses, indentures, paupers, voting registers, and marriages. From 1777 to 1798 and after 1852 these courts also had jurisdiction over probates.
  
===== Court of oyer and terminer and general gaol delivery, New York =====
+
===== Court of oyer and terminer and general gaol delivery, New York =====
  
*A court in New York with countywide jurisdiction over capital crimes such as treason and murder. These courts were used from 1683 to 1895.  
+
*A court in New York with countywide jurisdiction over capital crimes such as treason and murder. These courts were used from 1683 to 1895.
  
===== Court of oyer and terminer, Delaware =====
+
===== Court of oyer and terminer, Delaware =====
  
*A court in Delaware with jurisdiction over capital cases. These courts have existed since 1746 and continue to operate today.  
+
*A court in Delaware with jurisdiction over capital cases. These courts have existed since 1746 and continue to operate today.
  
===== Court of oyer and terminer, New Jersey =====
+
===== Court of oyer and terminer, New Jersey =====
  
*A court in New Jersey with countywide jurisdiction over all crimes committed within the county except for capital offenses of treason and murder. These courts were abolished in 1947.  
+
*A court in New Jersey with countywide jurisdiction over all crimes committed within the county except for capital offenses of treason and murder. These courts were abolished in 1947.
  
===== Court of probates, New York =====
+
===== Court of probates, New York =====
  
*A court in New York that had jurisdiction over probates from 1778 to 1823. Until 1783, the prerogative court also handled probates in British-occupied New York City, Long Island, and Staten Island.  
+
*A court in New York that had jurisdiction over probates from 1778 to 1823. Until 1783, the prerogative court also handled probates in British-occupied New York City, Long Island, and Staten Island.
  
===== Court of quarter sessions of the peace, Pennsylvania =====
+
===== Court of quarter sessions of the peace, Pennsylvania =====
  
*A court in Pennsylvania with countywide jurisdiction over criminal and other cases. This court was created in 1722 and is still used today.  
+
*A court in Pennsylvania with countywide jurisdiction over criminal and other cases. This court was created in 1722 and is still used today.
  
===== Court of quarter sessions, England and Ireland =====
+
===== Court of quarter sessions, England and Ireland =====
  
*A countywide court that met quarterly in England and Ireland to hear criminal cases such as murder, riot, theft, assault, poaching, and so forth. The court did not hear civil cases or criminal cases involving treason or forgery. Starting in 1531 these courts also administered the poor law.  
+
*A countywide court that met quarterly in England and Ireland to hear criminal cases such as murder, riot, theft, assault, poaching, and so forth. The court did not hear civil cases or criminal cases involving treason or forgery. Starting in 1531 these courts also administered the poor law.
  
===== Court of quarter sessions, general =====
+
===== Court of quarter sessions, general =====
  
*A court that meets four times a year.  
+
*A court that meets four times a year.
  
===== Court of quarter sessions, Georgia =====
+
===== Court of quarter sessions, Georgia =====
  
*A court used in colonial Georgia. No records exist from these courts.  
+
*A court used in colonial Georgia. No records exist from these courts.
  
===== Court of quarter sessions, Indiana =====
+
===== Court of quarter sessions, Indiana =====
  
*A statewide court with jurisdiction over all criminal and civil cases and probate matters between 1796 and 1813.  
+
*A statewide court with jurisdiction over all criminal and civil cases and probate matters between 1796 and 1813.
  
===== Court of quarter sessions, Kentucky =====
+
===== Court of quarter sessions, Kentucky =====
  
*A court with jurisdiction over suits involving large amounts of money. This court existed between 1787 and 1802.  
+
*A court with jurisdiction over suits involving large amounts of money. This court existed between 1787 and 1802.
  
===== Court of quarter sessions, Tennessee =====
+
===== Court of quarter sessions, Tennessee =====
  
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases and estate matters.  
+
*A court with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases and estate matters.
  
===== Court of Queen's Bench, Canada =====
+
===== Court of Queen's Bench, Canada =====
  
*A division of a provincial superior or supreme court in Canada. The court hears serious civil and criminal cases and has the authority to grant divorces. Also called Court of King's Bench if the reigning monarch is a king and also called Trial Division.  
+
*A division of a provincial superior or supreme court in Canada. The court hears serious civil and criminal cases and has the authority to grant divorces. Also called Court of King's Bench if the reigning monarch is a king and also called Trial Division.
  
===== Court of schouts and schepens, New Netherland =====
+
===== Court of schouts and schepens, New Netherland =====
  
*A court in New Netherland, which later became the state of New York, that had jurisdiction over criminal and civil cases from 1653 to 1674. These courts were replaced by mayor's courts.  
+
*A court in New Netherland, which later became the state of New York, that had jurisdiction over criminal and civil cases from 1653 to 1674. These courts were replaced by mayor's courts.
  
===== Court of Session, Scotland =====
+
===== Court of Session, Scotland =====
  
*The highest court in Scotland. It handles cases that deal with revenue, including debt to the Crown, and cases that lower courts refer to it.  
+
*The highest court in Scotland. It handles cases that deal with revenue, including debt to the Crown, and cases that lower courts refer to it.
  
===== Court of the Exchequer, England =====
+
===== Court of the Exchequer, England =====
  
*A court in England that originally had charge over keeping the king's accounts and collecting taxes. It began hearing cases between subjects, but this ended in 1290. After 1290 its jurisdiction was limited to cases regarding people who were withholding taxes or who refused to repay debts to the Crown. It later regained its jurisdiction over suits between subjects.  
+
*A court in England that originally had charge over keeping the king's accounts and collecting taxes. It began hearing cases between subjects, but this ended in 1290. After 1290 its jurisdiction was limited to cases regarding people who were withholding taxes or who refused to repay debts to the Crown. It later regained its jurisdiction over suits between subjects.
  
===== Court of the Exchequer, Scotland =====
+
===== Court of the Exchequer, Scotland =====
  
*A national court in Scotland that dealt with revenue issues, including debt to the Crown. This court existed from 1708 to 1856, when its jurisdiction was transferred to the Court of Session.  
+
*A national court in Scotland that dealt with revenue issues, including debt to the Crown. This court existed from 1708 to 1856, when its jurisdiction was transferred to the Court of Session.
  
===== Court of the general quarter session, Upper Canada =====
+
===== Court of the general quarter session, Upper Canada =====
  
*A court with jurisdiction over criminal matters in Upper Canada (Ontario). These courts operated from 1777 to 1868. They met four times a year.  
+
*A court with jurisdiction over criminal matters in Upper Canada (Ontario). These courts operated from 1777 to 1868. They met four times a year.
  
===== Court of the general quarter sessions of the peace, New Jersey =====
+
===== Court of the general quarter sessions of the peace, New Jersey =====
  
*A court in New Jersey with countywide jurisdiction over minor criminal cases, such as desertions, vice, apprenticeship disputes, and bastardy. Before 1704 these courts also had jurisdiction over civil cases. These courts were dissolved in 1947. They are also called county courts.  
+
*A court in New Jersey with countywide jurisdiction over minor criminal cases, such as desertions, vice, apprenticeship disputes, and bastardy. Before 1704 these courts also had jurisdiction over civil cases. These courts were dissolved in 1947. They are also called county courts.
  
===== Court order =====
+
===== Court order =====
  
*A record of a court’s decision on a case. Also called a court decree or court judgment.  
+
*A record of a court’s decision on a case. Also called a court decree or court judgment.
  
===== Court Records, Family History Library Catalog™ =====
+
===== Court Records, Family History Library Catalog™ =====
  
*A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize records, such as dockets and court minutes, kept by courts.  
+
*A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize records, such as dockets and court minutes, kept by courts.
  
===== Court records, general =====
+
===== Court records, general =====
  
*Records kept by courts of law.  
+
*Records kept by courts of law.
  
 
Court, PERiodical Source Index: A record type used in the Locality and Research Methodologies sections of the PERiodical Source Index (PERSI) to identify articles that contain information about court records.  
 
Court, PERiodical Source Index: A record type used in the Locality and Research Methodologies sections of the PERiodical Source Index (PERSI) to identify articles that contain information about court records.  
  
===== Courthouse, archive =====
+
===== Courthouse, archive =====
  
*A building that houses a court of law or county offices and county records.  
+
*A building that houses a court of law or county offices and county records.
  
===== Coûtume de Paris =====
+
===== Coûtume de Paris =====
  
*An old French law system, used in the area surrounding Paris in 1664, on which civil law in Québec (Canada) was based.  
+
*An old French law system, used in the area surrounding Paris in 1664, on which civil law in Québec (Canada) was based.
  
===== Covenant, general =====
+
===== Covenant, general =====
  
*A legally binding agreement between two or more parties.  
+
*A legally binding agreement between two or more parties.
  
===== Coyote =====
+
===== Coyote =====
  
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian (3/8), African (1/8), and Spanish Caucasian (1/2). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.  
+
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian (3/8), African (1/8), and Spanish Caucasian (1/2). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
  
===== Creek War (1836-1837) =====
+
===== Creek War (1836-1837) =====
  
*A disturbance in eastern Alabama caused by the impending removal of the Creek tribe of Native Americans according to a treaty signed in 1832.  
+
*A disturbance in eastern Alabama caused by the impending removal of the Creek tribe of Native Americans according to a treaty signed in 1832.
  
===== Creek, Native Americans =====
+
===== Creek, Native Americans =====
  
*Tribes of Native Americans who originally lived in Alabama and Georgia. In 1832 they were forced to sign a treaty that required them to move to the Indian Territory, west of the Mississippi River.  
+
*Tribes of Native Americans who originally lived in Alabama and Georgia. In 1832 they were forced to sign a treaty that required them to move to the Indian Territory, west of the Mississippi River.
  
===== Creole =====
+
===== Creole =====
  
*A descendant of the original Spanish, Portuguese, or French settlers of the Americas.  
+
*A descendant of the original Spanish, Portuguese, or French settlers of the Americas.
  
===== Crimean War (1854-1856) =====
+
===== Crimean War (1854-1856) =====
  
*A war fought over religious, commercial, and strategic issues between Russia and the combined forces of Great Britain, France, the Ottoman Empire, and Sardinia. Russia was defeated and forced to give up some of the land it had taken from the Ottoman Empire.  
+
*A war fought over religious, commercial, and strategic issues between Russia and the combined forces of Great Britain, France, the Ottoman Empire, and Sardinia. Russia was defeated and forced to give up some of the land it had taken from the Ottoman Empire.
  
===== Criminal case =====
+
===== Criminal case =====
  
*A proceeding against an individual charged with a violation of law that harmed or could have harmed society. Criminal cases include theft, murder, and drunk driving.  
+
*A proceeding against an individual charged with a violation of law that harmed or could have harmed society. Criminal cases include theft, murder, and drunk driving.
  
===== Criminal court =====
+
===== Criminal court =====
  
*A court that hears criminal cases (cases in which a violation of law harmed or could have harmed society). Such cases include theft, murder, and drunk driving.  
+
*A court that hears criminal cases (cases in which a violation of law harmed or could have harmed society). Such cases include theft, murder, and drunk driving.
  
===== Criminal court, West Virginia =====
+
===== Criminal court, West Virginia =====
  
*A court created by special acts of the West Virginia legislature. The jurisdiction of these courts varies, but it may include limited civil and domestic cases and appeals from municipal and justice courts.  
+
*A court created by special acts of the West Virginia legislature. The jurisdiction of these courts varies, but it may include limited civil and domestic cases and appeals from municipal and justice courts.
  
===== Criminal jurisdiction =====
+
===== Criminal jurisdiction =====
  
*The authority of a court to hear criminal cases that involve violations of law in which society was harmed or could have been harmed.  
+
*The authority of a court to hear criminal cases that involve violations of law in which society was harmed or could have been harmed.
  
===== Criminal law =====
+
===== Criminal law =====
  
*The laws in a country that define criminal offences (offences that harm society), set the rules for the arrest and possibly for the trial of those accused of crimes, and define punishment for crimes. Offences range in seriousness from disorderly conduct to murder.  
+
*The laws in a country that define criminal offences (offences that harm society), set the rules for the arrest and possibly for the trial of those accused of crimes, and define punishment for crimes. Offences range in seriousness from disorderly conduct to murder.
  
===== Criollo =====
+
===== Criollo =====
  
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person born in Latin America whose ancestors are all from Spain (a pure-blooded Spaniard born in Latin America).  
+
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person born in Latin America whose ancestors are all from Spain (a pure-blooded Spaniard born in Latin America).
  
===== Crioulo =====
+
===== Crioulo =====
  
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person born in Latin America whose ancestors are all from Europe.  
+
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person born in Latin America whose ancestors are all from Europe.
  
===== Crismas =====
+
===== Crismas =====
  
*A Spanish word for chrism, or holy oil used in Latin and Greek churches for baptisms, confirmations, and other rites.  
+
*A Spanish word for chrism, or holy oil used in Latin and Greek churches for baptisms, confirmations, and other rites.
  
===== Cromwellian period (1649-1660), England =====
+
===== Cromwellian period (1649-1660), England =====
  
*The period in English history when Oliver Cromwell ruled England. After the Civil War, Parliament refused to reform the English government as much as Cromwell and his Puritan supporters desired. As a result, Cromwell dismissed Parliament and established himself as lord protector of England. During this time, Cromwell severely limited freedom of the press and enforced strict moral standards. He also strengthened England's navy, brought Scotland and Ireland under English control, and helped in the development of English colonies in North America and Asia.  
+
*The period in English history when Oliver Cromwell ruled England. After the Civil War, Parliament refused to reform the English government as much as Cromwell and his Puritan supporters desired. As a result, Cromwell dismissed Parliament and established himself as lord protector of England. During this time, Cromwell severely limited freedom of the press and enforced strict moral standards. He also strengthened England's navy, brought Scotland and Ireland under English control, and helped in the development of English colonies in North America and Asia.
  
===== Cross Index to Selected City Streets and Enumeration Districts =====
+
===== Cross Index to Selected City Streets and Enumeration Districts =====
  
*An index that lists street addresses and the corresponding enumeration district in the 1910 census for many large cities in the United States.  
+
*An index that lists street addresses and the corresponding enumeration district in the 1910 census for many large cities in the United States.
  
===== Crossing the Ocean Index =====
+
===== Crossing the Ocean Index =====
  
*A list of Latter-day Saints who left Great Britain and Europe between 1840 and 1925 to settle in the western United States. Its official name is the European Emigration Card Index.  
+
*A list of Latter-day Saints who left Great Britain and Europe between 1840 and 1925 to settle in the western United States. Its official name is the European Emigration Card Index.
  
===== Crossing the Plains Index =====
+
===== Crossing the Plains Index =====
  
*An incomplete but valuable list of Latter-day Saint pioneers who crossed the plains before 1869, when the railroad arrived in Utah. Its official name is the Utah Immigration Card Index.  
+
*An incomplete but valuable list of Latter-day Saint pioneers who crossed the plains before 1869, when the railroad arrived in Utah. Its official name is the Utah Immigration Card Index.
  
===== Crown colony land grants =====
+
===== Crown colony land grants =====
  
*Land grants issued by Kings George II and III between 1735 and 1775. North Carolina became a Crown colony in 1729 when seven of the eight Lords Proprietors sold their land to King George II.  
+
*Land grants issued by Kings George II and III between 1735 and 1775. North Carolina became a Crown colony in 1729 when seven of the eight Lords Proprietors sold their land to King George II.
  
===== Crown grant =====
+
===== Crown grant =====
  
*A land grant issued by the British or French monarch.  
+
*A land grant issued by the British or French monarch.
  
===== Crown land =====
+
===== Crown land =====
  
*Land that is held (owned) in the name of a monarch.  
+
*Land that is held (owned) in the name of a monarch.
  
===== Crown Lands Administration, Canada =====
+
===== Crown Lands Administration, Canada =====
  
*A branch of the government in Newfoundland, Canada, that manages public lands.  
+
*A branch of the government in Newfoundland, Canada, that manages public lands.
  
===== Crown Lands Registry, Canada =====
+
===== Crown Lands Registry, Canada =====
  
*A branch of the government in Manitoba, Canada, that houses land records made before 1930.  
+
*A branch of the government in Manitoba, Canada, that houses land records made before 1930.
  
===== Crown lease, British =====
+
===== Crown lease, British =====
  
*A contract that allows a person to use land held by the British Crown in return for money or some other form of recompense.  
+
*A contract that allows a person to use land held by the British Crown in return for money or some other form of recompense.
  
===== Cuarteado =====
+
===== Cuarteado =====
  
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian (1/4), African (1/4), and Spanish Caucasian (1/2). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.  
+
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian (1/4), African (1/4), and Spanish Caucasian (1/2). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
  
===== Cuarterón =====
+
===== Cuarterón =====
  
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of African (1/4) and Spanish Caucasian (3/4). Also spelled quarterón. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.  
+
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of African (1/4) and Spanish Caucasian (3/4). Also spelled quarterón. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
  
===== Cuarterón de Chino, Peru =====
+
===== Cuarterón de Chino, Peru =====
  
*A term used in Peruvian Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of African and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.  
+
*A term used in Peruvian Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of African and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
  
===== Cuarterón de Mestizo, Peru =====
+
===== Cuarterón de Mestizo, Peru =====
  
*A term used in Peruvian Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of Indian and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.  
+
*A term used in Peruvian Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of Indian and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
  
===== Cuarterón de Mulato, Peru =====
+
===== Cuarterón de Mulato, Peru =====
  
*A term used in Peruvian Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of Indian, African, and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.  
+
*A term used in Peruvian Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of Indian, African, and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
  
===== Cuatrero =====
+
===== Cuatrero =====
  
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian (3/4) and Spanish Caucasian (1/4). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.  
+
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian (3/4) and Spanish Caucasian (1/4). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
  
===== Cumberland Gap =====
+
===== Cumberland Gap =====
  
*A natural mountain pass in the Appalachian Mountains. It is located near where the boundaries of Tennessee, Kentucky, and Virginia intersect. It was a major passage into lands west of Virginia. During the American Civil War, the Cumberland Gap was held at different times by the Union and the Confederacy.  
+
*A natural mountain pass in the Appalachian Mountains. It is located near where the boundaries of Tennessee, Kentucky, and Virginia intersect. It was a major passage into lands west of Virginia. During the American Civil War, the Cumberland Gap was held at different times by the Union and the Confederacy.
  
===== Cumberland Plateau =====
+
===== Cumberland Plateau =====
  
*A highland area that covers parts of eastern Tennessee and Kentucky. The Cumberland Plateau is bounded on the east by the Appalachian Mountain range.  
+
*A highland area that covers parts of eastern Tennessee and Kentucky. The Cumberland Plateau is bounded on the east by the Appalachian Mountain range.
  
===== Curation =====
+
===== Curation =====
  
*Guardianship over a child who is old enough to marry but not yet 21 years of age.  
+
*Guardianship over a child who is old enough to marry but not yet 21 years of age.
  
===== Curtesy =====
+
===== Curtesy =====
  
*The right a husband had to his deceased wife's real property. The husband received all of his wife's property, providing they had legitimate children who were born alive.  
+
*The right a husband had to his deceased wife's real property. The husband received all of his wife's property, providing they had legitimate children who were born alive.
  
===== Customs passenger list =====
+
===== Customs passenger list =====
  
*Passenger lists that masters of ships submitted to United States customs officials when ships arrived in the United States.  
+
*Passenger lists that masters of ships submitted to United States customs officials when ships arrived in the United States.
  
 
[[Category:Glossary]]
 
[[Category:Glossary]]

Revision as of 01:57, 3 April 2009


C

Cabinda, Brazil
  • A term used in Brazilian Catholic Church registers to describe a person from the Cabinda region of Angola. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
Cabo-verde, Brazil
  • A term used in Brazilian Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of Indian and African. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
Caboclo, Brazil
  • A term used in Brazilian Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
Cabra, Brazil
  • A term used in Brazilian Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of African and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.

Cadastral map

  • A map that shows the people who own land in an area. Also called land ownership map.

Cadency

  • A mark on a coat of arms showing a younger son's birth order.
Cafuzo, Brazil
  • A term used in Brazilian Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of Indian and African. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
Cajun
  • A descendant of French settlers who came from the Acadia region of Canada, or present-day New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, to the United States. They settled in Louisiana in the swamps and slow-moving streams called bayous. They still maintain a unique cultural identity and speak both English and a dialect of French. Most are Roman Catholic.
Calculated date
  • An event date that is derived from the date of another event in a person's life. For example, if the United States 1860 census lists a person as being 20 years old, a calculated birth date would be 1839 or 1840.
Call number
  • The number used to identify a book, microfilm, microfiche, or other source in a library or archive. Library materials are stored and retrieved by call number.
Calpamulato
  • A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian, African, and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
Calvert Papers
  • A manuscript collection of land and other records compiled by the Calvert family, who were proprietors of the Colony of Maryland until the Revolutionary War. The Maryland Historical Society in Baltimore, Maryland, has this collection.
Calvin M. McClung Collection
  • A collection of biographical material about residents of Tennessee. It consists of 15,000 published volumes and 300,000 manuscripts arranged in surname folders. These contain correspondence, pedigrees, and abstracts of records.
Calvinistic Methodists, Wales
  • A religion that began to spread throughout Wales during the late 1730s. At first leaders advocated reforming the Church of England but not separating from it. Members would meet weekly for singing and preaching but attend their local parishes for communion. In 1811, however, the Methodists began ordaining their own ministers and keeping their own records. Their beliefs are based on the teachings of John Calvin. Today the religion is known as the Presbyterian Church of Wales.
Cambujo
  • A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian (3/4) and African (1/4). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
Cambur
  • A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian (1/2), African (1/4), and Spanish Caucasian (1/4). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
Canada East
  • An area that comprises modern-day Québec. Before 1841 it was called Lower Canada. From 1841 to 1867 Canada East and Canada West (modern-day Ontario) formed the Province of Canada.
Canada GenWeb
  • A computer term for a site on the World Wide Web that lists genealogical databases, libraries, bulletin boards, and resources available on the Internet for people interested in doing genealogical research about Canadians.
Canada West
  • An area that comprises modern-day Ontario. Before 1841 it was called Upper Canada. From 1841 to 1867 Canada West and Canada East (modern-day Québec) formed the Province of Canada.
Canadian border crossing lists, Canada
  • Lists of passengers being transported from Canada into the United States. Canadian shipping companies began keeping these records in 1895. There are two type of manifests: lists of people traveling by train and lists of people traveling by boat. The manifests may include the person's name, port or station of entry, date of entry, age, literacy, last residence, previous visits to the United States, and birthplace. Sometimes officials only recorded the information on the index card rather than on the manifest. Beginning in 1908 the companies began keeping similar records of people arriving in Canada from the United States. These records are not indexed and are not available through the Family History Library™. Also called border crossing manifests, passenger lists, or manifests.
Canadian border crossing lists, United States
  • Lists, or manifests, kept by Canada and the United States to document all people who crossed the border from Canada into the United States for any purpose. These lists began in 1895 and are on microfilm up to 1954.
Canadian Expeditionary Force
  • The Canadian army that served in World War I.
Canadian Pacific Railroad
  • A railroad that extended across Canada from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. It was completed in 1885 and allowed for more rapid settlement of Canada's interior lands.
Canton
  • A division of a place in France, Québec (Canada), and Switzerland. In France cantons are divisions of a district (arrondissement). In Québec cantons are townships. In Switzerland cantons are the major divisions of the country, similar to states in the United States or provinces in Canada.
Cantons de l'Est, Canada
  • Townships in eastern Québec, located directly north of the state of Vermont. Cantons de l'Est is a direct French translation of the English term Eastern Townships. These townships were originally settled by English-speaking Protestants, many of whom had connections to American Loyalists.
Cape Breton, Canada
  • A large island off of the coast of Nova Scotia. In the early 1600s it became a French colony, but in 1763 France ceded it to Great Britain as part of the Treaty of Paris, which ended the Seven Years War (French and Indian War). Britain made the island part of Nova Scotia. In 1784 the island separated from Nova Scotia, but the two areas reunited in 1820. Thousands of Scots moved to the island from the 1790s to the 1830s.
Cape Fear Valley
  • The region along the Cape Fear River in North Carolina.
Capellanías, military
  • A type of military record used in Latin America, translated as military parish records. These are records that military chaplains kept of sacraments performed for soldiers and their families.
Capellanías,land
  • A type of land grant in Latin America. These land grants covered lands that individuals and families ceded to the Catholic Church. Related documents include wills, court records, land titles, and contracts. Information about the individuals and families involved may also be included.
Capital case
  • A type of criminal court case in which the defendant could receive the death penalty.
Captain
  • An army, marine, or air force officer who commands a military company; also a naval officer who commands a warship.
Card index
  • An index to a set of records. In a card index, each index entry appears on a separate card, and the cards are arranged alphabetically or by some other method. Many United States censuses have card indexes.
Card Membership, Latter-day Saint
  • A printed form used to record membership information of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from 1941 to the present. Most wards now use an electronic version of the form. Before the electronic version was used, the forms were separate and were bound in books. When a member moves from a ward, the membership record is returned to Church headquarters and sent to the member’s new ward or branch.
Carey Act of 1894
  • A federal law that provided for the reclamation and homesteading of desert land in public land states. It established new settlements in northern Wyoming.
Carpenter
  • A person who works with wood; also the officer in the British navy who examined the wooden parts of a ship.
Cartas de dote
  • The Spanish term for dowry records.
Casamentos
  • A Portuguese word for marriages.
Casamiento
  • A Spanish term for marriage. Also used in the Philippines.
Case file number
  • An identification number assigned to a case file.
Case file, court records
  • A file containing the documentation related to a specific court case.
Case file, land
  • A file of records related to an individual’s acquisition of land. The case file may contain the individual’s application, records of payment, or certification that he or she has completed all requirements for owning the land. These are the most helpful land records for family history researchers.
Case file, probate
  • A file of all documents relating to the settlement of an individual’s estate. Also called estate file, estate packet, loose papers, probate estate papers, or probate packet.
Cash entry
  • The process of purchasing land from the federal government.
Cash entry files
  • The collection of records relating to a person's purchase of federal land.
Castizo, Puerto Rico
  • In Puerto Rico, a term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of Indian, African, and Caucasian. In Guatemala, the term refers to a person who is a mix of Caucasian and Indian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
Catalog
  • A description of items available in a library's or archive's collection. A catalog usually gives you the call number or other information needed to find the item within the collection.
Catholic mission
  • A settlement established by Catholic priests to convert the Native Americans to Catholicism and to maintain the authority of the country from which the priests came. Missions provided the Native Americans with food, clothing, education in a trade, and sometimes housing. In return, the Native Americans worked, took instruction in the Catholic Church, and agreed to live by the customs of the priests' country. Spanish missions were established in Georgia, Florida, Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and California. French missions were established in the Great Lakes area.
Catholic Records in Montréal, Canada
  • A card index to Catholic Church records in Montréal, Canada.
Catholic Relief Acts, Ireland
  • A series of laws passed to restore to Roman Catholics in Ireland the rights that had been taken away in the Penal Laws passed between 1695 and 1728.
Cementerios
  • A Spanish term for cemeteries and cemetery records. Also used in the Philippines.
Cemeteries, Family History Library Catalog™
  • A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize cemetery records (records that contain information about where people are buried).
Cemeteries, PERiodical Source Index
  • A record type used in the Locality and Research Methodologies sections of the PERiodical Source Index (PERSI) to identify articles that contain information about cemeteries and cemetery records.
Cemetery
  • A place where deceased individuals are buried.
Cemetery Inscription Card Index, North Carolina
  • A project completed by the federal government as part of the Historical Records Survey to index North Carolina cemetery records.
Cemetery Locator File, Indiana
  • An alphabetical list of cemeteries in Indiana. This file is at the Indiana State Library. The Family History Library™ has a microfilm copy.
Censo
  • The word used in Spanish and Portuguese for census. The Catholic Church and the government took censuses. Some censuses were taken of military men and their families in outlying areas.
Census district
  • A geographical area in which a supervisor or marshal was required to take a census. Before 1880 in the United States, census districts were called subdivisions. Starting in 1880 they were called enumeration districts.
  • In Canada, census districts are voting districts, not counties. Though the census district may have the same name as a county, it may not include the same townships.
Census index
  • An alphabetical list of some or all of the people on a census that identifies where within the census an individual can be found.
Census of Confederate Veterans, Arkansas
  • A special census taken in 1911 in Arkansas of all living veterans who served in the Confederate Army.
Census Place Index, 1881 British Census
  • An index to the 1881 British Census that is organized alphabetically by surname then alphabetically by the census place.
Census schedule
  • A type of list in a census. A census can have many types of schedules, such as a population or mortality schedule.
Census, Family History Library Catalog™
  • A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize censuses (official counts and descriptions of the people living in a country, colony, state, county, township, or city).
Census, general
  • An official count and description of the people living in a country, colony, state, county, township, or city.
Census, PERiodical Source Index
  • A record type used in the Locality and Research Methodologies sections of the PERiodical Source Index (PERSI) to identify articles that contain information about census records.
Central Bureau of Statistics, Sweden
  • An office that keeps statistics about the Swedish population. Swedish ministers were required to send extracts of their records to this office. The Swedish term for the bureau is Statistika Centralbyrån.
Central Estadística, Philippines
  • A government office, translated as the Central Office of Statistics, established by the Spanish in the Philippines in 1899. It was charged with gathering birth, marriage, and death information from parish priests.
Central provinces, Canada
  • A grouping of Canadian provinces comprising Québec and Ontario.
Century Farm Applications, Iowa
  • A collection of records gathered by the Iowa American Revolution Bicentennial Commission. These records contain information about farm owners in Iowa whose property had remained in the family for 100 years or longer.
Certificate of arrival
  • A document given to immigrants upon their arrival in the United States. The certificate is proof of how long they have been living in the United States and is a required part of the naturalization process. It is kept in the case file with the petition for citizenship.
Certificate of Naturalization (Form 2207)
  • A form given to a former alien as proof that he or she has become a citizen of the United States.
Certificate, general
  • A record that documents an individual's or group's accomplishment or participation in an event.
Certificate, immigration
  • A legal document given to immigrants after they have met all immigration requirements and have been sworn in as citizens of the United States. Also called a Certificate of Naturalization and Form 2207.
Certificats
  • A French term for marriage certificate, a record that documents the date and place of a couple's marriage.
Chamizo
  • A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian, African, and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
Chancery case
  • A court case in which parties disputing over a matter that does not involve a violation of law ask a court to make a fair decision. Chancery cases commonly involve disputes over property rights or probate matters. Also called equity case.
Chancery court, Arkansas
  • A court with countywide jurisdiction over equity, divorce, probate, and adoption cases.
Chancery court, Delaware
  • A court in Delaware with countywide jurisdiction over equity matters.
Chancery court, England
  • A court in England that hears equity cases. Records from this court include disputes over land and property rights, debts, inheritance, trusts, and fraud. The court began operating in 1199 and continues today.
Chancery court, general
  • A court that administers justice and decides controversies in accordance with the rules of equity as opposed to the rules of law. These courts commonly hear cases that involve disputes over property rights or probate matters. Also called equity court.
Chancery court, Maryland
  • A court in Maryland with statewide jurisdiction over equity cases, such as divorces, name changes, mortgage foreclosures, civil damage suits, and guardianships. This court existed from 1668 to 1851.
Chancery court, Mississippi
  • A court with countywide jurisdiction over equity cases, divorce, land grants, probates, and guardianships.
Chancery court, Tennessee
  • A court with countywide jurisdiction over property title disputes.
Chancery register
  • A record kept by a court of chancery.
Chapel of ease, Church of England
  • A small division within a large parish of the Church of England. A chapel of ease has its own chapel to serve members who live too far away to attend the parish church. Chapels of ease often keep their own christening, marriage, and burial registers. Also called a chapelry.
Chapelry, Church of England
  • A small division within a large parish of the Church of England. A chapelry has its own chapel to serve members who live too far away to attend the parish church. Chapelries often keep their own christening, marriage, and burial registers. Also called a chapel of ease.
Chaplain
  • A clergyman in charge of a chapel; also a person who serves in the military as a clergyman. The chaplain is considered an officer.
Charles Carroll Gardner's Collections, New Jersey
  • Several collections of information about families from northeastern New Jersey, especially those from Essex County.
Charles D. Parkhurst manuscripts
  • A collection of compiled genealogies about people from New London, Connecticut.
Charles R. Hale Collection, Connecticut
  • A collection of cemetery records from Connecticut. The collection has cemetery inscriptions from more than 2,000 cemeteries. It also includes notices of deaths and marriages listed in newspapers.
Cherokee
  • A powerful tribe of Native Americans who originally lived in the southeastern United States. In 1838 United States troops forced the Cherokee tribe to move to Indian Territory, which is now part of Oklahoma. This forced exodus became known as the Trail of Tears. About 1,000 Cherokee escaped into the Great Smoky Mountains. They eventually bought land, and the government allowed them to stay. This group became the Eastern Band of Cherokee. Most Cherokee now live in northeastern Oklahoma, though some still live in North Carolina. The Cherokee were considered part of the Five Civilized Tribes.
Cherokee Outlet
  • A section of land allocated to the Cherokees by treaty. Treaties made in 1828 and 1833 guaranteed this land to the tribe. The tribe could not place homes on it. It was to be used as an "outlet." The tribe sold the land to the United States in 1891, and it became part of Oklahoma Territory. Also called Cherokee Strip.
Cherokee Removal (1838)
  • A forced exodus that occurred when the United States government forced the Cherokee to move from their lands in the southeastern United States to Indian Territory, which is now part of Oklahoma. The Cherokee called this march the Trail of Tears because so many people died along the way.
Cherokee War (1760-1761)
  • A war between the Cherokee and white settlers in South Carolina. The treaty that ended the war opened up much of frontier South Carolina for settlement.
Chevalier
  • The French term for the highest ranking title in the French gentry (petite noblesse). A chevalier is equivalent to a British knight.
Chicago fire, USA
  • A fire that started on the Southwest side of Chicago on 8 October 1871. The fire burned for over 24 hours, destroying downtown Chicago and many Northside homes. Many of Chicago’s public records were also burned. At least three hundred people died, and 98,500 were left homeless. The fire caused an estimated $200 million in damage.
Chicago, Illinois
  • A city in Cook County, Illinois.
Chickasaw
  • A tribe of Native Americans who originally lived in northern Mississippi, western Tennessee, and northwestern Alabama. In 1837 they moved to Indian Territory.
China
  • A term used in Brazilian and Argentinean Catholic Church registers to describe a female Indian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
Chinese
  • Pertaining to something or someone from China; also the languages used by the people of China and other countries.
Chino
  • A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian, African, and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
Choctaw
  • A tribe of Native Americans who originally lived in southern Alabama and Mississippi. In 1830 they ceded their land to the United States in exchange for a large tract of land in what is now southeastern Oklahoma. Most members of the tribe moved there between 1831 and 1833.
Cholo
  • A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
Christen, religious
  • To baptize an individual or to give an infant a name.
Christen, shipping
  • To name a new ship on its first voyage.

Christening records: Records created when an individual is christened (a religious ceremony in which an individual is baptized or an infant is given a name).

Christian Church
  • A Protestant religion formed in Kentucky in 1809 by Thomas Campbell, Alexander Campbell, and Barton W. Stone. Its full name is the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ). The church practices baptism by immersion, but most congregations will accept people as members if they were baptized into another church.
Christian name
  • A first name, often from the Bible, used to identify an individual. Also called first name or given name.
Christian Reformed Church
  • A church founded in 1857 in the United States by people who separated from the Dutch Reformed Church (now called the Reformed Church in America). It adopted its current name in 1904. The church follows the teachings of John Calvin and Huldrych Zwingli, maintaining a conservative, orthodox interpretation of doctrine and practices. It used to conduct its services and keep its records in Dutch.
Church Almanac, Latter-day Saint
  • A book currently published every other year by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints that gives information about Church leaders, historical events related to the Church, and statistics related to Church members around the world.
Church archive
  • An archive where a church stores its records and documents.
Church cemetery
  • A church-owned cemetery where that church's members, leaders, and others are buried.
Church census
  • A list and description of members of a church that is taken to track growth and update membership records. Church censuses are a major source of family history information for members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
Church Directories, Family History Library Catalog™
  • A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize lists of churches' organizational divisions and officials, including the names of the places and congregations where the officials have served.
Church directory
  • A list of a church's organizational divisions and officials, including the names of the places and congregations where the officials have served. A church directory may also contain historical information about the local congregations, complete addresses of the churches, and the address of the church headquarters where additional records may be kept.
Church History, Family History Library Catalog™
  • A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize information about the history of various churches.
Church history, general
  • An account of the events surrounding a specific church or the events related to all of the religions and religious developments in an area.
Church marriage register
  • A record kept by a church of marriages performed by a priest or other church authority.
Church of England
  • The state church of England. It was established in 1534 by King Henry VIII who, when Pope Clement VII refused to grant him a divorce, compelled Parliament to pass the Act of Supremacy. This act made the king of England, not the pope, the head of the church in England. Doctrines of the church are based on the Nicene and Apostles' Creeds and the Book of Common Prayer. The clergy are divided into bishops, priests, and deacons. The Church of England is now part of the Anglican Communion.
Church of Ireland
  • An independent Anglican Church in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. It is the largest Protestant church in Ireland. The Church of Ireland separated from the Church of England in 1871.
Church of Scotland
  • The Presbyterian Church in Scotland. The Church of Scotland was once the state church.
Church of the Brethren
  • A religion that developed in 1708 in Germany under Alexander Mack. Persecution in Germany led many members to immigrate to Germantown, Pennsylvania. The Brethren stress obedience to Christ and living the gospel according to the New Testament. They practice trine baptism (baptism by immersion in which an individual is immersed three times, once for each member of the Trinity) and refuse to take oaths or serve in the military. They are also called Dunkards or Dunkers.
Church of the Nazarene
  • A Protestant religion established in Texas in 1908. The church follows the early teachings of Methodism and sponsors many schools, liberal arts colleges, and theological seminaries.
Church Records, Family History Library Catalog™
  • A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize records kept by churches, such as baptism records, marriage records, and burial records.
Church records, general
  • Records kept by religious institutions.
Church unit boundaries, Latter-day Saint
  • The jurisdictions of various congregations of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
Church, PERiodical Source Index
  • A record type used in the Locality and Research Methodologies sections of the PERiodical Source Index (PERSI) to identify articles that contain information about church records.
Churchwarden account
  • Records kept by a churchwarden.
Churchwarden, Church of England
  • A lay officer in a parish or district of the Church of England. The churchwarden helps the minister with various administrative duties and represents the parishioners in church matters. Most parishes have two churchwardens, who are elected on Easter Tuesday. Before large parishes were broken down into divisions, they may have had up to four churchwardens to represent various areas of the parish. Also called churchman, churchmaster, church reeve, and kirkmaster.
Cimarrón
  • A term used in Mexican and Guatemalan Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of Indian (1/4), African (1/2), and Spanish Caucasian (1/4). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
Circuit court guardian docket
  • A list of guardian judgments made by the circuit court.
Circuit court of appeals
  • The former name of the United States Court of Appeals. The court of appeals may review and revise decisions made by federal district courts. The United States Supreme Court may review and revise decisions made by the circuit courts of appeals.
Circuit court, Alabama
  • A court in Alabama with countywide jurisdiction over felonies, major criminal and civil cases, and appeals from inferior courts.
Circuit court, New Jersey
  • A court in New Jersey with countywide jurisdiction over civil and equity cases such as mortgage foreclosures, name changes, marriages, adoptions, estate partitions, naturalizations, debts, and probate suits. Circuit courts were replaced by superior courts in 1947.
Circuit court, Ohio
  • A court in Ohio with countywide jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases, including equity and divorce cases.
Circuit court, USA
  • A court used in many states of the United States. The court generally has jurisdiction over several towns, counties, or districts in the state. Circuit courts have jurisdiction over both criminal and civil matters.
Circuit court, Virginia
  • A court in Virginia with circuitwide jurisdiction. Circuit courts were created in 1851 and continue today.
Circuit court, Wisconsin
  • A court in Wisconsin with countywide jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases and some appeals.

Circuit superior court of law and chancery, Virginia: A court in Virginia with districtwide jurisdiction. In 1851 these courts were replaced by circuit courts.

Circuit superior court of law, West Virginia
  • A court in West Virginia with circuitwide jurisdiction. Circuit superior courts of law were used from 1809 to 1852.
Circumcision register, Jewish
  • A book containing information about Jewish circumcisions. They include the Hebrew given name of the child, the date of circumcision in the Hebrew calendar, and the father's Hebrew given name. Also called Mohel books.
Citizen, early England and Wales
  • A freeman who lived in a city.
Citizenship
  • The allegiance of an individual to a government and its laws and customs. In return, the individual is granted all rights allowed by the government.
Citizenship book, Danish
  • A list of people who received the rights to citizenship extended by a city. Citizenship rights included the right to engage in business in the city, protection under the law, and permission to live in the city without being expelled. Citizenship books include the names of the people granted citizenship and their age, social and economic status, occupation and training, and sometimes birthplace and names of relatives. Until the twentieth century, only males of the middle or upper class, usually merchants and tradesmen, were granted citizenship. The Danish citizenship books are called borgerskabprotokoller.
Citizenship book, Germany
  • A book used to record the names of people who had received the rights to citizenship. These books were frequently kept in Germany, where they were called Bürgerbücher or Bürgerlisten.
City census
  • A census taken by a city rather than a state or federal government.
City court, Kansas
  • A court in Kansas with citywide jurisdiction over minor criminal cases and traffic matters. Also called magistrate court.

City court, Utah: A court used in Utah between 1906 and 1977. City courts had limited jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases in a county. They were replaced by the circuit court system in 1977.

City directory
  • A list of the names, addresses, and telephone numbers (if applicable) of the people living in a city. City directories may also provide other information about individuals such as their profession, trade, or place of employment.
City livery company, England
  • A craft or trade association in London that is descended from the medieval trade guilds. The term livery originally referred to the distinctive uniform that each guild (or company) used on special occasions. Eventually the term was used to refer to the collective membership of the company.
City map
  • A map that shows the streets and sometimes political divisions of a large city.
City records
  • Records, such as those for births and deaths, kept at a city level.
Civil case
  • A lawsuit involving a violation of laws when an individual (but not society) is harmed, such as property damage, trespass, or libel. Civil cases seek enforcement of private rights or compensation for infringement on private rights.
Civil court, Florida
  • A court in Florida that exists in counties with more than 100,000 residents. In these counties, civil courts take the place of county courts.
Civil court, general
  • A court that hears civil cases (lawsuits involving a violation of laws when an individual but not society is harmed, such as property damage, trespass, or libel). Civil cases seek enforcement of private rights or compensation for infringement of private rights.
Civil district, Denmark
  • An area covered by a Danish court. In Danish they are called herred and birke.
Civil government
  • A government that has authority over a country or other non-church unit.
Civil law
  • The laws in a country that define the rights and obligations that people owe one another. Civil law covers issues such as the borrowing and lending of money, contracts, land and property ownership, marriage, divorce, adoption, and injury due to the actions of another person. In the Canadian province of Québec civil law is based on a French code of laws. In other provinces, civil law is based on English common law.
Civil marriage register
  • A government record of marriages performed by various civil and religious officials. A register is usually a record in a bound book.

Civil parish, Ireland: An administrative division of a county in Ireland. Before the Reformation, the civil parish was an ecclesiastical division.

Civil registration office
  • A local government office that keeps the government's local birth, marriage, and death records. Some civil registration offices may also have records regarding divorces.
Civil Registration, Family History Library Catalog™
  • A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize birth, marriage, divorce, and death records kept by civil governments. Birth, marriage, divorce, and death records from the United States and all Canadian provinces except Québec are cataloged under the subject heading "Vital Records."
Civil registration, general
  • Birth, marriage, divorce, and death records kept by a government. In the United States, civil registration is called vital records.
Civil Secretary, Canada
  • A government official in Upper Canada (Ontario) who served as a private secretary to the lieutenant-governor of the province. He received letters and petitions. This position does not exist in modern-day Ontario.
Civil War, American
  • A term for the American Civil War, 1861 to 1865. Also called the War between the States and the War of Secession.
Civil war, general
  • A type of war in which two or more factions within the same country are at war with each other.
Claim
  • A request made in a court of law.
Claim registers
  • Records of claims made against a deceased person's estate.
Claims docket
  • A list of court cases.
Clarence Torrey Collection, New England
  • A collection of marriage records gathered by Clarence Torrey. It lists marriages that occurred during the 1600s in colonial New England. Its proper name is New England Marriages Prior to 1700.
Class 1 settler
  • A settler who was part of a system that filed headright grants by time period. These particular settlers arrived in Texas before 1 March 1836 and received headright land grants from Spain and Mexico.
Class 2 settler
  • A settler who was part of a system that filed headright grants by time period. These particular settlers arrived in Texas from 2 March 1836 to 1 October 1837 and received headright land grants from the Republic of Texas.
Class 3 settler
  • A settler who was part of a system that filed headright grants by time period. These particular settlers arrived in Texas from 1 October 1837 to 1 January 1840 and received headright land grants from the Republic of Texas.
Class 4 settler
  • A settler who was part of a system that filed headright grants by time period. These particular settlers arrived in Texas from 1 January 1840 to 1 January 1842 and received headright land grants from the Republic of Texas.
Clergy directory
  • A list of the religious leaders in an area or religion.
Clerical register of souls, Norway
  • A census taken by the Lutheran clergy in Norway during the mid-1700s. It lists all members of a family and all persons living with the family. In Norwegian this census is called a sjeleregister.
Clerical survey records, Sweden
  • A roll kept in Sweden that lists all members of a parish, their place of residence, and their knowledge of catechism. The Evangelical Lutheran Church (Svenska Kyrkan) passed a law in 1686 requiring ministers to keep these records. Some records exist for as early as 1700, but most start much later. From about 1820, surveys are available for most parishes. In Swedish the word for clerical survey records is husförslängder.
Clerk
  • An individual charged with keeping records.
Clerk of the court
  • A government official who keeps the records of a court.
Clipping file
  • A file of obituaries and other articles cut out of newspapers.
Coast Guard
  • The branch of a nation's armed forces that is employed to protect and police a nation's coastline. In Great Britain, the Coast Guard was originally formed to prevent smuggling.
Coat of arms
  • An emblem used on shields and other implements of war. Coats of arms, invented in the Holy Land during the Crusades, were introduced to England by Richard I. They were originally painted on the shields of Christian soldiers to identify them. Later, the Crown granted the right to use a coat of arms to an individual to identify him in battle. Then a coat of arms became a reward for performing a heroic deed, making a notable achievement, or holding a prominent position.
Codicil
  • A signed supplement, change, or addition to a will.
Cofradías, Spain
  • An organization in Spain whose membership was restricted to persons of hidalgo status (untitled Spanish nobility). In Spanish, the terms órdenes militares, confradías and confraternidades refer to military orders of chivalry that were established during the Crusades (1100–1450) to provide a fraternal religious life among the Spanish nobility. The orders were dedicated to retaking Spain from the Moors and protecting pilgrimages to the Holy Land. These orders functioned under the direction of the Pope and were independent of other ecclesiastical or civil authority. However, as the orders grew in wealth and power, they came into conflict with the Spanish Crown. By 1587 most of the orders fell under the control of the monarch. The orders became honorary in nature.
Cohabitation certificates
  • A record that states the legal marital status of freed slaves.
Collection Fabien, Canada
  • A collection of Catholic marriage records at the National Archives of Canada. It covers marriages that occurred from 1657 to 1974 in counties surrounding Montréal and on both the Québec and Ontario sides of the Ottawa River Valley.Collection Gagnon, Canada
    Collection Gagnon, Canada: A collection of marriage indexes, church records, and vital records about French Canadians. This collection is at the city library of Montreal.
Collection Rhode Island Family Records
  • A collection of will abstracts and family records created by Martha A. Benns. The collection is available at the Rhode Island Historical Society and the Family History Library™.
Collections, Family History Library Catalog™
  • A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize collections of genealogical or historical information gathered by a person or group and then made available for public research.
Collective biography
  • A group of biographies about a specific group of people, such as merchants, students of an academy, or prominent citizens in an area.
Collective naturalization, USA
  • The process of granting a group of people United States citizenship. This happened in 1803 for residents of the Louisiana Purchase, in 1845 for residents of Texas, in 1868 for African-Americans, in 1898 for residents of Hawaii, and in 1924 for Native Americans. No individual naturalization records were made for people granted collective naturalization.
Collectors' roll
  • A list of property owners and how much tax they paid in a given year.
Colonel
  • Usually the senior staff or administrative officer in the army, air force, or marines who commands a regiment. The British often gave this as an honorary title to members of noble families.
Colonial census
  • A list and description of the population of a colony.
Colonial land records
  • Records kept about land matters during colonial times. These records were kept at the colony level but not at the county level.
Colonial naturalization
  • A naturalization that occurred during a country's colonial period.
Colonial period, Latin America
  • The period of time from 1492 to the 1820s when Spain and Portugal controlled Latin America. During this period, the Spanish and Portuguese exploited native resources, suppressed native cultures, imported slaves from Africa, and established Catholic missions that oversaw the conversion (sometimes forced) of the native peoples to Catholicism. The native-born Spanish controlled the local governments, even pure-blooded Spaniards who had been born in the New World had little influence. The colonial period ended as the various countries in Latin America won their independence and established their own governments.
Colonial records
  • Records kept about a colony or by a colonial government.
Colonial Wars
  • Wars that occurred in what is now the United States between the French, Spanish, and British governments and between the colonists and Native Americans.
Colonization Policy
  • Agreements made by the Mexican government during the 1820s to allow Americans to colonize Texas. Moses Austin was the first American to receive permission to form a colony, but he died before he could establish it. Stephen F. Austin, his son, organized the first colony at Washington-on-the-Bravos. Other colonies soon formed. By 1830 the Mexican government was alarmed at the number of American colonists in Mexico and halted the immigration.
Colonizer
  • A person who moves from an established area to a colony.

Colony of New York: An English colony established in 1664 when Peter Stuyvesant, the Dutch governor of New Netherland, surrendered to the English. The Dutch formally gave the colony of New Netherland to the English. The English renamed it New York, calling it after the Duke of York, who would later become King James II of England.

Colorado Territory
  • A territory established in 1861 that comprised all of the present-day state of Colorado.
Commander
  • An officer in the navy or coast guard who ranks above a lieutenant commander and below a captain. The commander is usually second in command of the ship.
Commercial directory
  • An alphabetical list of craftsmen, tradesmen, merchants, and others in business within a given area.
Commercial on-line service
  • A business such as America On-line and CompuServe that is established to provide computer users with various types of services, including E-mail and access to the Internet.
Commissariat court, Scotland
  • A Scottish court with jurisdiction over executory (probate) and civil matters until 1823. Most of the civil matters concerned debt. Also called commissary court.
Commissary court, Church of England
  • The highest court in a diocese of the Church of England. These courts also had superior jurisdiction over lesser courts in probate matters. Commissary courts are also called episcopal, bishop's, diocesan, exchequer, and consistory courts.
Commissary court, Scotland
  • A Scottish court with jurisdiction over executory (probate) and civil matters until 1823. Most of the civil matters concerned debt. Also called commissariat court.
Commissioned officer
  • A military officer who holds the rank of second lieutenant, ensign, or above.
Commissioners court, Texas
  • A court in Texas with countywide jurisdiction.
Commodore, British
  • An officer in the British navy who commands a squadron.
Common pleas court, West Virginia
  • A court created by special acts of the West Virginia legislature. Its jurisdiction varies, but it may include limited civil and domestic cases and appeals from municipal and justice courts.
Commonwealth, USA
  • A term used in the official names of four states in the United States: Pennsylvania, Kentucky, Massachusetts, and Virginia.
Commune
  • The French word for community.
Community cemetery
  • A cemetery owned by a civil government.

Compact disc: A disc similar to the music and audio discs available in many stores. A compact disc can store large amounts of information and can be read by computers equipped with compact disc drives.

Compact disc catalog
  • The Family History Library Catalog™ on compact disc.
Compact disc index
  • A computerized index to a set of records that is stored on a compact disc.
Compendium
  • A collection or compilation of information gathered from other sources.
Compiled biography
  • A compilation of the histories of people’s lives. The people selected for a compiled biography usually have something in common, such as an occupation, place of origin or residence, or experience in a historical event. Also called a biographical encyclopedia or biographical dictionary.
Compiled record:
  • collection of information that has been gathered and interpreted from many sources.
Compiled service records
  • All of the records concerning people who served in the military. These records are usually indexed.
Compiled source
  • A collection of information that has been gathered and interpreted from many sources.
Complete record
  • A complete transcript of probate cases involving the titles to real property.
Compound surname
  • A surname (last name) that has two parts, such as McKay, MacDouglas, Van Dyke, or DeWess.
Computer bulletin board system
  • A computer service that allows people to enter information that other people can then read or download. Users can also post questions for others to answer, answer questions posted by others, or read questions and answers already on the service. Many bulletin boards focus on a particular topic. Also called a computer message board or computer news group.
Computer chat session
  • A computer resource that allows people to send messages to each other in real time. This may also be called a conference.
Computer interest group
  • A group of people who share a common interest and use computer on-line services to share information, learn about the particular topic, promote projects, or publish newsletters.
Computer lecture session
  • A computer program that allows an individual to conduct a “classroom lecture” through a computer network or on-line service.
Computer message board
  • A computer service that allows people to enter information that other people can then read or download. Users can also post questions for others to answer, answer questions posted by others, or read questions and answers already on the service. Many computer message boards focus on a particular topic. Also called a computer bulletin board system (BBS) or computer news group.
Computer network
  • A group of computers electronically connected to each other so they can share information and programs.
Computer news group
  • A computer service that allows people to enter information that other people can then read or download. Users can also post questions for others to answer, answer questions posted by others, or read questions and answers already on the service. Many news groups focus on a particular topic. Also called a computer bulletin board system (BBS) or computer message board.
Computer number
  • A number used to identify each entry in the Family History Library Catalog™. Using the Computer Number search is the fastest way to find a record in the catalog.
Computer on-line services
  • The various features available to computer users through networks and modems, such as E-mail and Internet access. Computer on-line services usually refer to commercial organizations, such as America On-line or CompuServe, that provide such services for a fee.
Computer record
  • A record that is stored in a computer-readable format.
Computerized phone directory
  • A list of people's names, addresses, and telephone numbers that can be searched by computer.
Comstock Lode
  • A large gold and silver deposit discovered in central Nevada, near Virginia City, in 1859. It attracted many miners from California, and Virginia City became one of the largest, most prosperous cities in the Rocky Mountain West. Mining began to fade in the 1880s, and the population of Nevada declined as a result.
Comte
  • The third highest ranking title in the French peerage. A comte ranks below a marquis (marquess) and above a vicomte (viscount). A comte is equal to a count in other parts of continental Europe and an earl in Great Britain.
Concession, Canada
  • A division of a township in eastern Canada.
Conde
  • The third highest raking title of Spanish nobility. A conde (equivalent in rank to a count or earl) ranks below a marqués (marques or marquis) and above a vizconde (viscount).
Confederacy
  • The southern states that seceded from the United States in 1861. These states were Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia.
Confederate prisoners
  • Men who served in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War and were taken as prisoners of war.
Confederate scrip lands
  • Land grants issued by Texas to Confederate veterans who were permanently disabled in the American Civil War or to widows of soldiers who were killed during the war.
Confirmación
  • A Spanish term meaning confirmation. Also used in the Philippines. The plural is confirmaciones.
Confirmações
  • A Portuguese word for confirmations.
Confirmation record
  • A record created by a church when an individual is confirmed.
Confirmation, general
  • A church rite that allows an individual to become a member of a church.

Confirmation, Latter-day Saint: An ordinance of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in which an individual becomes a member of the Church and receives the gift of the Holy Ghost.

Conflict between Denmark and Sweden (1643-1645)
  • A military action in which Sweden invaded and defeated Denmark and Jutland. In 1645 the Treaty of Christianopel forced Denmark to cede some of its possessions to Sweden.
Confraternidades, Spain
  • An organization in Spain whose membership was restricted to persons of hidalgo status (untitled Spanish nobility). In Spanish, the terms órdenes militares, confradías and confraternidades refer to military orders of chivalry that were established during the Crusades (1100–1450) to provide a fraternal religious life among the Spanish nobility. The orders were dedicated to retaking Spain from the Moors and protecting pilgrimages to the Holy Land. These orders functioned under the direction of the Pope and were independent of other ecclesiastical or civil authority. However, as the orders grew in wealth and power, they came into conflict with the Spanish Crown. By 1587 most of the orders fell under the control of the monarch. The orders became honorary in nature.
Congo
  • A term used in Brazilian Catholic Church registers to describe a person who is from the Congo region of Africa. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
Congregation
  • A group of people who support the same parish or branch of a church or regularly meet together for religious services. The term can also refer to any gathering of people.
Congregationalist Church
  • A group of Protestant churches whose beliefs are based on the teachings of John Calvin. They support the right of individual congregations to rule themselves, including selecting their own ministers, and oppose government interference in religion. Congregationalism developed out of the Separatist movement in Great Britain, where they are also known as Independents. In 1931 the Congregationalist churches in the United States merged with three smaller churches to form the Congregational Christian Churches. In 1957 they merged with the Evangelical and Reformed Churches to form the United Church of Christ. However, several Congregational groups did not join. In 1972 Congregationalist and Presbyterians congregations in England united to form the United Reformed Church. Welsh and Scottish congregations did not join.
Congress lands
  • Land in Ohio that was owned by the United States government and sold by general acts of Congress. Congress lands included land sold to the Ohio Company and John Cleves Symmes. Much of the land was reserved for soldiers who had served in the Revolutionary War and refugees from Canada who had supported the colonies during the war. Much of the reserved land was not claimed, and it reverted back to being Congress land. Most of what is now the state of Ohio was Congress land. The term Congress land can also refer to any federal land disposed of by acts of Congress.
Conscription
  • Mandatory enrollment for military service.
Conscription list
  • A type of military record used in Latin America, translated as listas de quintas or conscripciones. These are lists of new recruits and, in some cases, all males eligible for military service. In many cases, these records are found in town or municipal archives. They can serve as a type of census of all the males who lived in a community at the time the list was compiled.
Conseil Superieur, French Louisiana
  • The judicial arm of government in French Louisiana. It handled all judicial matters in the colony. The administrative arm of government was called the conseil de regie. These two branches often met together, and it is difficult to distinguish them. The conseil superieur is also called the French Superior Council.
Consent papers
  • A document signed by the parents of children who are legally too young to marry to give them permission to marry.
Consistory court, Church of England
  • The highest court in a diocese of the Church of England. These courts also had superior jurisdiction over lesser courts in probate matters. Consistory courts are also called episcopal, commissary, diocesan, exchequer, and bishop's courts.
Contents
  • The information contained in a record.
Continental Line
  • Troops who were part of the regular Revolutionary War army raised by the Continental Congress. They were not part of state militia units.
Continental pedigree
  • A table that lists the name and date and place of birth, marriage, and death for an individual and a specified number of his or her ancestors. This chart is also called an ahnentafel chart.
Contract
  • A legally binding agreement between parties.
Contrat de mariage
  • A French term for marriage contract, a document created to protect the legal rights and property of a couple who are to be married.
Contrato de compra-venta
  • The Spanish term for a contract documenting the purchase and sale of goods.
Cook
  • In the British military, an officer who prepares food. In the United States military, the cook is an enlisted man rather than an officer.
Cook County, Illinois
  • The county in Illinois of which Chicago is a part.
Copulerede
  • A Danish word for marriages.
Copyhold records, Denmark
  • Danish land contracts that document agreements between the landowner and farmers wishing to lease crown-held land. These contracts were made before 1850 and include the name of the former occupant, his reason for leaving the farm, the name and sometimes birthplace of the new leaseholder, the new leaseholder's relationship to the former leaseholder (if any), the date of transfer, and a description of the land. If there was no breach of contract, the landowner could not evict the leaseholder. In Danish these records are called fæsteprotokoller.
Copyright
  • The exclusive legal right to reproduce, publish, and sell an original literary or artistic work that is granted for a specific time to the author or originator.
Corbin Manuscript Collection, Massachusetts
  • A manuscript collection of information about people from central and western Massachusetts. It includes local histories, church records, town records, genealogies, and transcripts of Bible and cemetery records. It is helpful for the years 1650 to 1850.
Cornet, British
  • The fifth-ranking commissioned officer in a British infantry. The cornet carries the colors. The rank is equal with the ensign in the cavalry.
Cornish
  • A member of the ethno-linguistic group which originated in Cornwall. A speaker of the Brythonic Celtic language of Cornwall.
Coroner
  • A public official who inquires into deaths of people who did not die under the care of a physician or people whose deaths may not have been due to natural causes.
Coroner's inquest
  • The records relating to a coroner's examination of a body to determine the cause of death.
Corporation court, Virginia
  • A court formed in 1850 in independent cities, such as Richmond, to handle minor civil and criminal cases and equity, probate, and orphan matters. In 1902, the circuit courts assumed the duties of the corporation courts.
Corrected record of birth
  • A document showing a change or addition to a birth certificate.
Correctional Institutions, Family History Library Catalog™
  • A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize information about jails, prisons, halfway houses, and other correctional institutions.
Correspondence
  • The exchange of written communication, such as a letter and a response.
Council of probate, Rhode Island
  • A probate court in Rhode Island. The council of probate is also known as the general council.
Council of Trent
  • A series of conferences held between 1545 and 1563 in Trent, Italy. The focus of the council was to define Catholic beliefs and counteract the Protestant Reformation. The council also formalized record-keeping practices that were being followed in much of the Catholic world.

Council, Virginia: The legislative body and court of appeals for the colony of Virginia during its earliest period.

Count
  • A title of nobility in continental Europe, equal in rank to a British earl. Generally, a count ranks below a marquess and above a viscount. In German, a count is called a Graf. In Spain, Portugal, and Latin America, a count is called a conde. In France, a count is called a comte.
Counter Reformation
  • A religious movement that occurred during the 1500s and 1600s as the Catholic Church tried to unify its beliefs and stop the spread of Protestantism. It led to a series of wars that occurred when Catholic governments tried to stop the spread of Protestantism in their countries. These wars include civil war in France (1565–1648), rebellion in the Netherlands (1585–1604), conflicts between Spain and England (1585–1604), and the Thirty Years War (1618–1648).
Country of arrival
  • The country to which an immigrant moves.
Country of origin
  • The country from which an individual moved.
County
  • A division within a country, state, or province.
County commissioner
  • An elected official who sits on the council that creates county laws and ordinances.
County commissioner's court, Illinois
  • A court in Illinois with countywide jurisdiction over disputes concerning county roads, turnpikes, canals, taxes, and licenses. These courts have evolved into administrative rather than judicial bodies.
County commissioner's court, Maine
  • A court in Maine with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases. From 1699 to 1831 county commissioner's courts were called courts of general sessions. They were replaced by the district courts in 1961.
County court orders, Kentucky
  • Land grants sold by counties in Kentucky beginning in 1835.
County court, Alabama
  • A court with countywide jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases. These courts have also been called inferior courts, superior courts, chancery courts, intermediate courts, common pleas courts, civil courts, criminal courts, law and equity courts, general sessions courts, and law and juvenile courts.
County court, Arkansas
  • A court with countywide jurisdiction over juvenile cases, taxes, claims, and county expenditures.
County court, Canada
  • A provincial court in Canada that handles certain types of criminal cases and civil cases involving more than a specified amount of money. Also called a midlevel county court or judicial district court. Many provinces no longer use these courts.
County court, Colorado
  • A court with countywide jurisdiction over misdemeanors, preliminary hearings, the issuance of some warrants, some bail matters, minor civil cases, probates, and some appeals.
County court, Connecticut
  • A court with countywide jurisdiction over civil, minor criminal, chancery, and divorce cases. These courts existed from 1666 to 1855.

County court, Florida: A court with countywide jurisdiction over probates, marriages, administration, and guardianships.

County court, general
  • A court with jurisdiction over a county.
County court, Illinois
  • A court with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases. In some counties, the county courts also have jurisdiction over probates.
County court, Kansas
  • A court with countywide jurisdiction over some criminal cases, including traffic violations, and minor civil cases.
County court, Kentucky
  • A court with countywide jurisdiction over criminal and civil cases, bonds, deeds, probates, and juvenile matters. After 1852 most criminal cases were heard by the circuit or quarterly courts.
County court, Maryland
  • A court with countywide jurisdiction over criminal and civil cases. In 1851 the county courts were replaced by circuit courts.
County court, Massachusetts
  • A court in Massachusetts with countywide jurisdiction. County courts are also called quarter courts or inferior quarter courts.
County court, Michigan
  • A court with countywide jurisdiction. Michigan abolished these courts in 1833. Few of the remaining records have genealogical value.
County court, Mississippi
  • A court with countywide jurisdiction over misdemeanors, some law and equity cases, and appeals from other courts.
County court, Nebraska
  • A countywide court with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases and juvenile and probate actions.
County court, New Jersey
  • A court in New Jersey with countywide jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases. County courts replaced the courts of common pleas, oyer and terminer, general quarter sessions, special sessions, and orphan's courts. In 1978 county courts were replaced by the superior courts.
County court, New York
  • A court with countywide jurisdiction over criminal cases, minor equity cases, and some appeals. These are the major trial courts for each county in New York.
County court, North Carolina
  • A court with countywide jurisdiction over civil cases, estate settlements, land entries, military pension declarations, and criminal cases. These courts were abolished in 1868.
County court, North Dakota
  • A court with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases, probates, and guardianships.
County court, Ohio
  • A court in Ohio with countywide jurisdiction over minor criminal cases and civil cases.
County court, Oregon
  • A court with countywide jurisdiction over probate, juvenile cases, and civil cases under $500.
County court, Pennsylvania
  • A court in Pennsylvania with countywide jurisdiction over equity and estate cases, civil cases, and criminal cases (except for capital crimes). The courts also performed many executive duties, such as laying out roads, registering marks and brands, levying taxes, supervising indentured servants, and so forth. The justices of county courts also met as an orphan's court to deal with orphan matters. County courts were used from 1682 to 1722.
County court, South Carolina
  • A court with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases. These courts existed between 1785 to 1798.

County court, Texas: A court with countywide jurisdiction over major criminal cases, civil cases, and naturalizations.

County court, Virginia
  • A court in Virginia with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases and equity, probate, and orphan matters. County courts existed from 1618 to 1902, when they were replaced by circuit courts. Also called monthly courts (1618–1634) and courts of the shire.
County court, Wisconsin
  • A court in Wisconsin with countywide jurisdiction over criminal and civil cases, probates, juvenile matters and dependency and neglect matters. From 1854 to 1913 the county courts handled probate matters but did not have criminal or civil jurisdiction.
County courthouse, archive
  • A building that houses county offices and county records.
County courthouse, court records
  • A building that houses a county-level court of law.
County directory
  • A list of the names and addresses of people living in a county.
County history
  • A written account of the events that took place in a county. County histories often include biographical sketches of county residents.
County justice court, North Dakota
  • A court in North Dakota with jurisdiction in counties that do not have county courts. They have jurisdiction over misdemeanors and civil cases.
County map
  • A map that shows the land in a county.
County probate court, Arizona
  • A court in Arizona with countywide jurisdiction over paying a deceased person's debts and distributing his or her property. Since 1912 the superior courts have handled probates.
County probate court, Utah
  • A court in Utah with countywide jurisdiction over probate actions. These courts were used from 1850 to 1896.
County record office
  • An archive that houses records for a particular county in England, Scotland, and Wales.
County records
  • Records, such as birth, marriage, death, and land records, kept by a county government.
County registrar
  • A county official charged with keeping deed records.
County seat
  • The town that houses a county's governmental offices. Also called a county town.
County surrogate court indexes, New Jersey
  • Indexes to probate records kept by the county surrogate courts in New Jersey.
County surrogate court, New Jersey
  • A court that began handling New Jersey probate cases in 1804.
County town
  • The town that houses a county's governmental offices. Also called a county seat.
Countywide index
  • An index to a group of records covering a single county. For example, a countywide index may cover one county of a state within a federal census.
Court calendar
  • Lists of cases heard by a court. Court calendars may list the names of the plaintiff and defendant, the date the case was heard, the case file number, and all documents related to the case. They are also called dockets.
Court case file
  • A packet or bundle of the loose documents relating to a court case, such as copies of evidence, testimonies, bonds, depositions, correspondence, and petitions.
Court clerk
  • An officer of the court who files pleadings, motions, and judgments and keeps records of court proceedings.
Court decree
  • A record of a court’s decision on a case. Also called a court judgment or court order.
Court directory
  • A list of city officers, government officials, and private residents.
Court executions, New Jersey
  • Recorded actions taken by a New Jersey court of chancery.
Court for trial of Negroes, Pennsylvania
  • A court in Pennsylvania with countywide jurisdiction over African-Americans who were accused of committing crimes. This court existed from 1700 to 1780.
Court judgment
  • A record of a court’s decision on a case. Also called a court decree or court order.
Court minutes
  • Brief daily accounts of all actions taken by a court. Minutes list the names of the plaintiff and defendant and briefly describe the action taken.
Court of appeal, Ohio
  • A court in Ohio with countywide jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases, including equity and divorce cases.
Court of appeals deed book, Kentucky
  • A record of disputes and litigation that occurred over land rights in Kentucky.
Court of appeals, California
  • A statewide court in California that hears cases appealed from lower courts.
Court of appeals, Canada
  • A division of a provincial superior or supreme court in Canada. The court hears appeals of civil and criminal cases from the Trial Division (Court of Queens' Bench) and from lower courts.
Court of appeals, Colorado
  • An intermediate court in Colorado with statewide jurisdiction over appeals from district courts, the Denver Superior Court, probate courts, and juvenile courts.
Court of appeals, Maryland
  • The highest court in Maryland. It has statewide jurisdiction over criminal, civil, and probate appeals.
Court of appeals, Oklahoma
  • An intermediate court in Oklahoma with statewide jurisdiction to hear appeals from lower courts.
Court of arches, England
  • A court that heard appeals from the Prerogative Court of Canterbury.
Court of assistants, Connecticut
  • The main court of jurisdiction in Connecticut for all matters of law, including appeals from town and borough courts. The court of assistants lasted from 1665 to 1711.
Court of assizes, New York
  • The highest provincial court in New York from 1665 to 1683. It was located in New York City and heard civil, criminal, and probate cases.
Court of chancery, New Jersey
  • A court in New Jersey with statewide jurisdiction that gradually received jurisdiction over civil and equity cases, mortgage foreclosures, lis pendens, land partitions, payment of debt, probate suits, lunacy inquisitions, naturalizations, divorces, and child custody. These functions are now handled by the superior courts.
Court of chancery, New York
  • A court in New York with statewide jurisdiction over civil equity matters such as mortgage foreclosures, real property proceedings, sales of estates in dower and curtesy, naturalizations, matrimonial disputes, divorces, guardianships, and child custody. It absorbed the court of probate and had appellate jurisdiction over surrogates' courts. After 1847 equity responsibilities were assigned to the state's supreme court.
Court of chancery, Ontario, Canada
  • A court with jurisdiction over equity cases in Ontario. (Equity cases are court cases in which parties are disputing over a matter that is not a violation of law, and the court is asked to make a fair decision.) This court was established in 1837.
Court of chancery, South Carolina
  • A type of court used in South Carolina from 1671 to the 1790s. It handled land and inheritance matters for the entire colony.
Court of chancery/equity, Pennsylvania
  • A court in Pennsylvania with jurisdiction over equity cases.
Court of civil appeals, Alabama
  • A court in Alabama with statewide jurisdiction over civil cases appealed from lower courts.

Court of common law: A court with jurisdiction over criminal cases.

Court of common pleas, Delaware
  • A court in Delaware with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil suits, minor criminal cases, appeals from lesser courts, adoption cases, and cases to terminate parental rights. Courts of common pleas operated from 1701 to 1831, when the authority of the court of common pleas was given to the superior courts. Before 1792 the courts of common pleas also heard cases now handled by the chancery courts.
Court of common pleas, England
  • One of the four superior courts at Westminster. It heard civil cases between commoners. In 1873 it became the Common Pleas division of the High Court of Justice, which was merged with the Queen's Bench division in 1880.

Court of common pleas, general: A countywide court, usually having civil and criminal jurisdiction.

Court of common pleas, Indiana
  • A court that existed from 1790 to 1817 and from 1853 to 1873. It heard insanity, guardianship, probate, naturalization, equity, criminal, and civil cases.
Court of common pleas, Missouri
  • A court with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases before the 1880s. Not all counties in Missouri had courts of common pleas.
Court of common pleas, New Hampshire
  • A court in New Hampshire with jurisdiction over civil matters from 1769 to 1820 and from 1824 to 1859.
Court of common pleas, New Jersey
  • A court in New Jersey with countywide jurisdiction over civil cases and appeals from the justice and small cause courts.
Court of common pleas, New York
  • A court established in each city or county in New York to handle civil cases such as marriages, naturalizations, name changes, probates, exemptions from military duty, lunacy cases, tavern licenses, insolvency cases, old age assistance, manumissions, the laying of roads, settlements of boundary disputes, and child support and custody. These courts also handled appeals from the justices of the peace. These courts existed from 1691 to 1847, when they were replaced by county courts.
Court of common pleas, Ohio
  • A court in Ohio with districtwide jurisdiction over felonies, marriages, major civil cases, juvenile matters, probates (until 1852), naturalizations (until 1860 and after 1906), chancery matters (until 1900), and divorces (until 1894).
Court of common pleas, Pennsylvania
  • A court in Pennsylvania with countywide jurisdiction over criminal and civil cases including real estate, bankruptcy, tax collection, naturalization, and divorce. The court was created in 1722 and is still used today.
Court of common pleas, Rhode Island
  • A court in Rhode Island with countywide jurisdiction over most criminal and civil matters. These courts were established in 1730 and continue today.
Court of common pleas, South Carolina
  • A court that had statewide jurisdiction over guardianship and civil cases until 1790, when district courts assumed these cases. Courts of common pleas continue to operate today.
Court of common pleas, West Virginia
  • A court established in some counties. The court has limited jurisdiction over civil and domestic cases. It also hears appeals from municipal and justice courts. These courts have also been called criminal courts, intermediate courts, and statutory courts.
Court of criminal appeals, Alabama
  • A court in Alabama with statewide jurisdiction over criminal cases appealed from lower courts.
Court of criminal appeals, Oklahoma
  • A court in Oklahoma that hears appeals of criminal cases from lower courts.
Court of delegates, England
  • A court that heard final appeals from the court of arches until 1832. It was formerly the great court of appeal in all ecclesiastical cases.
Court of equity, South Carolina
  • A court in South Carolina with countywide jurisdiction over property matters. Courts of equity were used from 1791 to 1900.
Court of First Instance, Philippines
  • A court in the Philippines with jurisdiction over land records, wills, etc.
Court of general quarter session, New Hampshire
  • A court in New Hampshire with jurisdiction over civil and criminal matters from 1769 to 1794 and from 1820 to 1824.
Court of general quarter sessions, Delaware
  • A court in Delaware with jurisdiction over all criminal cases except capital crimes. These courts have existed since 1676 and continue to operate today.
Court of general sessions of the peace, New York
  • A court in New York with countywide jurisdiction over criminal cases such as desertions, apprenticeship disputes, bastardy, and other violations of vice and immorality laws. These courts existed from 1665 to 1962, handling probate matters from 1665 to 1683 and then only criminal cases after 1691. Their jurisdiction was transferred to the county court in 1847, except in New York County, where they continued until 1962.
Court of general sessions, Maine
  • A court in Maine with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases. These courts became the county commissioner's courts in 1831 and were replaced by the district courts in 1961.
Court of general sessions, South Carolina
  • A court in South Carolina with statewide jurisdiction over criminal cases. This court was used from 1769 to 1790.
Court of ordinary, Georgia
  • A court with countywide jurisdiction over homesteads, land warrants, licenses, indentures, paupers, voting registers, and marriages. From 1777 to 1798 and after 1852 these courts also had jurisdiction over probates.
Court of oyer and terminer and general gaol delivery, New York
  • A court in New York with countywide jurisdiction over capital crimes such as treason and murder. These courts were used from 1683 to 1895.
Court of oyer and terminer, Delaware
  • A court in Delaware with jurisdiction over capital cases. These courts have existed since 1746 and continue to operate today.
Court of oyer and terminer, New Jersey
  • A court in New Jersey with countywide jurisdiction over all crimes committed within the county except for capital offenses of treason and murder. These courts were abolished in 1947.
Court of probates, New York
  • A court in New York that had jurisdiction over probates from 1778 to 1823. Until 1783, the prerogative court also handled probates in British-occupied New York City, Long Island, and Staten Island.
Court of quarter sessions of the peace, Pennsylvania
  • A court in Pennsylvania with countywide jurisdiction over criminal and other cases. This court was created in 1722 and is still used today.
Court of quarter sessions, England and Ireland
  • A countywide court that met quarterly in England and Ireland to hear criminal cases such as murder, riot, theft, assault, poaching, and so forth. The court did not hear civil cases or criminal cases involving treason or forgery. Starting in 1531 these courts also administered the poor law.
Court of quarter sessions, general
  • A court that meets four times a year.
Court of quarter sessions, Georgia
  • A court used in colonial Georgia. No records exist from these courts.
Court of quarter sessions, Indiana
  • A statewide court with jurisdiction over all criminal and civil cases and probate matters between 1796 and 1813.
Court of quarter sessions, Kentucky
  • A court with jurisdiction over suits involving large amounts of money. This court existed between 1787 and 1802.
Court of quarter sessions, Tennessee
  • A court with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases and estate matters.
Court of Queen's Bench, Canada
  • A division of a provincial superior or supreme court in Canada. The court hears serious civil and criminal cases and has the authority to grant divorces. Also called Court of King's Bench if the reigning monarch is a king and also called Trial Division.
Court of schouts and schepens, New Netherland
  • A court in New Netherland, which later became the state of New York, that had jurisdiction over criminal and civil cases from 1653 to 1674. These courts were replaced by mayor's courts.
Court of Session, Scotland
  • The highest court in Scotland. It handles cases that deal with revenue, including debt to the Crown, and cases that lower courts refer to it.
Court of the Exchequer, England
  • A court in England that originally had charge over keeping the king's accounts and collecting taxes. It began hearing cases between subjects, but this ended in 1290. After 1290 its jurisdiction was limited to cases regarding people who were withholding taxes or who refused to repay debts to the Crown. It later regained its jurisdiction over suits between subjects.
Court of the Exchequer, Scotland
  • A national court in Scotland that dealt with revenue issues, including debt to the Crown. This court existed from 1708 to 1856, when its jurisdiction was transferred to the Court of Session.
Court of the general quarter session, Upper Canada
  • A court with jurisdiction over criminal matters in Upper Canada (Ontario). These courts operated from 1777 to 1868. They met four times a year.
Court of the general quarter sessions of the peace, New Jersey
  • A court in New Jersey with countywide jurisdiction over minor criminal cases, such as desertions, vice, apprenticeship disputes, and bastardy. Before 1704 these courts also had jurisdiction over civil cases. These courts were dissolved in 1947. They are also called county courts.
Court order
  • A record of a court’s decision on a case. Also called a court decree or court judgment.
Court Records, Family History Library Catalog™
  • A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize records, such as dockets and court minutes, kept by courts.
Court records, general
  • Records kept by courts of law.

Court, PERiodical Source Index: A record type used in the Locality and Research Methodologies sections of the PERiodical Source Index (PERSI) to identify articles that contain information about court records.

Courthouse, archive
  • A building that houses a court of law or county offices and county records.
Coûtume de Paris
  • An old French law system, used in the area surrounding Paris in 1664, on which civil law in Québec (Canada) was based.
Covenant, general
  • A legally binding agreement between two or more parties.
Coyote
  • A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian (3/8), African (1/8), and Spanish Caucasian (1/2). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
Creek War (1836-1837)
  • A disturbance in eastern Alabama caused by the impending removal of the Creek tribe of Native Americans according to a treaty signed in 1832.
Creek, Native Americans
  • Tribes of Native Americans who originally lived in Alabama and Georgia. In 1832 they were forced to sign a treaty that required them to move to the Indian Territory, west of the Mississippi River.
Creole
  • A descendant of the original Spanish, Portuguese, or French settlers of the Americas.
Crimean War (1854-1856)
  • A war fought over religious, commercial, and strategic issues between Russia and the combined forces of Great Britain, France, the Ottoman Empire, and Sardinia. Russia was defeated and forced to give up some of the land it had taken from the Ottoman Empire.
Criminal case
  • A proceeding against an individual charged with a violation of law that harmed or could have harmed society. Criminal cases include theft, murder, and drunk driving.
Criminal court
  • A court that hears criminal cases (cases in which a violation of law harmed or could have harmed society). Such cases include theft, murder, and drunk driving.
Criminal court, West Virginia
  • A court created by special acts of the West Virginia legislature. The jurisdiction of these courts varies, but it may include limited civil and domestic cases and appeals from municipal and justice courts.
Criminal jurisdiction
  • The authority of a court to hear criminal cases that involve violations of law in which society was harmed or could have been harmed.
Criminal law
  • The laws in a country that define criminal offences (offences that harm society), set the rules for the arrest and possibly for the trial of those accused of crimes, and define punishment for crimes. Offences range in seriousness from disorderly conduct to murder.
Criollo
  • A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person born in Latin America whose ancestors are all from Spain (a pure-blooded Spaniard born in Latin America).
Crioulo
  • A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person born in Latin America whose ancestors are all from Europe.
Crismas
  • A Spanish word for chrism, or holy oil used in Latin and Greek churches for baptisms, confirmations, and other rites.
Cromwellian period (1649-1660), England
  • The period in English history when Oliver Cromwell ruled England. After the Civil War, Parliament refused to reform the English government as much as Cromwell and his Puritan supporters desired. As a result, Cromwell dismissed Parliament and established himself as lord protector of England. During this time, Cromwell severely limited freedom of the press and enforced strict moral standards. He also strengthened England's navy, brought Scotland and Ireland under English control, and helped in the development of English colonies in North America and Asia.
Cross Index to Selected City Streets and Enumeration Districts
  • An index that lists street addresses and the corresponding enumeration district in the 1910 census for many large cities in the United States.
Crossing the Ocean Index
  • A list of Latter-day Saints who left Great Britain and Europe between 1840 and 1925 to settle in the western United States. Its official name is the European Emigration Card Index.
Crossing the Plains Index
  • An incomplete but valuable list of Latter-day Saint pioneers who crossed the plains before 1869, when the railroad arrived in Utah. Its official name is the Utah Immigration Card Index.
Crown colony land grants
  • Land grants issued by Kings George II and III between 1735 and 1775. North Carolina became a Crown colony in 1729 when seven of the eight Lords Proprietors sold their land to King George II.
Crown grant
  • A land grant issued by the British or French monarch.
Crown land
  • Land that is held (owned) in the name of a monarch.
Crown Lands Administration, Canada
  • A branch of the government in Newfoundland, Canada, that manages public lands.
Crown Lands Registry, Canada
  • A branch of the government in Manitoba, Canada, that houses land records made before 1930.
Crown lease, British
  • A contract that allows a person to use land held by the British Crown in return for money or some other form of recompense.
Cuarteado
  • A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian (1/4), African (1/4), and Spanish Caucasian (1/2). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
Cuarterón
  • A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of African (1/4) and Spanish Caucasian (3/4). Also spelled quarterón. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
Cuarterón de Chino, Peru
  • A term used in Peruvian Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of African and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
Cuarterón de Mestizo, Peru
  • A term used in Peruvian Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of Indian and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
Cuarterón de Mulato, Peru
  • A term used in Peruvian Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of Indian, African, and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
Cuatrero
  • A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian (3/4) and Spanish Caucasian (1/4). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
Cumberland Gap
  • A natural mountain pass in the Appalachian Mountains. It is located near where the boundaries of Tennessee, Kentucky, and Virginia intersect. It was a major passage into lands west of Virginia. During the American Civil War, the Cumberland Gap was held at different times by the Union and the Confederacy.
Cumberland Plateau
  • A highland area that covers parts of eastern Tennessee and Kentucky. The Cumberland Plateau is bounded on the east by the Appalachian Mountain range.
Curation
  • Guardianship over a child who is old enough to marry but not yet 21 years of age.
Curtesy
  • The right a husband had to his deceased wife's real property. The husband received all of his wife's property, providing they had legitimate children who were born alive.
Customs passenger list
  • Passenger lists that masters of ships submitted to United States customs officials when ships arrived in the United States.