C genealogical glossary terms

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*An probate index that is arranged by first letter of the surname only and then by probate date. I may give the place of residence of a testator.
 
*An probate index that is arranged by first letter of the surname only and then by probate date. I may give the place of residence of a testator.
  
California Gold Rush  
+
===== California Gold Rush =====
  
    The movement of large numbers of people to the gold fields in California, especially in 1849.
+
*The movement of large numbers of people to the gold fields in California, especially in 1849.
  
 
===== caligator  =====
 
===== caligator  =====
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*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian (1/2), African (1/4), and Spanish Caucasian (1/4). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
 
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian (1/2), African (1/4), and Spanish Caucasian (1/4). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
  
cameranius  
+
===== cameranius =====
  
    Latin word for "chamberlain, valet, groom."
+
*Latin word for "chamberlain, valet, groom."
  
cameriera  
+
===== cameriera =====
  
    Italian word for "maid, servant girl."
+
*Italian word for "maid, servant girl."
  
cameriere  
+
===== cameriere =====
  
    Italian word for "waiter."
+
*Italian word for "waiter."
  
cameriere di casa  
+
===== cameriere di casa =====
  
    Italian word for "house steward."
+
*Italian word for "house steward."
  
camino  
+
===== camino =====
  
    Spanish word for "road."
+
*Spanish word for "road."
  
campagna  
+
===== campagna =====
  
    Italian word for "countryside, rural."
+
*Italian word for "countryside, rural."
  
campagnuolo, -a  
+
===== campagnuolo, -a =====
  
    Italian word for "countryman, countrywoman."
+
*Italian word for "countryman, countrywoman."
  
campesino (a)  
+
===== campesino (a) =====
  
    Spanish word for "peasant."
+
*Spanish word for "peasant."
  
campo, Portuguese  
+
===== campo, Portuguese =====
  
    Portuguese word for "field, plain."
+
*Portuguese word for "field, plain."
  
campo, Spanish  
+
===== campo, Spanish =====
  
    Spanish word for "field."
+
*Spanish word for "field."
  
camponês (a)  
+
===== camponês (a) =====
  
    Portuguese word for "peasant, small farmer."
+
*Portuguese word for "peasant, small farmer."
  
cana de açúcar  
+
===== cana de açúcar =====
  
    Portuguese word for "sugarcane.
+
*Portuguese word for "sugarcane.
  
 
===== Canada East  =====
 
===== Canada East  =====
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*A railroad that extended across Canada from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. It was completed in 1885 and allowed for more rapid settlement of Canada's interior lands.
 
*A railroad that extended across Canada from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. It was completed in 1885 and allowed for more rapid settlement of Canada's interior lands.
  
cancro  
+
===== cancro =====
  
    Italian word for "cancer."
+
*Italian word for "cancer."
  
cantante  
+
===== cantante =====
  
    Italian word for "singer."
+
*Italian word for "singer."
  
cantatrice  
+
===== cantatrice =====
  
    Italian word for "singer."
+
*Italian word for "singer."
  
 
===== Canton  =====
 
===== Canton  =====
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*The region along the Cape Fear River in North Carolina.
 
*The region along the Cape Fear River in North Carolina.
  
capela  
+
===== capela =====
  
    Portuguese word for "chapel."
+
*Portuguese word for "chapel."
  
capella  
+
===== capella =====
  
    Latin word for "chapel."
+
*Latin word for "chapel."
  
capellanus  
+
===== capellanus =====
  
    Latin word for "chaplain."
+
*Latin word for "chaplain."
  
 
===== Capellanías, military  =====
 
===== Capellanías, military  =====
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*A type of land grant in Latin America. These land grants covered lands that individuals and families ceded to the Catholic Church. Related documents include wills, court records, land titles, and contracts. Information about the individuals and families involved may also be included.
 
*A type of land grant in Latin America. These land grants covered lands that individuals and families ceded to the Catholic Church. Related documents include wills, court records, land titles, and contracts. Information about the individuals and families involved may also be included.
  
capilla  
+
===== capilla =====
  
    Spanish word for "chapel."
+
*Spanish word for "chapel."
  
 
===== Capital case  =====
 
===== Capital case  =====
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*A type of criminal court case in which the defendant could receive the death penalty.
 
*A type of criminal court case in which the defendant could receive the death penalty.
  
Capital, USA  
+
===== Capital, USA =====
  
    A city where the main offices of a government are located.
+
*A city where the main offices of a government are located.
  
capitis  
+
===== capitis =====
  
    Latin word for "head, chief."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "head, chief."<br>
  
capofamiglia  
+
===== capofamiglia =====
  
    Italian word for "family head."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "family head."<br>
  
capostipite  
+
===== capostipite =====
  
    Italian word for "family founder, earliest ancestor."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "family founder, earliest ancestor."<br>
  
cappellaio  
+
===== cappellaio =====
  
    Italian word for "hatter."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "hatter."<br>
  
capt et jurat  
+
===== capt et jurat =====
  
    Latin word for "taken and sworn."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "taken and sworn."<br>
  
 
===== Captain  =====
 
===== Captain  =====
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*An army, marine, or air force officer who commands a military company; also a naval officer who commands a warship.
 
*An army, marine, or air force officer who commands a military company; also a naval officer who commands a warship.
  
Captain  
+
===== Captain =====
  
    An army, marine, or air force officer who commands a military company; also a naval officer who commands a warship.
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; An army, marine, or air force officer who commands a military company; also a naval officer who commands a warship.<br>
  
caput  
+
===== caput =====
  
    Latin word for "head, chief."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "head, chief."<br>
  
cara  
+
===== cara =====
  
    Portuguese and Spanish word for "face."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese and Spanish word for "face."<br>
  
carabiniere  
+
===== carabiniere =====
  
    Italian word for "policeman."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "policeman."<br>
  
carbonaio  
+
===== carbonaio =====
  
    Italian word for "coal dealer."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "coal dealer."<br>
  
carbonarius  
+
===== carbonarius =====
  
    Latin word for "collier, coal miner."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "collier, coal miner."<br>
  
 
===== Card index  =====
 
===== Card index  =====
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*A printed form used to record membership information of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from 1941 to the present. Most wards now use an electronic version of the form. Before the electronic version was used, the forms were separate and were bound in books. When a member moves from a ward, the membership record is returned to Church headquarters and sent to the member’s new ward or branch.
 
*A printed form used to record membership information of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from 1941 to the present. Most wards now use an electronic version of the form. Before the electronic version was used, the forms were separate and were bound in books. When a member moves from a ward, the membership record is returned to Church headquarters and sent to the member’s new ward or branch.
  
carecarius  
+
===== carecarius =====
  
    Latin word for "carter."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "carter."<br>
  
 
===== Carey Act of 1894  =====
 
===== Carey Act of 1894  =====
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*A federal law that provided for the reclamation and homesteading of desert land in public land states. It established new settlements in northern Wyoming.
 
*A federal law that provided for the reclamation and homesteading of desert land in public land states. It established new settlements in northern Wyoming.
  
Cariboo Gold Rush  
+
===== Cariboo Gold Rush =====
  
    A gold mining boom in the Cariboo Mountains of south central British Columbia that lasted from 1860 to 1863.
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; A gold mining boom in the Cariboo Mountains of south central British Columbia that lasted from 1860 to 1863.<br>
  
carnarius  
+
===== carnarius =====
  
    Latin word for "butcher."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "butcher."<br>
  
carnicero  
+
===== carnicero =====
  
    Spanish word for "butcher."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Spanish word for "butcher."<br>
  
carpentarius  
+
===== carpentarius =====
  
    Latin word for "carpenter."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "carpenter."<br>
  
 
===== Carpenter  =====
 
===== Carpenter  =====
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*A person who works with wood; also the officer in the British navy who examined the wooden parts of a ship.
 
*A person who works with wood; also the officer in the British navy who examined the wooden parts of a ship.
  
carpinteiro  
+
===== carpinteiro =====
  
    Portuguese word for "carpenter."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese word for "carpenter."<br>
  
carpintero  
+
===== carpintero =====
  
    Spanish word for "carpenter."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Spanish word for "carpenter."<br>
  
carraio  
+
===== carraio =====
  
    Italian word for "wheelwright."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "wheelwright."<br>
  
carretera  
+
===== carretera =====
  
    Spanish word for "road."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Spanish word for "road."<br>
  
carta  
+
===== carta =====
  
    Latin word for "deed, charter, map."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "deed, charter, map."<br>
  
 
===== Cartas de dote  =====
 
===== Cartas de dote  =====
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*The Spanish term for dowry records.
 
*The Spanish term for dowry records.
  
carte, French  
+
===== carte, French =====
  
    French word for "map."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; French word for "map."<br>
  
carte, Italian  
+
===== carte, Italian =====
  
    Italian word for "maps, charts."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "maps, charts."<br>
  
cartório  
+
===== cartório =====
  
    Portuguese word for "archive."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese word for "archive."<br>
  
casa  
+
===== casa =====
  
    Italian, Portuguese and Spanish word for "house."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian, Portuguese and Spanish word for "house."<br>
  
casado (a)  
+
===== casado (a) =====
  
    Portuguese and Spanish word for "married."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese and Spanish word for "married."<br>
  
casado con (c.c.)  
+
===== casado con (c.c.) =====
  
    Spanish word for "married to."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Spanish word for "married to."<br>
  
casale  
+
===== casale =====
  
    Latin word for "estate, village."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "estate, village."<br>
  
casamento  
+
===== casamento =====
  
    Portuguese word for "marriage."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese word for "marriage."<br>
  
 
===== Casamentos  =====
 
===== Casamentos  =====
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*An identification number assigned to a case file.
 
*An identification number assigned to a case file.
  
casar, casarse  
+
===== casar, casarse =====
  
    Spanish word for "to marry."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Spanish word for "to marry."<br>
  
casar-se  
+
===== casar-se =====
  
    Portuguese word for "to marry."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese word for "to marry."<br>
  
casaro  
+
===== casaro =====
  
    Italian word for "dairy farmer."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "dairy farmer."<br>
  
casatus  
+
===== casatus =====
  
    Latin word for "cottager."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "cottager."<br>
  
Case file number  
+
===== Case file number =====
  
    An identification number assigned to a case file.
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; An identification number assigned to a case file.<br>
  
 
===== Case file, court records  =====
 
===== Case file, court records  =====
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*The collection of records relating to a person's purchase of federal land.
 
*The collection of records relating to a person's purchase of federal land.
  
cassa  
+
===== cassa =====
  
    Italian word for "chest, cash, cashier."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "chest, cash, cashier."<br>
  
cassetta  
+
===== cassetta =====
  
    Italian word for "chest."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "chest."<br>
  
casta  
+
===== casta =====
  
    Spanish word for "caste, racial lineage."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Spanish word for "caste, racial lineage."<br>
  
castaldo  
+
===== castaldo =====
  
    Italian word for "land agent."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "land agent."<br>
  
castello  
+
===== castello =====
  
    Italian word for "castle."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "castle."<br>
  
castelo  
+
===== castelo =====
  
    Portuguese word for "castle."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese word for "castle."<br>
  
castillo  
+
===== castillo =====
  
    Spanish word for "castle."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Spanish word for "castle."<br>
  
 
===== Castizo, Puerto Rico  =====
 
===== Castizo, Puerto Rico  =====
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*A description of items available in a library's or archive's collection. A catalog usually gives you the call number or other information needed to find the item within the collection.
 
*A description of items available in a library's or archive's collection. A catalog usually gives you the call number or other information needed to find the item within the collection.
  
cataster  
+
===== cataster =====
  
    Latin word for "land, property record."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "land, property record."<br>
  
catasto  
+
===== catasto =====
  
    Italian word for "land register."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "land register."<br>
  
catastro  
+
===== catastro =====
  
    Spanish word for "land census."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Spanish word for "land census."<br>
  
catedral  
+
===== catedral =====
  
    Portuguese and Spanish word for "cathedral."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese and Spanish word for "cathedral."<br>
  
 
===== Catholic mission  =====
 
===== Catholic mission  =====
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*A series of laws passed to restore to Roman Catholics in Ireland the rights that had been taken away in the Penal Laws passed between 1695 and 1728.
 
*A series of laws passed to restore to Roman Catholics in Ireland the rights that had been taken away in the Penal Laws passed between 1695 and 1728.
  
catholicus  
+
===== catholicus =====
  
    Latin word for "Catholic."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "Catholic."<br>
  
catholique romaine  
+
===== catholique romaine =====
  
    French word for "Roman Catholic."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; French word for "Roman Catholic."<br>
  
catorce  
+
===== catorce =====
  
    Spanish word for "fourteen."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Spanish word for "fourteen."<br>
  
catorze  
+
===== catorze =====
  
    Portuguese word for "fourteen."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese word for "fourteen."<br>
  
cattolico, -a  
+
===== cattolico, -a =====
  
    Italian word for "Roman Catholic."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "Roman Catholic."<br>
  
católico (a)  
+
===== católico (a) =====
  
    Portuguese and Spanish word for "Catholic."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese and Spanish word for "Catholic."<br>
  
caupo (cauponis)  
+
===== caupo (cauponis) =====
  
    Latin word for "innkeeper."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "innkeeper."<br>
  
causa  
+
===== causa =====
  
    Latin word for "cause, sake, because of." Ex causa means "on account of, for the sake of."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "cause, sake, because of." Ex causa means "on account of, for the sake of."<br>
  
cavalheiro  
+
===== cavalheiro =====
  
    Portuguese word for "gentleman, knight, nobleman."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese word for "gentleman, knight, nobleman."<br>
  
cavaliere  
+
===== cavaliere =====
  
    Italian word for "knight."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "knight."<br>
  
 
<br>  
 
<br>  
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*A warning notice issued by an interested person to a probate court that no action is to be taken in granting a probate without his case being heard.
 
*A warning notice issued by an interested person to a probate court that no action is to be taken in granting a probate without his case being heard.
  
<br> cazador  
+
===== <br> cazador =====
  
    Spanish word for "hunter."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Spanish word for "hunter."<br>
  
caçador  
+
===== caçador =====
  
    Portuguese word for "hunter."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese word for "hunter."<br>
  
caña de azúcar  
+
===== caña de azúcar =====
  
    Spanish word for "sugar cane."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Spanish word for "sugar cane."<br>
  
CC  
+
===== CC =====
  
    Roman numeral for "two-hundred."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Roman numeral for "two-hundred."<br>
  
CCC  
+
===== CCC =====
  
    Roman numeral for "three-hundred."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Roman numeral for "three-hundred."<br>
  
CD  
+
===== CD =====
  
    Roman numeral for "four-hundred."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Roman numeral for "four-hundred."<br>
  
ce  
+
===== ce =====
  
    Italian word for "us."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "us."<br>
  
ce, c'  
+
===== ce, c' =====
  
    French word for "it."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; French word for "it."<br>
  
ce, cet, cette  
+
===== ce, cet, cette =====
  
    French word for "this, that."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; French word for "this, that."<br>
  
cech  
+
===== cech =====
  
    Czech word for "guild."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Czech word for "guild."<br>
  
Ceded  
+
===== Ceded =====
  
    Transfer, give up control. When Spain ceded Florida to the United States, it gave up control of the area.
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Transfer, give up control. When Spain ceded Florida to the United States, it gave up control of the area.<br>
  
cedo  
+
===== cedo =====
  
    Portuguese word for "early."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese word for "early."<br>
  
Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF)  
+
===== Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF) =====
  
    The Canadian army that served in World War I.
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; The Canadian army that served in World War I.<br>
  
ceglarz  
+
===== ceglarz =====
  
    Polish word for "brick maker."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Polish word for "brick maker."<br>
  
cego (a)  
+
===== cego (a) =====
  
    Portuguese word for "blind."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese word for "blind."<br>
  
cejourd'hier  
+
===== cejourd'hier =====
  
    French word for "yesterday."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; French word for "yesterday."<br>
  
cejourd'hui  
+
===== cejourd'hui =====
  
    French word for "today."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; French word for "today."<br>
  
celator  
+
===== celator =====
  
    Latin word for "turner."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "turner."<br>
  
celebrare il matrimonio  
+
===== celebrare il matrimonio =====
  
    Italian word for "solemnize a marriage."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "solemnize a marriage."<br>
  
celebraverunt  
+
===== celebraverunt =====
  
    Latin word for "they celebrated, were married."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "they celebrated, were married."<br>
  
celibe  
+
===== celibe =====
  
    Italian word for "bachelor, bachelorette, single, unmarried."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "bachelor, bachelorette, single, unmarried."<br>
  
celle  
+
===== celle =====
  
    French word for "this one, she."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; French word for "this one, she."<br>
  
celle-ci  
+
===== celle-ci =====
  
    French word for "the latter (f.)."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; French word for "the latter (f.)."<br>
  
celle-là  
+
===== celle-là =====
  
    French word for "the former (f.)."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; French word for "the former (f.)."<br>
  
celui  
+
===== celui =====
  
    French word for "this one, he."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; French word for "this one, he."<br>
  
celui-ci  
+
===== celui-ci =====
  
    French word for "the latter (m.)."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; French word for "the latter (m.)."<br>
  
celui-là  
+
===== celui-là =====
  
    French word for "the former (m.)."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; French word for "the former (m.)."<br>
  
celý  
+
===== celý =====
  
    Czech word for "entire."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Czech word for "entire."<br>
  
cem  
+
===== cem =====
  
    Portuguese word for "one hundred."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese word for "one hundred."<br>
  
cementerio  
+
===== cementerio =====
  
    Spanish word for "cemetery."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Spanish word for "cemetery."<br>
 
+
<br>  
+
  
 
===== Cementerios  =====
 
===== Cementerios  =====
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*An alphabetical list of cemeteries in Indiana. This file is at the Indiana State Library. The Family History Library™ has a microfilm copy.
 
*An alphabetical list of cemeteries in Indiana. This file is at the Indiana State Library. The Family History Library™ has a microfilm copy.
  
cemitério  
+
===== cemitério =====
  
    Portuguese word for "cemetery."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese word for "cemetery."<br>
  
censimento  
+
===== censimento =====
  
    Italian word for "census."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "census."<br>
  
 
===== Censo  =====
 
===== Censo  =====
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*The word used in Spanish and Portuguese for census. The Catholic Church and the government took censuses. Some censuses were taken of military men and their families in outlying areas.
 
*The word used in Spanish and Portuguese for census. The Catholic Church and the government took censuses. Some censuses were taken of military men and their families in outlying areas.
  
Census  
+
===== Census =====
  
    An official count and description of the people living in a country, colony, state, county, township, or city.
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; An official count and description of the people living in a country, colony, state, county, township, or city.<br>
  
Census Birthplace Index, 1881 British Census  
+
===== Census Birthplace Index, 1881 British Census =====
  
    An index to the 1881 census that is arranged alphabetically by surname, then by place of birth, first name, and age in descending order.
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; An index to the 1881 census that is arranged alphabetically by surname, then by place of birth, first name, and age in descending order.<br>
  
Census bundle number  
+
===== Census bundle number, England<br> =====
  
    A number assigned by the Public Record Office in England to each section of the census returns, 1841 to the present. Also called a piece number.
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; A number assigned by the Public Record Office in England to each section of the census returns, 1841 to the present. Also called a piece number.<br>
 
+
<br>  
+
  
 
===== Census district  =====
 
===== Census district  =====
Line 813: Line 809:
 
*In Canada, census districts are voting districts, not counties. Though the census district may have the same name as a county, it may not include the same townships.
 
*In Canada, census districts are voting districts, not counties. Though the census district may have the same name as a county, it may not include the same townships.
  
Census district, British  
+
===== Census district, British =====
  
    A civil boundary created for collecting information about the population of an area. The boundary of a census district was determined by the government and was based on the population in the area. Each district was divided into subdistricts, and each subdistrict was divided into enumeration districts.
+
A civil boundary created for collecting information about the population of an area. The boundary of a census district was determined by the government and was based on the population in the area. Each district was divided into subdistricts, and each subdistrict was divided into enumeration districts.
  
Census district, Scotland  
+
===== Census district, Scotland =====
  
    A geographic boundary created for collecting information about the population of an area. In Scotland, this area is the same as the civil or ecclesiastical boundary.
+
A geographic boundary created for collecting information about the population of an area. In Scotland, this area is the same as the civil or ecclesiastical boundary.
  
Census division, Canada  
+
===== Census division, Canada =====
  
    In Canadian national censuses, the smallest area covered by the census. Canadian provinces are divided into census districts. Districts are divided into subdistricts. Only sometimes are the subdistricts divided into two or more divisions.
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; In Canadian national censuses, the smallest area covered by the census. Canadian provinces are divided into census districts. Districts are divided into subdistricts. Only sometimes are the subdistricts divided into two or more divisions.<br>
  
<br> Census enumeration district, England  
+
===== Census enumeration district, England =====
  
    The geographic area assigned to one census taker, who was known as an enumerator. The size of the enumeration district depended on the number of people living in the area. The enumerator was responsible to collect information about every person in the district on a specific night.
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; The geographic area assigned to one census taker, who was known as an enumerator. The size of the enumeration district depended on the number of people living in the area. The enumerator was responsible to collect information about every person in the district on a specific night. Several enumeration districts make up a section of the census known as a census piece or bundle.<br>
    Several enumeration districts make up a section of the census known as a census piece or bundle.
+
  
Census folio number  
+
===== Census folio number =====
  
    A census folio is a two-sided sheet of paper used for recording the census. The folio number is stamped in the top right corner of the front of the sheet. Folio numbers run consecutively through a section of the census known as a piece or bundle.
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; A census folio is a two-sided sheet of paper used for recording the census. The folio number is stamped in the top right corner of the front of the sheet. Folio numbers run consecutively through a section of the census known as a piece or bundle.<br>
  
 
===== Census index  =====
 
===== Census index  =====
Line 842: Line 837:
 
*A special census taken in 1911 in Arkansas of all living veterans who served in the Confederate Army.
 
*A special census taken in 1911 in Arkansas of all living veterans who served in the Confederate Army.
  
Census page number  
+
===== Census page number =====
  
    A number printed on a page in an enumerator's book. The number appears in the top middle or a top corner of each page. Page numbers run consecutively through one enumeration district only.
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; A number printed on a page in an enumerator's book. The number appears in the top middle or a top corner of each page. Page numbers run consecutively through one enumeration district only.<br>
  
Census piece number  
+
===== Census piece number =====
  
    A number assigned by the Public Record Office in England to each section of the census returns, 1841 to the present. Also called a bundle number.
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; A number assigned by the Public Record Office in England to each section of the census returns, 1841 to the present. Also called a bundle number.<br>
  
 
===== Census Place Index, 1881 British Census  =====
 
===== Census Place Index, 1881 British Census  =====
Line 854: Line 849:
 
*An index to the 1881 British Census that is organized alphabetically by surname then alphabetically by the census place.
 
*An index to the 1881 British Census that is organized alphabetically by surname then alphabetically by the census place.
  
Census Record-As-Enumerated, 1881 British Census  
+
===== Census Record-As-Enumerated, 1881 British Census =====
  
    An index to the 1881 British census that is arranged in the same order as the original census, with individuals listed by the household in which they were enumerated. Use this index after using the Surname Index, Birthplace Index, or Census Place Index.
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; An index to the 1881 British census that is arranged in the same order as the original census, with individuals listed by the household in which they were enumerated. Use this index after using the Surname Index, Birthplace Index, or Census Place Index.<br>
  
 
===== Census schedule  =====
 
===== Census schedule  =====
Line 876: Line 871:
 
Census street index  
 
Census street index  
  
    An alphabetical list of streets appearing in the census record of a geographic area. The index shows the name of the street and a set of reference numbers that are helpful in finding the street in a census record of most large cities.
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; An alphabetical list of streets appearing in the census record of a geographic area. The index shows the name of the street and a set of reference numbers that are helpful in finding the street in a census record of most large cities.<br>
  
Census subdistrict, Canada  
+
===== Census subdistrict, Canada =====
  
    In Canadian national censuses, an area covered by the census. Canadian provinces are divided into census districts. Districts are divided into subdistricts. In some provinces, townships are census subdistricts. A political ward in a city may also be a census subdistrict. Only sometimes are the subdistricts further divided into two or more divisions.
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; In Canadian national censuses, an area covered by the census. Canadian provinces are divided into census districts. Districts are divided into subdistricts. In some provinces, townships are census subdistricts. A political ward in a city may also be a census subdistrict. Only sometimes are the subdistricts further divided into two or more divisions.<br>
  
Census substitutes  
+
===== Census substitutes =====
  
    Records which can be used instead of a census. The substitutes are lists of people in an area, such as tax lists.
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Records which can be used instead of a census. The substitutes are lists of people in an area, such as tax lists.<br>
  
Census Surname Index, 1881 British Census  
+
===== Census Surname Index, 1881 British Census =====
  
    An index to the 1881 British census that is arranged alphabetically by surname, then by first name and age in descending order.
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; An index to the 1881 British census that is arranged alphabetically by surname, then by first name and age in descending order.<br>
  
Census, PERiodical Source Index  
+
===== Census, PERiodical Source Index =====
  
    A record type used in the Locality and Research Methodologies sections of the PERiodical Source Index (PERSI) to identify articles that contain information about census records.
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; A record type used in the Locality and Research Methodologies sections of the PERiodical Source Index (PERSI) to identify articles that contain information about census records.<br>
  
census, Latin and Czech  
+
===== Census, Latin and Czech =====
  
    Latin and Czech word for "census."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin and Czech word for "census."<br>
  
cent  
+
===== cent =====
  
    French word for "hundred."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; French word for "hundred."<br>
  
centenario  
+
===== centenario =====
  
    Spanish word for "centennial."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Spanish word for "centennial."<br>
  
centenarius  
+
===== centenarius =====
  
    Latin word for "a person one hundred years of age."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "a person one hundred years of age."<br>
  
centenário  
+
===== centenário =====
  
    Portuguese word for "centennial."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese word for "centennial."<br>
  
centesimo, -a  
+
===== centesimo, -a =====
  
    Italian word for "hundredth."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "hundredth."<br>
  
centesimus  
+
===== centesimus =====
  
    Latin word for "hundredth."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "hundredth."<br>
  
centesimus primus  
+
===== centesimus primus =====
  
    Latin word for "one-hundred-first."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "one-hundred-first."<br>
  
centesimus quinquagesimus  
+
===== centesimus quinquagesimus =====
  
    Latin word for "one-hundred-fiftieth."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "one-hundred-fiftieth."<br>
  
centième  
+
===== centième =====
  
    French word for "hundredth."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; French word for "hundredth."<br>
  
cento  
+
===== cento =====
  
    Italian and Portuguese word for "one hundred."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian and Portuguese word for "one hundred."<br>
 
+
<br>  
+
  
 
===== Central Bureau of Statistics, Sweden  =====
 
===== Central Bureau of Statistics, Sweden  =====
Line 952: Line 945:
 
*A grouping of Canadian provinces comprising Québec and Ontario.
 
*A grouping of Canadian provinces comprising Québec and Ontario.
  
<br> centum  
+
===== centum =====
  
    Latin word for "hundred."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "hundred."<br>
  
centum quinquaginta  
+
===== centum quinquaginta =====
  
    Latin word for "one-hundred-fifty."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "one-hundred-fifty."<br>
  
centum unus  
+
===== centum unus =====
  
    Latin word for "one-hundred-one."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "one-hundred-one."<br>
  
Century Farm Applications, Iowa  
+
===== Century Farm Applications, Iowa =====
  
    A collection of records gathered by the Iowa American Revolution Bicentennial Commission. These records contain information about farm owners in Iowa whose property had remained in the family for 100 years or longer.
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; A collection of records gathered by the Iowa American Revolution Bicentennial Commission. These records contain information about farm owners in Iowa whose property had remained in the family for 100 years or longer.<br>
  
centésimo  
+
===== centésimo =====
  
    Portuguese and Spanish word for "one-hundredth."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese and Spanish word for "one-hundredth."<br>
  
centésimo primero
+
===== centésimo primero =====
 
+
    Spanish word for "one-hundred-first."
+
 
+
<br>
+
 
+
===== Century Farm Applications, Iowa =====
+
  
*A collection of records gathered by the Iowa American Revolution Bicentennial Commission. These records contain information about farm owners in Iowa whose property had remained in the family for 100 years or longer.
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Spanish word for "one-hundred-first."
  
cerca  
+
===== cerca =====
  
    Portuguese and Spanish word for "near, approximate."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese and Spanish word for "near, approximate."<br>
  
cerdo (cerdonis)  
+
===== cerdo (cerdonis) =====
  
    Latin word for "handworker."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "handworker."<br>
  
cerrajero  
+
===== cerrajero =====
  
    Spanish word for "locksmith."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Spanish word for "locksmith."<br>
  
certidão  
+
===== certidão =====
  
    Portuguese word for "certificate."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese word for "certificate."<br>
  
certificado  
+
===== certificado =====
  
    Spanish word for "certificate."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Spanish word for "certificate."<br>
  
 
===== Certificate of arrival  =====
 
===== Certificate of arrival  =====
Line 1,018: Line 1,005:
 
*A legal document given to immigrants after they have met all immigration requirements and have been sworn in as citizens of the United States. Also called a Certificate of Naturalization and Form 2207.
 
*A legal document given to immigrants after they have met all immigration requirements and have been sworn in as citizens of the United States. Also called a Certificate of Naturalization and Form 2207.
  
certificato  
+
===== certificato =====
  
    Italian word for "certificate."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "certificate."<br>
  
 
===== Certificats  =====
 
===== Certificats  =====
Line 1,026: Line 1,013:
 
*A French term for marriage certificate, a record that documents the date and place of a couple's marriage.
 
*A French term for marriage certificate, a record that documents the date and place of a couple's marriage.
  
certifichiamo  
+
;certifichiamo: Italian word for "we certify."
  
    Italian word for "we certify."
+
;cervecero: Spanish word for "brewer."
  
cervecero
+
;cervejeiro: Portuguese word for "brewer."
  
    Spanish word for "brewer."
+
;cesarski: Polish word for "imperial."
  
cervejeiro
+
;cesarstwo: Polish word for "empire."
  
    Portuguese word for "brewer."
+
;cesta: Czech word for "road."
  
cesarski
+
;cestovní pas: Czech word for "passport."
  
    Polish word for "imperial."
+
;ceux: French word for "those."
  
cesarstwo
+
;confronta (cfr.): Italian word for "compare."
  
    Polish word for "empire."
+
;chalupnik: Polish word for "cottager, poor peasant."
  
cesta
+
;chalupník: Czech word for "cottager, poor peasant."
 
+
    Czech word for "road."
+
 
+
cestovní pas
+
 
+
    Czech word for "passport."
+
 
+
ceux
+
 
+
    French word for "those."
+
 
+
confronta (cfr.)
+
 
+
    Italian word for "compare."
+
 
+
chalupnik
+
 
+
    Polish word for "cottager, poor peasant."
+
 
+
chalupník  
+
 
+
    Czech word for "cottager, poor peasant."
+
  
 
===== Chamizo  =====
 
===== Chamizo  =====
Line 1,122: Line 1,087:
 
*A clergyman in charge of a chapel; also a person who serves in the military as a clergyman. The chaplain is considered an officer.
 
*A clergyman in charge of a chapel; also a person who serves in the military as a clergyman. The chaplain is considered an officer.
  
charbonnier  
+
;charbonnier: French word for "charcoal burner."
  
    French word for "charcoal burner."
+
;charcutier: French word for "pork merchant."
 
+
charcutier  
+
 
+
    French word for "pork merchant."
+
  
 
===== Charles Carroll Gardner's Collections, New Jersey  =====
 
===== Charles Carroll Gardner's Collections, New Jersey  =====
Line 1,142: Line 1,103:
 
*A collection of cemetery records from Connecticut. The collection has cemetery inscriptions from more than 2,000 cemeteries. It also includes notices of deaths and marriages listed in newspapers.
 
*A collection of cemetery records from Connecticut. The collection has cemetery inscriptions from more than 2,000 cemeteries. It also includes notices of deaths and marriages listed in newspapers.
  
charretier  
+
;charretier: French word for "cart or carriage man."
  
    French word for "cart or carriage man."
+
;charron: French word for "cartwright, wheelwright."
  
charron
+
;chartarius: Latin word for "paper miller."
  
    French word for "cartwright, wheelwright."
+
;chasseur: French word for "hunter."
  
chartarius
+
;chaudronnier: French word for "cooper, barrel maker."
  
    Latin word for "paper miller."
+
;chce: Polish and Czech word for "he wants."
  
chasseur
+
;che: Italian word for "which, than, what, who, that, whom."
 
+
    French word for "hunter."
+
 
+
chaudronnier
+
 
+
    French word for "cooper, barrel maker."
+
 
+
chce
+
 
+
    Polish and Czech word for "he wants."
+
 
+
che  
+
 
+
    Italian word for "which, than, what, who, that, whom."
+
  
 
===== Cherokee  =====
 
===== Cherokee  =====
Line 1,190: Line 1,137:
 
*The French term for the highest ranking title in the French gentry (petite noblesse). A chevalier is equivalent to a British knight.
 
*The French term for the highest ranking title in the French gentry (petite noblesse). A chevalier is equivalent to a British knight.
  
Cheyenne Indians  
+
;Cheyenne Indians: A tribe of Native Americans that lived on the western plains in the United States.
  
    A tribe of Native Americans that lived on the western plains in the United States.
+
;chez: French word for "at the home of."
  
chez
+
;chi: Italian word for "who, whom."
 
+
    French word for "at the home of."
+
 
+
chi  
+
 
+
    Italian word for "who, whom."
+
  
 
===== Chicago fire, USA  =====
 
===== Chicago fire, USA  =====
Line 1,210: Line 1,151:
 
*A city in Cook County, Illinois.
 
*A city in Cook County, Illinois.
  
Chicago Road  
+
;Chicago Road: The military highway that ran between Detroit and Fort Dearborn, now Chicago, after the 1820s. It was a major route for settlers moving to the Northwest.
 
+
    The military highway that ran between Detroit and Fort Dearborn, now Chicago, after the 1820s. It was a major route for settlers moving to the Northwest.
+
  
 
===== Chickasaw  =====
 
===== Chickasaw  =====
Line 1,218: Line 1,157:
 
*A tribe of Native Americans who originally lived in northern Mississippi, western Tennessee, and northwestern Alabama. In 1837 they moved to Indian Territory.
 
*A tribe of Native Americans who originally lived in northern Mississippi, western Tennessee, and northwestern Alabama. In 1837 they moved to Indian Territory.
  
chiesa  
+
;chiesa: Italian word for "church."
  
    Italian word for "church."
+
;chiesa ortodossa: Italian word for "Greek Catholic."
  
chiesa ortodossa
+
;chilometro: Italian word for "kilometer."
  
    Italian word for "Greek Catholic."
+
;chimico: Italian word for "chemist."
 
+
chilometro
+
 
+
    Italian word for "kilometer."
+
 
+
chimico  
+
 
+
    Italian word for "chemist."
+
  
 
===== China  =====
 
===== China  =====
Line 1,241: Line 1,172:
  
 
*Pertaining to something or someone from China; also the languages used by the people of China and other countries.
 
*Pertaining to something or someone from China; also the languages used by the people of China and other countries.
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
 
<br>
 
  
 
===== Chino  =====
 
===== Chino  =====
Line 1,252: Line 1,177:
 
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian, African, and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
 
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian, African, and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
  
hirotherarus  
+
;hirotherarus: Latin word for "glover."
  
    Latin word for "glover."
+
;Chirurg: German word for "surgeon."
  
Chirurg
+
;chirurgien: French word for "surgeon."
  
    German word for "surgeon."
+
;chirurgo: Italian word for "surgeon."
  
chirurgien
+
;chirurgus: Latin word for "surgeon."
  
    French word for "surgeon."
+
;chiunque: Italian word for "whoever."
  
chirurgo
+
;chlap: Czech word for "peasant, country fellow."
  
    Italian word for "surgeon."
+
;chlapec: Czech word for "boy."
  
chirurgus
+
;chlop: Polish word for "peasant, country fellow."
  
    Latin word for "surgeon."
+
;chlopiec: Polish word for "boy."
 
+
chiunque
+
 
+
    Italian word for "whoever."
+
 
+
chlap
+
 
+
    Czech word for "peasant, country fellow."
+
 
+
chlapec
+
 
+
    Czech word for "boy."
+
 
+
chlop
+
 
+
    Polish word for "peasant, country fellow."
+
 
+
chlopiec  
+
 
+
    Polish word for "boy."
+
 
+
<br>
+
  
 
===== Choctaw  =====
 
===== Choctaw  =====
Line 1,302: Line 1,205:
 
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
 
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
  
choroba  
+
;choroba: Polish and Czech word for "disease."
 
+
    Polish and Czech word for "disease."
+
 
+
Christening (chr)
+
 
+
    An ordinance performed on a baby by the minister of the local parish in the Church of England, Wales, and Ireland. The child is baptized, given a name, and received into the church.
+
 
+
chramarius
+
 
+
    Latin word for "merchant."
+
  
Christelik
+
;Christening (chr): An ordinance performed on a baby by the minister of the local parish in the Church of England, Wales, and Ireland. The child is baptized, given a name, and received into the church.
  
    Afrikaans word for "Christianlike, religious."
+
;chramarius: Latin word for "merchant."
  
Christen
+
;Christelik: Afrikaans word for "Christianlike, religious."
  
    Afrikaans word for "Christian."
+
;Christen: Afrikaans word for "Christian."
  
 
===== Christen, religious  =====
 
===== Christen, religious  =====
Line 1,332: Line 1,225:
 
Christening records: Records created when an individual is christened (a religious ceremony in which an individual is baptized or an infant is given a name).  
 
Christening records: Records created when an individual is christened (a religious ceremony in which an individual is baptized or an infant is given a name).  
  
Christening records  
+
;Christening records: Records created when an individual is christened (a religious ceremony in which an individual is baptized or an infant is given a name).
 
+
    Records created when an individual is christened (a religious ceremony in which an individual is baptized or an infant is given a name).
+
  
 
===== Christian Church  =====
 
===== Christian Church  =====
Line 1,348: Line 1,239:
 
*A church founded in 1857 in the United States by people who separated from the Dutch Reformed Church (now called the Reformed Church in America). It adopted its current name in 1904. The church follows the teachings of John Calvin and Huldrych Zwingli, maintaining a conservative, orthodox interpretation of doctrine and practices. It used to conduct its services and keep its records in Dutch.
 
*A church founded in 1857 in the United States by people who separated from the Dutch Reformed Church (now called the Reformed Church in America). It adopted its current name in 1904. The church follows the teachings of John Calvin and Huldrych Zwingli, maintaining a conservative, orthodox interpretation of doctrine and practices. It used to conduct its services and keep its records in Dutch.
  
Christmonat  
+
;Christmonat: German word for "December."
  
    German word for "December."
+
;chrzczony: Polish word for "christened."
  
chrzczony
+
;chrzest: Polish word for "christening."
  
    Polish word for "christened."
+
;chrzestna, chrzestny: Polish word for "godparent(s)."
  
chrzest
 
 
    Polish word for "christening."
 
 
chrzestna, chrzestny
 
 
    Polish word for "godparent(s)."
 
 
<br>
 
  
 
===== Church Almanac, Latter-day Saint  =====
 
===== Church Almanac, Latter-day Saint  =====
Line 1,446: Line 1,328:
 
*A lay officer in a parish or district of the Church of England. The churchwarden helps the minister with various administrative duties and represents the parishioners in church matters. Most parishes have two churchwardens, who are elected on Easter Tuesday. Before large parishes were broken down into divisions, they may have had up to four churchwardens to represent various areas of the parish. Also called churchman, churchmaster, church reeve, and kirkmaster.
 
*A lay officer in a parish or district of the Church of England. The churchwarden helps the minister with various administrative duties and represents the parishioners in church matters. Most parishes have two churchwardens, who are elected on Easter Tuesday. Before large parishes were broken down into divisions, they may have had up to four churchwardens to represent various areas of the parish. Also called churchman, churchmaster, church reeve, and kirkmaster.
  
chwilowo  
+
;chwilowo: Polish word for "temporarily."
  
    Polish word for "temporarily."
+
;château: French word for "castle."
  
château
+
;châtelain: French word for "owner of a castle."
  
    French word for "castle."
+
;ci: Italian word for "there, us, to us."
  
châtelain
+
;CI: Roman numeral for "one-hundred-one."
  
    French word for "owner of a castle."
+
;ci-dessous: French word for "below here."
  
ci  
+
;ci-dessus: French word for "above here."
  
    Italian word for "there, us, to us."
+
;ciabattino: Italian word for "cobbler."
  
CI
+
;cidade: Portuguese word for "city."
  
    Roman numeral for "one-hundred-one."
+
;cidadão (ã): Portuguese word for "citizen."
  
ci-dessous
+
;ciego (a):Spanish word for "blind."
  
    French word for "below here."
+
;ciento: Spanish word for "one hundred."
  
ci-dessus
+
;ciento uno: Spanish word for "one hundred one."
  
    French word for "above here."
+
;cigány: Hungarian word for "gypsy."
  
ciabattino
+
;cikán: Czech word for "gypsy."
  
    Italian word for "cobbler."
+
;Cimarrón: A term used in Mexican and Guatemalan Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of Indian (1/4), African (1/2), and Spanish Caucasian (1/4). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
  
cidade
+
;cimeterium: Latin word for "cemetery."
  
    Portuguese word for "city."
+
;cimetière: French word for "cemetery."
  
cidadão (ã)
+
;cimitero: Italian word for "cemetery."
  
    Portuguese word for "citizen."
+
;cinco: Portuguese and Spanish word for "five."
  
ciego (a)
+
;cincuenta: Spanish word for "fifty."
  
    Spanish word for "blind."
+
;cingarus: Latin word for "gypsy."
  
ciento
+
;cinq: French word for "five."
  
    Spanish word for "one hundred."
+
;cinquanta: Italian word for "fifty."
  
ciento uno
+
;cinquante: French word for "fifty."
  
    Spanish word for "one hundred one."
+
;cinquantesimo, -a: Italian word for "fiftieth."
  
cigány
+
;cinquantième: French word for "fiftieth."
  
    Hungarian word for "gypsy."
+
;cinque: Italian word for "five."
  
cikán
+
;cinquième: French word for "fifth."
  
    Czech word for "gypsy."
+
;cinqüenta: Portuguese word for "fifty."
  
<br>
+
;cinterem: Hungarian word for "burial ground."
  
===== Cimarrón  =====
+
;ciocia (ciotka): Polish word for "aunt."
  
*A term used in Mexican and Guatemalan Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of Indian (1/4), African (1/2), and Spanish Caucasian (1/4). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
+
;cioè: Italian word for "that is, namely."
  
cimeterium
+
;cipész: Hungarian word for "shoemaker."
  
    Latin word for "cemetery."
+
;circa, Danish: Danish word for "approximately."
  
cimetière
+
;circa, German (ca.): German word for "about."
  
    French word for "cemetery."
+
;circa, Italian: Italian word for "about, approximately."
  
cimitero
+
;circa, Latin: Latin word for "about, around, round about."
  
    Italian word for "cemetery."
+
;circa, Swedish ((ca.) (Latin)): Swedish word for "about, approximately."
  
cinco
+
;circiter: Latin word for "about, approximately."
 
+
    Portuguese and Spanish word for "five."
+
 
+
cincuenta
+
 
+
    Spanish word for "fifty."
+
 
+
cingarus
+
 
+
    Latin word for "gypsy."
+
 
+
cinq
+
 
+
    French word for "five."
+
 
+
cinquanta
+
 
+
    Italian word for "fifty."
+
 
+
cinquante
+
 
+
    French word for "fifty."
+
 
+
cinquantesimo, -a
+
 
+
    Italian word for "fiftieth."
+
 
+
cinquantième
+
 
+
    French word for "fiftieth."
+
 
+
cinque
+
 
+
    Italian word for "five."
+
 
+
cinquième
+
 
+
    French word for "fifth."
+
 
+
cinqüenta
+
 
+
    Portuguese word for "fifty."
+
 
+
cinterem
+
 
+
    Hungarian word for "burial ground."
+
 
+
ciocia (ciotka)
+
 
+
    Polish word for "aunt."
+
 
+
cioè
+
 
+
    Italian word for "that is, namely."
+
 
+
cipész
+
 
+
    Hungarian word for "shoemaker."
+
 
+
circa, Danish
+
 
+
    Danish word for "approximately."
+
 
+
circa, German (ca.)
+
 
+
    German word for "about."
+
 
+
circa, Italian
+
 
+
    Italian word for "about, approximately."
+
 
+
circa, Latin
+
 
+
    Latin word for "about, around, round about."
+
 
+
circa, Swedish ((ca.) (Latin))
+
 
+
    Swedish word for "about, approximately."
+
 
+
circiter  
+
 
+
    Latin word for "about, approximately."
+
 
+
<br>
+
  
 
===== Circuit court guardian docket  =====
 
===== Circuit court guardian docket  =====
Line 1,654: Line 1,452:
 
*A book containing information about Jewish circumcisions. They include the Hebrew given name of the child, the date of circumcision in the Hebrew calendar, and the father's Hebrew given name. Also called Mohel books.
 
*A book containing information about Jewish circumcisions. They include the Hebrew given name of the child, the date of circumcision in the Hebrew calendar, and the father's Hebrew given name. Also called Mohel books.
  
<br> cirka  
+
;cirka: Norwegian word for "approximately."
 
+
    Norwegian word for "approximately."
+
 
   
 
   
  
Line 1,675: Line 1,471:
 
*A book used to record the names of people who had received the rights to citizenship. These books were frequently kept in Germany, where they were called Bürgerbücher or Bürgerlisten.
 
*A book used to record the names of people who had received the rights to citizenship. These books were frequently kept in Germany, where they were called Bürgerbücher or Bürgerlisten.
  
Citizenship record  
+
;Citizenship record: Citizenship records document the process of a person becoming a member of a country.
  
    Citizenship records document the process of a person becoming a member of a country.
+
:The records may give the name, age, country of birth, ethnic background, date and port of arrival, name of the ship, previous residences, or current address. Each of the various types of records created during the citizenship process can give different details about the person.
  
    The records may give the name, age, country of birth, ethnic background, date and port of arrival, name of the ship, previous residences, or current address. Each of the various types of records created during the citizenship process can give different details about the person.
+
:In the United States, records for earlier years usually contain less information than those after 1906, when the names, birth dates, and birth places of the spouse and children are given.
  
    In the United States, records for earlier years usually contain less information than those after 1906, when the names, birth dates, and birth places of the spouse and children are given.
+
:Citizenship records are found in town, county, state, and federal court records.
  
    Citizenship records are found in town, county, state, and federal court records.
+
;citoyen(ne): French word for "citizen."
  
citoyen(ne)
+
;cittadinanze: Italian word for "citizenship."
  
    French word for "citizen."
+
;cittadino, -a: Italian word for "citizen."
  
cittadinanze
+
;città: Italian word for "city, town."
  
    Italian word for "citizenship."
+
;City: An inhabited place that has more people than a town or village. Different countries have different requirements for what is considered a city. In some countries, for example, a city must be an incorporated entity. In others, it must have a charter from the government.
 
+
cittadino, -a
+
 
+
    Italian word for "citizen."
+
 
+
città
+
 
+
    Italian word for "city, town."
+
 
+
City  
+
 
+
    An inhabited place that has more people than a town or village. Different countries have different requirements for what is considered a city. In some countries, for example, a city must be an incorporated entity. In others, it must have a charter from the government.
+
 
+
<br>
+
  
 
===== City census  =====
 
===== City census  =====
Line 1,735: Line 1,517:
 
*Records, such as those for births and deaths, kept at a city level.
 
*Records, such as those for births and deaths, kept at a city level.
  
ciudad  
+
;ciudad: Spanish word for "city."
  
    Spanish word for "city."
+
;ciudadano (a): Spanish word for "citizen."
  
ciudadano (a)
+
;Civil authorities: Authorities in charge of a country or other non-church unit.
 
+
    Spanish word for "citizen."
+
 
+
Civil authorities  
+
 
+
    Authorities in charge of a country or other non-church unit.
+
 
+
<br>
+
  
 
===== Civil case  =====
 
===== Civil case  =====
Line 1,765: Line 1,539:
 
*An area covered by a Danish court. In Danish they are called herred and birke.
 
*An area covered by a Danish court. In Danish they are called herred and birke.
  
Civil division  
+
;Civil division: The part of a governmental unit which oversees noncriminal matters.
 
+
    The part of a governmental unit which oversees noncriminal matters.
+
  
 
===== Civil government  =====
 
===== Civil government  =====
Line 1,785: Line 1,557:
 
*An administrative division of a county in Ireland. Before the Reformation, the civil parish was an ecclesiastical division.
 
*An administrative division of a county in Ireland. Before the Reformation, the civil parish was an ecclesiastical division.
  
<br>
+
;Civil Registration District: The geographic area of a country in which the birth, marriage, divorce, and death records of the citizens are kept. In the United States, civil registration is called vital records.
 
+
Civil Registration District  
+
 
+
    The geographic area of a country in which the birth, marriage, divorce, and death records of the citizens are kept. In the United States, civil registration is called vital records.
+
  
 
===== Civil registration office  =====
 
===== Civil registration office  =====
Line 1,815: Line 1,583:
 
*A type of war in which two or more factions within the same country are at war with each other.
 
*A type of war in which two or more factions within the same country are at war with each other.
  
civilregistret  
+
;civilregistret
 +
*Swedish word for "civil registrar."
  
    Swedish word for "civil registrar."
+
;civis
 +
*Latin word for "citizen."
  
civis
+
;cizozemský
 +
*Czech word for "foreign."
  
    Latin word for "citizen."
+
;cizí
 +
*Czech word for "foreign, strange."
  
cizozemský
+
;ciò
 +
*Italian word for "that."
  
    Czech word for "foreign."
+
;CL
 
+
*Roman numeral for "one-hundred-fifty."
cizí
+
 
+
    Czech word for "foreign, strange."
+
 
+
ciò
+
 
+
    Italian word for "that."
+
 
+
CL  
+
 
+
    Roman numeral for "one-hundred-fifty."
+
 
+
<br>
+
  
 
===== Claim  =====
 
===== Claim  =====
Line 1,873: Line 1,633:
 
*A settler who was part of a system that filed headright grants by time period. These particular settlers arrived in Texas from 1 January 1840 to 1 January 1842 and received headright land grants from the Republic of Texas.
 
*A settler who was part of a system that filed headright grants by time period. These particular settlers arrived in Texas from 1 January 1840 to 1 January 1842 and received headright land grants from the Republic of Texas.
  
clausit  
+
;clausit: Latin word for "he/she finished, closed." Diem clausit extremem means "(died) he/she finished the last day."
  
    Latin word for "he/she finished, closed." Diem clausit extremem means "(died) he/she finished the last day."
+
;claustrarius: Latin word for "locksmith."
  
claustrarius
+
;clausum:Latin word for "closed, finished."
 
+
    Latin word for "locksmith."
+
 
+
clausum  
+
 
+
    Latin word for "closed, finished."
+
  
 
===== Clergy directory  =====
 
===== Clergy directory  =====
Line 1,889: Line 1,643:
 
*A list of the religious leaders in an area or religion.
 
*A list of the religious leaders in an area or religion.
  
clergé  
+
;clergé: French word for "clergymen."
 
+
    French word for "clergymen."
+
  
 
===== Clerical register of souls, Norway  =====
 
===== Clerical register of souls, Norway  =====
Line 1,901: Line 1,653:
 
*A roll kept in Sweden that lists all members of a parish, their place of residence, and their knowledge of catechism. The Evangelical Lutheran Church (Svenska Kyrkan) passed a law in 1686 requiring ministers to keep these records. Some records exist for as early as 1700, but most start much later. From about 1820, surveys are available for most parishes. In Swedish the word for clerical survey records is husförslängder.
 
*A roll kept in Sweden that lists all members of a parish, their place of residence, and their knowledge of catechism. The Evangelical Lutheran Church (Svenska Kyrkan) passed a law in 1686 requiring ministers to keep these records. Some records exist for as early as 1700, but most start much later. From about 1820, surveys are available for most parishes. In Swedish the word for clerical survey records is husförslängder.
  
clericus  
+
;clericus: Latin word for "clergyman."
 
+
    Latin word for "clergyman."
+
  
 
===== Clerk  =====
 
===== Clerk  =====
Line 1,913: Line 1,663:
 
*A government official who keeps the records of a court.
 
*A government official who keeps the records of a court.
  
<br> clero  
+
;clero: Portuguese word for "clergy."
 
+
    Portuguese word for "clergy."
+
  
 
===== Clipping file  =====
 
===== Clipping file  =====
Line 1,921: Line 1,669:
 
*A file of obituaries and other articles cut out of newspapers.
 
*A file of obituaries and other articles cut out of newspapers.
  
clostrarius  
+
;clostrarius: Latin word for "locksmith."
  
    Latin word for "locksmith."
+
;clérigo: Portuguese and Spanish word for "clergyman."
  
clérigo
+
;CM: Roman numeral for "nine-hundred."
  
    Portuguese and Spanish word for "clergyman."
+
;cmentarz: Polish word for "cemetery, churchyard."
  
CM
+
;co: Polish and Czech word for "what."
 
+
    Roman numeral for "nine-hundred."
+
 
+
cmentarz
+
 
+
    Polish word for "cemetery, churchyard."
+
 
+
co  
+
 
+
    Polish and Czech word for "what."
+
  
 
===== Coast Guard  =====
 
===== Coast Guard  =====
Line 1,949: Line 1,687:
 
*An emblem used on shields and other implements of war. Coats of arms, invented in the Holy Land during the Crusades, were introduced to England by Richard I. They were originally painted on the shields of Christian soldiers to identify them. Later, the Crown granted the right to use a coat of arms to an individual to identify him in battle. Then a coat of arms became a reward for performing a heroic deed, making a notable achievement, or holding a prominent position.
 
*An emblem used on shields and other implements of war. Coats of arms, invented in the Holy Land during the Crusades, were introduced to England by Richard I. They were originally painted on the shields of Christian soldiers to identify them. Later, the Crown granted the right to use a coat of arms to an individual to identify him in battle. Then a coat of arms became a reward for performing a heroic deed, making a notable achievement, or holding a prominent position.
  
cocchiere  
+
;cocchiere: Italian word for "coachman."
 
+
    Italian word for "coachman."
+
  
 
===== Codicil  =====
 
===== Codicil  =====
Line 1,957: Line 1,693:
 
*A signed supplement, change, or addition to a will.
 
*A signed supplement, change, or addition to a will.
  
<br> oelebs  
+
;oelebs: Latin word for "bachelor, single man."
  
    Latin word for "bachelor, single man."
+
;coemeterium: Latin word for "cemetery."
  
coemeterium
+
;Coextensive (District of Columbia): Having the same boundaries. Washington is coextensive with the District of Columbia which means that the City of Washington occupies the same space and has the same boundaries as the District of Columbia.
  
    Latin word for "cemetery."
+
;cofradía: Spanish word for "religious brotherhood, guild."
 
+
Coextensive (District of Columbia)
+
 
+
    Having the same boundaries. Washington is coextensive with the District of Columbia which means that the City of Washington occupies the same space and has the same boundaries as the District of Columbia.
+
 
+
cofradía  
+
 
+
    Spanish word for "religious brotherhood, guild."
+
 
+
<br>
+
  
 
===== Cofradías, Spain  =====
 
===== Cofradías, Spain  =====
Line 1,979: Line 1,705:
 
*An organization in Spain whose membership was restricted to persons of hidalgo status (untitled Spanish nobility). In Spanish, the terms órdenes militares, confradías and confraternidades refer to military orders of chivalry that were established during the Crusades (1100–1450) to provide a fraternal religious life among the Spanish nobility. The orders were dedicated to retaking Spain from the Moors and protecting pilgrimages to the Holy Land. These orders functioned under the direction of the Pope and were independent of other ecclesiastical or civil authority. However, as the orders grew in wealth and power, they came into conflict with the Spanish Crown. By 1587 most of the orders fell under the control of the monarch. The orders became honorary in nature.
 
*An organization in Spain whose membership was restricted to persons of hidalgo status (untitled Spanish nobility). In Spanish, the terms órdenes militares, confradías and confraternidades refer to military orders of chivalry that were established during the Crusades (1100–1450) to provide a fraternal religious life among the Spanish nobility. The orders were dedicated to retaking Spain from the Moors and protecting pilgrimages to the Holy Land. These orders functioned under the direction of the Pope and were independent of other ecclesiastical or civil authority. However, as the orders grew in wealth and power, they came into conflict with the Spanish Crown. By 1587 most of the orders fell under the control of the monarch. The orders became honorary in nature.
  
cognationis  
+
;cognationis: Latin word for "blood relationship."
  
    Latin word for "blood relationship."
+
;cognato, -a: Italian word for "brother-in-law, sister-in-law."
  
cognato, -a
+
;cognome, -i: Italian word for "surname(s)."
  
    Italian word for "brother-in-law, sister-in-law."
+
;cognomen: Latin word for "name, family name, surname."
 
+
cognome, -i
+
 
+
    Italian word for "surname(s)."
+
 
+
cognomen  
+
 
+
    Latin word for "name, family name, surname."
+
 
+
<br>
+
  
 
===== Cohabitation certificates  =====
 
===== Cohabitation certificates  =====
Line 2,001: Line 1,717:
 
*A record that states the legal marital status of freed slaves.
 
*A record that states the legal marital status of freed slaves.
  
<br> cojo (a)
+
;cojo: Spanish word for "lame."
  
    Spanish word for "lame."
+
;col consenso: Italian word for "with the consent."
  
col consenso
+
;colera: Italian word for "cholera."
  
    Italian word for "with the consent."
+
;colheita: Portuguese word for "harvest."
  
colera
+
;colina: Portuguese and Spanish word for "hill."
  
    Italian word for "cholera."
+
;Collaboration Lists: A feature on the FamilySearch Internet Genealogy Service that allows people to type in information that other people can then read or download. Users can also post questions for others to answer, answer questions posted by others, or read questions and answers already on the service. Each collaboration list focuses on a particular place, surname, or topic. Also called a computer bulletin board system (BBS) or computer message board.
  
colheita
+
;Collateral (genealogy): A member of a family but not in the direct line, such as an aunt, uncle, or cousin.
 
+
    Portuguese word for "harvest."
+
 
+
colina
+
 
+
    Portuguese and Spanish word for "hill."
+
 
+
Collaboration Lists
+
 
+
    A feature on the FamilySearch Internet Genealogy Service that allows people to type in information that other people can then read or download. Users can also post questions for others to answer, answer questions posted by others, or read questions and answers already on the service. Each collaboration list focuses on a particular place, surname, or topic. Also called a computer bulletin board system (BBS) or computer message board.
+
 
+
Collateral (genealogy)  
+
 
+
    A member of a family but not in the direct line, such as an aunt, uncle, or cousin.
+
  
 
===== Collection Fabien, Canada  =====
 
===== Collection Fabien, Canada  =====
Line 2,033: Line 1,735:
 
*A collection of Catholic marriage records at the National Archives of Canada. It covers marriages that occurred from 1657 to 1974 in counties surrounding Montréal and on both the Québec and Ontario sides of the Ottawa River Valley.Collection Gagnon, Canada<br>Collection Gagnon, Canada: A collection of marriage indexes, church records, and vital records about French Canadians. This collection is at the city library of Montreal.
 
*A collection of Catholic marriage records at the National Archives of Canada. It covers marriages that occurred from 1657 to 1974 in counties surrounding Montréal and on both the Québec and Ontario sides of the Ottawa River Valley.Collection Gagnon, Canada<br>Collection Gagnon, Canada: A collection of marriage indexes, church records, and vital records about French Canadians. This collection is at the city library of Montreal.
  
Collection Gagnon, Canada  
+
;Collection Gagnon, Canada: A collection of marriage indexes, church records, and vital records about French Canadians. This collection is at the city library of Montreal.
 
+
    A collection of marriage indexes, church records, and vital records about French Canadians. This collection is at the city library of Montreal.
+
 
+
<br>
+
  
 
===== Collection Rhode Island Family Records  =====
 
===== Collection Rhode Island Family Records  =====
Line 2,059: Line 1,757:
 
*A list of property owners and how much tax they paid in a given year.
 
*A list of property owners and how much tax they paid in a given year.
  
collina  
+
;collina: Italian word for "hill."
 
+
    Italian word for "hill."
+
 
+
colline
+
 
+
    French word for "hill."
+
  
collis
+
;colline: French word for "hill."
  
    Latin word for "hill."
+
;collis: Latin word for "hill."
  
 
===== Colonel  =====
 
===== Colonel  =====
Line 2,075: Line 1,767:
 
*Usually the senior staff or administrative officer in the army, air force, or marines who commands a regiment. The British often gave this as an honorary title to members of noble families.
 
*Usually the senior staff or administrative officer in the army, air force, or marines who commands a regiment. The British often gave this as an honorary title to members of noble families.
  
<br>
+
;colonia: Spanish word for "colony."
 
+
<br>
+
 
+
<br>
+
 
+
<br> colonia  
+
 
+
    Spanish word for "colony."
+
 
+
<br>
+
  
 
===== Colonial census  =====
 
===== Colonial census  =====
Line 2,091: Line 1,773:
 
*A list and description of the population of a colony.
 
*A list and description of the population of a colony.
  
Colonial government  
+
;Colonial government: The government of any of the Thirteen Colonies, such as Delaware, before it became a state of the United States.
 
+
    The government of any of the Thirteen Colonies, such as Delaware, before it became a state of the United States.
+
 
+
<br>
+
  
 
===== Colonial land records  =====
 
===== Colonial land records  =====
Line 2,101: Line 1,779:
 
*Records kept about land matters during colonial times. These records were kept at the colony level but not at the county level.
 
*Records kept about land matters during colonial times. These records were kept at the colony level but not at the county level.
  
Colonial legislature  
+
;Colonial legislature: A legislature (law-making group of people) that existed while an area was a colony of some "mother" country.
 
+
    A legislature (law-making group of people) that existed while an area was a colony of some "mother" country.
+
  
 
===== Colonial naturalization  =====
 
===== Colonial naturalization  =====
Line 2,121: Line 1,797:
 
*Wars that occurred in what is now the United States between the French, Spanish, and British governments and between the colonists and Native Americans.
 
*Wars that occurred in what is now the United States between the French, Spanish, and British governments and between the colonists and Native Americans.
  
Colonist  
+
;Colonist: German word for "settler, tenant farmer."
 
+
    German word for "settler, tenant farmer."
+
 
+
<br>
+
  
 
===== Colonization Policy  =====
 
===== Colonization Policy  =====
Line 2,137: Line 1,809:
 
Colony of New York: An English colony established in 1664 when Peter Stuyvesant, the Dutch governor of New Netherland, surrendered to the English. The Dutch formally gave the colony of New Netherland to the English. The English renamed it New York, calling it after the Duke of York, who would later become King James II of England.  
 
Colony of New York: An English colony established in 1664 when Peter Stuyvesant, the Dutch governor of New Netherland, surrendered to the English. The Dutch formally gave the colony of New Netherland to the English. The English renamed it New York, calling it after the Duke of York, who would later become King James II of England.  
  
<br> colono  
+
;colono: Italian word for "farmer, colonist."
  
    Italian word for "farmer, colonist."
+
;colonus: Latin word for "colonist, settler, resident, farmer, peasant."
  
colonus
+
;Colony of New York: An English colony established in 1664 when Peter Stuyvesant, the Dutch governor of New Netherland, surrendered to the English. The Dutch formally gave the colony of New Netherland to the English. The English renamed it New York, calling it after the Duke of York, who would later become King James II of England.
  
    Latin word for "colonist, settler, resident, farmer, peasant."
+
;colorado (a): Spanish word for "red."
 
+
Colony of New York
+
 
+
    An English colony established in 1664 when Peter Stuyvesant, the Dutch governor of New Netherland, surrendered to the English. The Dutch formally gave the colony of New Netherland to the English. The English renamed it New York, calling it after the Duke of York, who would later become King James II of England.
+
 
+
colorado (a)  
+
 
+
    Spanish word for "red."
+
 
+
<br>
+
  
 
===== Colorado Territory  =====
 
===== Colorado Territory  =====
Line 2,159: Line 1,821:
 
*A territory established in 1861 that comprised all of the present-day state of Colorado.
 
*A territory established in 1861 that comprised all of the present-day state of Colorado.
  
colorator  
+
;colorator: Latin word for "dyer."
  
    Latin word for "dyer."
+
;coltivatore: Italian word for "cultivator, farmer."
  
coltivatore
+
;colônia: Portuguese word for "colony."
  
    Italian word for "cultivator, farmer."
+
;come: Italian word for "as, like, how."
  
colônia
+
;come sopra: Italian word for "as above."
  
    Portuguese word for "colony."
+
;comerciante: Portuguese and Spanish word for "merchant."
  
come
+
;comercio : Spanish word for "business, commerce."
  
    Italian word for "as, like, how."
+
;comes: Latin word for "count."
  
come sopra
+
;comitas : Latin word for "county."
  
    Italian word for "as above."
+
;comitatus : Latin word for "county."
  
comerciante
+
;comitissa : Latin word for "countess."
 
+
    Portuguese and Spanish word for "merchant."
+
 
+
comercio
+
 
+
    Spanish word for "business, commerce."
+
 
+
comes
+
 
+
    Latin word for "count."
+
 
+
comitas
+
 
+
    Latin word for "county."
+
 
+
comitatus
+
 
+
    Latin word for "county."
+
 
+
comitissa  
+
 
+
    Latin word for "countess."
+
 
+
<br>
+
  
 
===== Commander  =====
 
===== Commander  =====
Line 2,209: Line 1,847:
 
*An officer in the navy or coast guard who ranks above a lieutenant commander and below a captain. The commander is usually second in command of the ship.
 
*An officer in the navy or coast guard who ranks above a lieutenant commander and below a captain. The commander is usually second in command of the ship.
  
commater  
+
;commater: Latin word for "godmother."
 
+
    Latin word for "godmother."
+
  
 
===== Commercial directory  =====
 
===== Commercial directory  =====
Line 2,221: Line 1,857:
 
*A business such as America On-line and CompuServe that is established to provide computer users with various types of services, including E-mail and access to the Internet.
 
*A business such as America On-line and CompuServe that is established to provide computer users with various types of services, including E-mail and access to the Internet.
  
commerciante di vino  
+
;commerciante di vino: Italian word for "wine merchant."
 
+
    Italian word for "wine merchant."
+
  
 
===== Commissariat court, Scotland  =====
 
===== Commissariat court, Scotland  =====
Line 2,237: Line 1,871:
 
*A Scottish court with jurisdiction over executory (probate) and civil matters until 1823. Most of the civil matters concerned debt. Also called commissariat court.
 
*A Scottish court with jurisdiction over executory (probate) and civil matters until 1823. Most of the civil matters concerned debt. Also called commissariat court.
  
commissionario  
+
;commissionario: Italian word for "broker."
 
+
    Italian word for "broker."
+
  
 
===== Commissioned officer  =====
 
===== Commissioned officer  =====
Line 2,315: Line 1,947:
 
*A computerized index to a set of records that is stored on a compact disc.
 
*A computerized index to a set of records that is stored on a compact disc.
  
compagnon  
+
===== compagnon =====
  
    French word for "journeyman, partner."
+
*French word for "journeyman, partner."<br>
  
comparant  
+
===== comparant =====
  
    Dutch word for "one who appeared."
+
*Dutch word for "one who appeared."<br>
  
comparatio  
+
===== comparatio =====
  
    Latin word for "presence, appearance."
+
*Latin word for "presence, appearance."<br>
  
compareerde  
+
===== compareerde =====
  
    Dutch word for "appeared before."
+
*Dutch word for "appeared before."<br>
  
comparu  
+
===== comparu =====
  
    French word for "appeared."
+
*French word for "appeared."<br>
  
comparuit  
+
===== comparuit =====
  
    Latin word for "he/she appeared, was present."
+
*Latin word for "he/she appeared, was present."<br>
  
compater  
+
===== compater =====
  
    Latin word for "godfather."
+
*Latin word for "godfather."<br>
  
<br>  
+
<br>
  
 
===== Compendium  =====
 
===== Compendium  =====
Line 2,349: Line 1,981:
 
*A collection or compilation of information gathered from other sources.
 
*A collection or compilation of information gathered from other sources.
  
compenso  
+
===== compenso =====
  
    Italian word for "fee."
+
*Italian word for "fee."<br>
  
<br>  
+
<br>
  
 
===== Compiled biography  =====
 
===== Compiled biography  =====
Line 2,375: Line 2,007:
 
*A complete transcript of probate cases involving the titles to real property.
 
*A complete transcript of probate cases involving the titles to real property.
  
compos  
+
===== compos =====
  
    Latin word for "in possession of."
+
*Latin word for "in possession of."<br>
  
 
===== Compound surname  =====
 
===== Compound surname  =====
Line 2,383: Line 2,015:
 
*A surname (last name) that has two parts, such as McKay, MacDouglas, Van Dyke, or DeWess.
 
*A surname (last name) that has two parts, such as McKay, MacDouglas, Van Dyke, or DeWess.
  
comprare  
+
===== comprare =====
  
    Italian word for "to buy."
+
*Italian word for "to buy."<br>
  
comprend  
+
===== comprend =====
  
    French word for "includes."
+
*French word for "includes."<br>
  
 
===== Computer bulletin board system  =====
 
===== Computer bulletin board system  =====
Line 3,563: Line 3,195:
 
===== Court of delegates, England  =====
 
===== Court of delegates, England  =====
  
*A court that heard final appeals from the court of arches until 1832. It was formerly the great court of appeal in all ecclesiastical cases.
+
*A court that heard final appeals from the Court of Arches until 1832. It was formerly the great court of appeal in all ecclesiastical cases. The High Court of Delegates was established by law during the reign of Henry VIII. No permanent judges were appointed, but in every case of appeal a special commission usually appointed three judges to hear the case.<br>
  
 
===== Court of equity, South Carolina  =====
 
===== Court of equity, South Carolina  =====
Line 3,731: Line 3,363:
 
*A legally binding agreement between two or more parties.
 
*A legally binding agreement between two or more parties.
  
coxo (a),
+
coxo (a),  
  
 
     Portuguese word for "lame."
 
     Portuguese word for "lame."
Line 3,739: Line 3,371:
 
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian (3/8), African (1/8), and Spanish Caucasian (1/2). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
 
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian (3/8), African (1/8), and Spanish Caucasian (1/2). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
  
Coûtume de Paris
+
Coûtume de Paris  
  
 
     An old French law system, used in the area surrounding Paris in 1664, on which civil law in Québec (Canada) was based.
 
     An old French law system, used in the area surrounding Paris in 1664, on which civil law in Québec (Canada) was based.
  
cras
+
cras  
  
 
     Latin word for "tomorrow."
 
     Latin word for "tomorrow."
  
Creator (of a record)
+
Creator (of a record)  
  
 
     The person, church, or government official or agency who made an original document or record. The "author" of a record.
 
     The person, church, or government official or agency who made an original document or record. The "author" of a record.
  
creatura dei
+
creatura dei  
  
 
     Latin word for "foundling (creature of God)."
 
     Latin word for "foundling (creature of God)."
Line 3,767: Line 3,399:
 
*A descendant of the original Spanish, Portuguese, or French settlers of the Americas.
 
*A descendant of the original Spanish, Portuguese, or French settlers of the Americas.
  
cresima
+
cresima  
  
 
     Italian word for "confirmation."
 
     Italian word for "confirmation."
  
cresimato, -i
+
cresimato, -i  
  
 
     Italian word for "confirmee(s)."
 
     Italian word for "confirmee(s)."
  
criada
+
criada  
  
 
     Portuguese and Spanish word for "maid."
 
     Portuguese and Spanish word for "maid."
  
criança
+
criança  
  
 
     Portuguese word for "child."
 
     Portuguese word for "child."
  
criatura
+
criatura  
  
 
     Spanish word for "infant, child."
 
     Spanish word for "infant, child."
Line 3,823: Line 3,455:
 
*A Spanish word for chrism, or holy oil used in Latin and Greek churches for baptisms, confirmations, and other rites.
 
*A Spanish word for chrism, or holy oil used in Latin and Greek churches for baptisms, confirmations, and other rites.
  
cristiano (a)
+
cristiano (a)  
  
 
     Spanish word for "Christian."
 
     Spanish word for "Christian."
  
cristiano, -a
+
cristiano, -a  
  
 
     Italian word for Christian (or Catholic)."
 
     Italian word for Christian (or Catholic)."
  
cristão (ã)
+
cristão (ã)  
  
 
     Portuguese word for "Christian."
 
     Portuguese word for "Christian."
  
croato
+
===== Croato =====
  
    Italian word for "Croat."
+
*Italian word for "Croat".
  
 
===== Cromwellian period (1649-1660), England  =====
 
===== Cromwellian period (1649-1660), England  =====
Line 3,855: Line 3,487:
 
*An incomplete but valuable list of Latter-day Saint pioneers who crossed the plains before 1869, when the railroad arrived in Utah. Its official name is the Utah Immigration Card Index.
 
*An incomplete but valuable list of Latter-day Saint pioneers who crossed the plains before 1869, when the railroad arrived in Utah. Its official name is the Utah Immigration Card Index.
  
Crown colony
+
Crown colony  
  
 
     A colony that was governed under the direction of the King of England, who appointed a governor over the colony and provided instructions on how the governor was to exercise his authority. All undisposed land was owned by the king, but the governor had the authority to dispose of it through the grant process.
 
     A colony that was governed under the direction of the King of England, who appointed a governor over the colony and provided instructions on how the governor was to exercise his authority. All undisposed land was owned by the king, but the governor had the authority to dispose of it through the grant process.
Line 3,883: Line 3,515:
 
*A contract that allows a person to use land held by the British Crown in return for money or some other form of recompense.
 
*A contract that allows a person to use land held by the British Crown in return for money or some other form of recompense.
  
csak
+
csak  
  
 
     Hungarian word for "only, but, just."
 
     Hungarian word for "only, but, just."
  
család
+
család  
  
 
     Hungarian word for "family, clan."
 
     Hungarian word for "family, clan."
  
családfa
+
családfa  
  
 
     Hungarian word for "pedigree, family tree."
 
     Hungarian word for "pedigree, family tree."
  
családi állapota
+
családi állapota  
  
 
     Hungarian word for "marital status of."
 
     Hungarian word for "marital status of."
  
családikönyv
+
családikönyv  
  
 
     Hungarian word for "family book."
 
     Hungarian word for "family book."
  
családinév
+
családinév  
  
 
     Hungarian word for "family name, surname."
 
     Hungarian word for "family name, surname."
  
családtag
+
családtag  
  
 
     Hungarian word for "family member."
 
     Hungarian word for "family member."
  
családtörténet
+
családtörténet  
  
 
     Hungarian word for "genealogy, family history."
 
     Hungarian word for "genealogy, family history."
  
cseh
+
cseh  
  
 
     Hungarian word for "czech."
 
     Hungarian word for "czech."
  
Csehország
+
Csehország  
  
 
     Hungarian word for "Bohemia."
 
     Hungarian word for "Bohemia."
  
cseléd
+
cseléd  
  
 
     Hungarian word for "servant."
 
     Hungarian word for "servant."
  
csikós
+
csikós  
  
 
     Hungarian word for "horseherder."
 
     Hungarian word for "horseherder."
  
csizmadia
+
csizmadia  
  
 
     Hungarian word for "bootmaker."
 
     Hungarian word for "bootmaker."
  
csütörtök
+
csütörtök  
  
 
     Hungarian word for "Thursday."
 
     Hungarian word for "Thursday."
  
cuadragésimo
+
cuadragésimo  
  
 
     Spanish word for "fortieth."
 
     Spanish word for "fortieth."
  
cuadringéntesimo
+
cuadringéntesimo  
  
 
     Spanish word for "four-hundredth."
 
     Spanish word for "four-hundredth."
  
cuarenta
+
cuarenta  
  
 
     Spanish word for "forty."
 
     Spanish word for "forty."
  
 +
<br>
  
 
===== Cuarteado  =====
 
===== Cuarteado  =====
Line 3,972: Line 3,605:
 
*A term used in Peruvian Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of Indian, African, and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
 
*A term used in Peruvian Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of Indian, African, and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
  
cuarto
+
cuarto  
  
 
     Spanish word for "room, fourth."
 
     Spanish word for "room, fourth."
  
cuarto (a)
+
cuarto (a)  
  
 
     Spanish word for "fourth."
 
     Spanish word for "fourth."
  
cuate
+
cuate  
  
 
     Spanish word for "twin."
 
     Spanish word for "twin."
  
 
+
<br>
  
 
===== Cuatrero  =====
 
===== Cuatrero  =====
Line 3,990: Line 3,623:
 
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian (3/4) and Spanish Caucasian (1/4). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
 
*A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian (3/4) and Spanish Caucasian (1/4). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
  
cuatro
+
cuatro  
  
 
     Spanish word for "four."
 
     Spanish word for "four."
  
cuatrocientos
+
cuatrocientos  
  
 
     Spanish word for "four hundred."
 
     Spanish word for "four hundred."
  
cucitrice
+
cucitrice  
  
 
     Italian word for "seamstress."
 
     Italian word for "seamstress."
  
cudzoziemski
+
cudzoziemski  
  
 
     Polish word for "foreign."
 
     Polish word for "foreign."
  
cuenta
+
cuenta  
  
 
     Spanish word for "account."
 
     Spanish word for "account."
  
cugino, -a
+
cugino, -a  
  
 
     Italian word for "cousin."
 
     Italian word for "cousin."
  
cuius
+
cuius  
  
 
     Latin word for "whose."
 
     Latin word for "whose."
  
cuiusdam
+
cuiusdam  
  
 
     Latin word for "of a certain."
 
     Latin word for "of a certain."
  
cujo (a)
+
cujo (a)  
  
 
     Portuguese word for "whose."
 
     Portuguese word for "whose."
  
cukrovka
+
cukrovka  
  
 
     Czech word for "diabetes."
 
     Czech word for "diabetes."
  
cukrzyca
+
cukrzyca  
  
 
     Polish word for "diabetes."
 
     Polish word for "diabetes."
  
culte
+
culte  
  
 
     French word for "religion."
 
     French word for "religion."
  
cultellarius
+
cultellarius  
  
 
     Latin word for "cutler."
 
     Latin word for "cutler."
  
cultivateur
+
cultivateur  
  
 
     French word for "farmer, cultivator."
 
     French word for "farmer, cultivator."
  
cum
+
cum  
  
 
     Latin word for "with."
 
     Latin word for "with."
Line 4,058: Line 3,691:
 
*A highland area that covers parts of eastern Tennessee and Kentucky. The Cumberland Plateau is bounded on the east by the Appalachian Mountain range.
 
*A highland area that covers parts of eastern Tennessee and Kentucky. The Cumberland Plateau is bounded on the east by the Appalachian Mountain range.
  
Cumberland Plateau
+
===== Cumberland Plateau =====
  
    A highland area that covers parts of eastern Tennessee and Kentucky. The Cumberland Plateau is bounded on the east by the Appalachian Mountain range.
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; A highland area that covers parts of eastern Tennessee and Kentucky. The Cumberland Plateau is bounded on the east by the Appalachian Mountain range.<br>
  
cumpleaños
+
===== cumpleaños =====
  
    Spanish word for "birthday."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Spanish word for "birthday."<br>
  
cunhado (a)
+
===== cunhado (a) =====
  
    Portuguese word for "brother-in-law, sister-in-law."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese word for "brother-in-law, sister-in-law."<br>
  
cuoco
+
===== cuoco =====
  
    Italian word for "cook."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "cook."<br>
  
cuore
+
===== cuore =====
  
    Italian word for "heart."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Italian word for "heart."<br>
  
cuprifaber
+
===== cuprifaber =====
  
    Latin word for "coppersmith."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "coppersmith."<br>
  
cur
+
===== cur =====
  
    Latin word for "why."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Latin word for "why."<br>
  
cura
+
===== cura =====
  
    Portuguese and Spanish word for "clergyman."
+
&nbsp;&nbsp; Portuguese and Spanish word for "clergyman."<br>
  
curateur
+
===== curateur =====
 
+
    French word for "guardian".
+
  
 +
&nbsp;&nbsp; French word for "guardian".<br>
  
 +
<br>
  
 
===== Curation  =====
 
===== Curation  =====
Line 4,100: Line 3,733:
 
*Guardianship over a child who is old enough to marry but not yet 21 years of age.
 
*Guardianship over a child who is old enough to marry but not yet 21 years of age.
  
curato
+
curato  
  
 
     Portuguese and Spanish word for "parish."
 
     Portuguese and Spanish word for "parish."
  
curia, Latin
+
curia, Latin  
  
 
     Latin word for "court."
 
     Latin word for "court."
  
curia, Spanish
+
curia, Spanish  
  
 
     Spanish word for "ecclesiastical tribunal."
 
     Spanish word for "ecclesiastical tribunal."
  
currarius
+
currarius  
  
 
     Latin word for "carriage builder."
 
     Latin word for "carriage builder."
Line 4,120: Line 3,753:
 
*The right a husband had to his deceased wife's real property. The husband received all of his wife's property, providing they had legitimate children who were born alive.
 
*The right a husband had to his deceased wife's real property. The husband received all of his wife's property, providing they had legitimate children who were born alive.
  
curtidor
+
curtidor  
  
 
     Portuguese and Spanish word for "tanner."
 
     Portuguese and Spanish word for "tanner."
  
curé
+
curé  
  
 
     French word for "parish minister, pastor, priest, clergyman."
 
     French word for "parish minister, pastor, priest, clergyman."
Line 4,132: Line 3,765:
 
*Passenger lists that masters of ships submitted to United States customs officials when ships arrived in the United States.
 
*Passenger lists that masters of ships submitted to United States customs officials when ships arrived in the United States.
  
custos (custodis)
+
custos (custodis)  
  
 
     Latin word for "custodian, guard."
 
     Latin word for "custodian, guard."
  
cuyo (a)
+
cuyo (a)  
  
 
     Spanish word for "whose."
 
     Spanish word for "whose."

Revision as of 15:41, 11 May 2010


C

C
  • Roman numeral for "one-hundred."
circa, Swedish ((ca.) (Latin))
  • Swedish word for "about, approximately."
contrajó matrimonio con (c.m.c.)
  • Spanish word for "contracted marriage with."
circa, German (ca.)
  • German word for "about."
caballero
  • Spanish word for "nobleman, knight, gentleman."
cabaretier
  • French word for "barkeeper."
cabeza
  • Spanish word for "head."
cabeça
  • Portuguese word for "head."
cabildo
  • Spanish word for "town council."
Cabinda, Brazil
  • A term used in Brazilian Catholic Church registers to describe a person from the Cabinda region of Angola. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
Cabo-verde, Brazil
  • A term used in Brazilian Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of Indian and African. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
Caboclo, Brazil
  • A term used in Brazilian Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
Cabra, Brazil
  • A term used in Brazilian Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of African and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
cacciatore
  • Italian word for "hunter."
Cadastral map
  • Map that shows the people who own land in an area. Also called land ownership map.
cadastro
  • Portuguese word for "land census."
cadaver
  • Latin word for "dead body, cadaver."
cadeia
  • Portuguese word for "jail."
Cadency
  • A mark on a coat of arms showing a younger son's birth order.
caduto
  • Italian word for "fallen."
caelebs
  • Latin word for "bachelor, single man."
caelum
  • Latin word for "heaven, sky."
caementarius
  • Latin word for "stonemason."
cafezal
  • Portuguese word for "coffee plantation."
cafone
  • Italian word for "peasant."
café
  • Portuguese word for "coffee."
Cafuzo, Brazil
  • A term used in Brazilian Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of Indian and African. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
Cajun
  • A descendant of French settlers who came from the Acadia region of Canada, or present-day New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, to the United States. They settled in Louisiana in the swamps and slow-moving streams called bayous. They still maintain a unique cultural identity and speak both English and a dialect of French. Most are Roman Catholic.
calcearius
  • Latin word for "shoemaker."
calciator
  • Latin word for "shoemaker."
Calculated date
  • An event date that is derived from the date of another event in a person's life. For example, if the United States 1860 census lists a person as being 20 years old, a calculated birth date would be 1839 or 1840.
calderaio
  • Italian word for "tinker."
caledonia
  • Latin word for "Scotland."
Frank T. Calef collection (Calef collection)
  • A manuscript collection of genealogical information about people who are descended from Puritans or Mayflower passengers.
Calendar
  • An probate index that is arranged by first letter of the surname only and then by probate date. I may give the place of residence of a testator.
California Gold Rush
  • The movement of large numbers of people to the gold fields in California, especially in 1849.
caligator
  • Latin word for "shoemaker."
Call number
  • The number used to identify a book, microfilm, microfiche, or other source in a library or archive. Library materials are stored and retrieved by call number.
calle
  • Spanish word for "street."
Calpamulato
  • A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian, African, and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
Calvert Papers
  • A manuscript collection of land and other records compiled by the Calvert family, who were proprietors of the Colony of Maryland until the Revolutionary War. The Maryland Historical Society in Baltimore, Maryland, has this collection.
Calvin M. McClung Collection
  • A collection of biographical material about residents of Tennessee. It consists of 15,000 published volumes and 300,000 manuscripts arranged in surname folders. These contain correspondence, pedigrees, and abstracts of records.
Calvinistic Methodists, Wales
  • A religion that began to spread throughout Wales during the late 1730s. At first leaders advocated reforming the Church of England but not separating from it. Members would meet weekly for singing and preaching but attend their local parishes for communion. In 1811, however, the Methodists began ordaining their own ministers and keeping their own records. Their beliefs are based on the teachings of John Calvin. Today the religion is known as the Presbyterian Church of Wales.
caly
  • Polish word for "entire."
calzolaio
  • Italian word for "shoemaker."
cambria
  • Latin word for "Wales."
Cambujo
  • A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian (3/4) and African (1/4). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
Cambur
  • A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian (1/2), African (1/4), and Spanish Caucasian (1/4). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
cameranius
  • Latin word for "chamberlain, valet, groom."
cameriera
  • Italian word for "maid, servant girl."
cameriere
  • Italian word for "waiter."
cameriere di casa
  • Italian word for "house steward."
camino
  • Spanish word for "road."
campagna
  • Italian word for "countryside, rural."
campagnuolo, -a
  • Italian word for "countryman, countrywoman."
campesino (a)
  • Spanish word for "peasant."
campo, Portuguese
  • Portuguese word for "field, plain."
campo, Spanish
  • Spanish word for "field."
camponês (a)
  • Portuguese word for "peasant, small farmer."
cana de açúcar
  • Portuguese word for "sugarcane.
Canada East
  • An area that comprises modern-day Québec. Before 1841 it was called Lower Canada. From 1841 to 1867 Canada East and Canada West (modern-day Ontario) formed the Province of Canada.
Canada GenWeb
  • A computer term for a site on the World Wide Web that lists genealogical databases, libraries, bulletin boards, and resources available on the Internet for people interested in doing genealogical research about Canadians.
Canada West
  • An area that comprises modern-day Ontario. Before 1841 it was called Upper Canada. From 1841 to 1867 Canada West and Canada East (modern-day Québec) formed the Province of Canada.
Canadian border crossing lists, Canada
  • Lists of passengers being transported from Canada into the United States. Canadian shipping companies began keeping these records in 1895. There are two type of manifests: lists of people traveling by train and lists of people traveling by boat. The manifests may include the person's name, port or station of entry, date of entry, age, literacy, last residence, previous visits to the United States, and birthplace. Sometimes officials only recorded the information on the index card rather than on the manifest. Beginning in 1908 the companies began keeping similar records of people arriving in Canada from the United States. These records are not indexed and are not available through the Family History Library™. Also called border crossing manifests, passenger lists, or manifests.
Canadian border crossing lists, United States
  • Lists, or manifests, kept by Canada and the United States to document all people who crossed the border from Canada into the United States for any purpose. These lists began in 1895 and are on microfilm up to 1954.
Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF)
  • The Canadian army that served in World War I.
Canadian Pacific Railroad
  • A railroad that extended across Canada from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. It was completed in 1885 and allowed for more rapid settlement of Canada's interior lands.
cancro
  • Italian word for "cancer."
cantante
  • Italian word for "singer."
cantatrice
  • Italian word for "singer."
Canton
  • A division of a place in France, Québec (Canada), and Switzerland. In France cantons are divisions of a district (arrondissement). In Québec cantons are townships. In Switzerland cantons are the major divisions of the country, similar to states in the United States or provinces in Canada.
Cantons de l'Est, Canada
  • Townships in eastern Québec, located directly north of the state of Vermont. Cantons de l'Est is a direct French translation of the English term Eastern Townships. These townships were originally settled by English-speaking Protestants, many of whom had connections to American Loyalists.
Cape Breton, Canada
  • A large island off of the coast of Nova Scotia. In the early 1600s it became a French colony, but in 1763 France ceded it to Great Britain as part of the Treaty of Paris, which ended the Seven Years War (French and Indian War). Britain made the island part of Nova Scotia. In 1784 the island separated from Nova Scotia, but the two areas reunited in 1820. Thousands of Scots moved to the island from the 1790s to the 1830s.
Cape Fear Valley
  • The region along the Cape Fear River in North Carolina.
capela
  • Portuguese word for "chapel."
capella
  • Latin word for "chapel."
capellanus
  • Latin word for "chaplain."
Capellanías, military
  • A type of military record used in Latin America, translated as military parish records. These are records that military chaplains kept of sacraments performed for soldiers and their families.
Capellanías,land
  • A type of land grant in Latin America. These land grants covered lands that individuals and families ceded to the Catholic Church. Related documents include wills, court records, land titles, and contracts. Information about the individuals and families involved may also be included.
capilla
  • Spanish word for "chapel."
Capital case
  • A type of criminal court case in which the defendant could receive the death penalty.
Capital, USA
  • A city where the main offices of a government are located.
capitis

   Latin word for "head, chief."

capofamiglia

   Italian word for "family head."

capostipite

   Italian word for "family founder, earliest ancestor."

cappellaio

   Italian word for "hatter."

capt et jurat

   Latin word for "taken and sworn."

Captain
  • An army, marine, or air force officer who commands a military company; also a naval officer who commands a warship.
Captain

   An army, marine, or air force officer who commands a military company; also a naval officer who commands a warship.

caput

   Latin word for "head, chief."

cara

   Portuguese and Spanish word for "face."

carabiniere

   Italian word for "policeman."

carbonaio

   Italian word for "coal dealer."

carbonarius

   Latin word for "collier, coal miner."

Card index
  • An index to a set of records. In a card index, each index entry appears on a separate card, and the cards are arranged alphabetically or by some other method. Many United States censuses have card indexes.
Card Membership, Latter-day Saint
  • A printed form used to record membership information of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from 1941 to the present. Most wards now use an electronic version of the form. Before the electronic version was used, the forms were separate and were bound in books. When a member moves from a ward, the membership record is returned to Church headquarters and sent to the member’s new ward or branch.
carecarius

   Latin word for "carter."

Carey Act of 1894
  • A federal law that provided for the reclamation and homesteading of desert land in public land states. It established new settlements in northern Wyoming.
Cariboo Gold Rush

   A gold mining boom in the Cariboo Mountains of south central British Columbia that lasted from 1860 to 1863.

carnarius

   Latin word for "butcher."

carnicero

   Spanish word for "butcher."

carpentarius

   Latin word for "carpenter."

Carpenter
  • A person who works with wood; also the officer in the British navy who examined the wooden parts of a ship.
carpinteiro

   Portuguese word for "carpenter."

carpintero

   Spanish word for "carpenter."

carraio

   Italian word for "wheelwright."

carretera

   Spanish word for "road."

carta

   Latin word for "deed, charter, map."

Cartas de dote
  • The Spanish term for dowry records.
carte, French

   French word for "map."

carte, Italian

   Italian word for "maps, charts."

cartório

   Portuguese word for "archive."

casa

   Italian, Portuguese and Spanish word for "house."

casado (a)

   Portuguese and Spanish word for "married."

casado con (c.c.)

   Spanish word for "married to."

casale

   Latin word for "estate, village."

casamento

   Portuguese word for "marriage."

Casamentos
  • A Portuguese word for marriages.
Casamiento
  • A Spanish term for marriage. Also used in the Philippines.
Case file number
  • An identification number assigned to a case file.
casar, casarse

   Spanish word for "to marry."

casar-se

   Portuguese word for "to marry."

casaro

   Italian word for "dairy farmer."

casatus

   Latin word for "cottager."

Case file number

   An identification number assigned to a case file.

Case file, court records
  • A file containing the documentation related to a specific court case.
Case file, land
  • A file of records related to an individual’s acquisition of land. The case file may contain the individual’s application, records of payment, or certification that he or she has completed all requirements for owning the land. These are the most helpful land records for family history researchers.
Case file, probate
  • A file of all documents relating to the settlement of an individual’s estate. Also called estate file, estate packet, loose papers, probate estate papers, or probate packet.
Cash entry
  • The process of purchasing land from the federal government.
Cash entry files
  • The collection of records relating to a person's purchase of federal land.
cassa

   Italian word for "chest, cash, cashier."

cassetta

   Italian word for "chest."

casta

   Spanish word for "caste, racial lineage."

castaldo

   Italian word for "land agent."

castello

   Italian word for "castle."

castelo

   Portuguese word for "castle."

castillo

   Spanish word for "castle."

Castizo, Puerto Rico
  • In Puerto Rico, a term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of Indian, African, and Caucasian. In Guatemala, the term refers to a person who is a mix of Caucasian and Indian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
Catalog
  • A description of items available in a library's or archive's collection. A catalog usually gives you the call number or other information needed to find the item within the collection.
cataster

   Latin word for "land, property record."

catasto

   Italian word for "land register."

catastro

   Spanish word for "land census."

catedral

   Portuguese and Spanish word for "cathedral."

Catholic mission
  • A settlement established by Catholic priests to convert the Native Americans to Catholicism and to maintain the authority of the country from which the priests came. Missions provided the Native Americans with food, clothing, education in a trade, and sometimes housing. In return, the Native Americans worked, took instruction in the Catholic Church, and agreed to live by the customs of the priests' country. Spanish missions were established in Georgia, Florida, Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and California. French missions were established in the Great Lakes area.
Catholic Records in Montréal, Canada
  • A card index to Catholic Church records in Montréal, Canada.
Catholic Relief Acts, Ireland
  • A series of laws passed to restore to Roman Catholics in Ireland the rights that had been taken away in the Penal Laws passed between 1695 and 1728.
catholicus

   Latin word for "Catholic."

catholique romaine

   French word for "Roman Catholic."

catorce

   Spanish word for "fourteen."

catorze

   Portuguese word for "fourteen."

cattolico, -a

   Italian word for "Roman Catholic."

católico (a)

   Portuguese and Spanish word for "Catholic."

caupo (cauponis)

   Latin word for "innkeeper."

causa

   Latin word for "cause, sake, because of." Ex causa means "on account of, for the sake of."

cavalheiro

   Portuguese word for "gentleman, knight, nobleman."

cavaliere

   Italian word for "knight."


Caveat
  • A warning notice issued by an interested person to a probate court that no action is to be taken in granting a probate without his case being heard.

cazador

   Spanish word for "hunter."

caçador

   Portuguese word for "hunter."

caña de azúcar

   Spanish word for "sugar cane."

CC

   Roman numeral for "two-hundred."

CCC

   Roman numeral for "three-hundred."

CD

   Roman numeral for "four-hundred."

ce

   Italian word for "us."

ce, c'

   French word for "it."

ce, cet, cette

   French word for "this, that."

cech

   Czech word for "guild."

Ceded

   Transfer, give up control. When Spain ceded Florida to the United States, it gave up control of the area.

cedo

   Portuguese word for "early."

Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF)

   The Canadian army that served in World War I.

ceglarz

   Polish word for "brick maker."

cego (a)

   Portuguese word for "blind."

cejourd'hier

   French word for "yesterday."

cejourd'hui

   French word for "today."

celator

   Latin word for "turner."

celebrare il matrimonio

   Italian word for "solemnize a marriage."

celebraverunt

   Latin word for "they celebrated, were married."

celibe

   Italian word for "bachelor, bachelorette, single, unmarried."

celle

   French word for "this one, she."

celle-ci

   French word for "the latter (f.)."

celle-là

   French word for "the former (f.)."

celui

   French word for "this one, he."

celui-ci

   French word for "the latter (m.)."

celui-là

   French word for "the former (m.)."

celý

   Czech word for "entire."

cem

   Portuguese word for "one hundred."

cementerio

   Spanish word for "cemetery."

Cementerios
  • A Spanish term for cemeteries and cemetery records. Also used in the Philippines.
Cemeteries, Family History Library Catalog™
  • A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize cemetery records (records that contain information about where people are buried).
Cemeteries, PERiodical Source Index
  • A record type used in the Locality and Research Methodologies sections of the PERiodical Source Index (PERSI) to identify articles that contain information about cemeteries and cemetery records.
Cemetery
  • A place where deceased individuals are buried.
Cemetery Inscription Card Index, North Carolina
  • A project completed by the federal government as part of the Historical Records Survey to index North Carolina cemetery records.
Cemetery Locator File, Indiana
  • An alphabetical list of cemeteries in Indiana. This file is at the Indiana State Library. The Family History Library™ has a microfilm copy.
cemitério

   Portuguese word for "cemetery."

censimento

   Italian word for "census."

Censo
  • The word used in Spanish and Portuguese for census. The Catholic Church and the government took censuses. Some censuses were taken of military men and their families in outlying areas.
Census

   An official count and description of the people living in a country, colony, state, county, township, or city.

Census Birthplace Index, 1881 British Census

   An index to the 1881 census that is arranged alphabetically by surname, then by place of birth, first name, and age in descending order.

Census bundle number, England

   A number assigned by the Public Record Office in England to each section of the census returns, 1841 to the present. Also called a piece number.

Census district
  • A geographical area in which a supervisor or marshal was required to take a census. Before 1880 in the United States, census districts were called subdivisions. Starting in 1880 they were called enumeration districts.
  • In Canada, census districts are voting districts, not counties. Though the census district may have the same name as a county, it may not include the same townships.
Census district, British

A civil boundary created for collecting information about the population of an area. The boundary of a census district was determined by the government and was based on the population in the area. Each district was divided into subdistricts, and each subdistrict was divided into enumeration districts.

Census district, Scotland

A geographic boundary created for collecting information about the population of an area. In Scotland, this area is the same as the civil or ecclesiastical boundary.

Census division, Canada

   In Canadian national censuses, the smallest area covered by the census. Canadian provinces are divided into census districts. Districts are divided into subdistricts. Only sometimes are the subdistricts divided into two or more divisions.

Census enumeration district, England

   The geographic area assigned to one census taker, who was known as an enumerator. The size of the enumeration district depended on the number of people living in the area. The enumerator was responsible to collect information about every person in the district on a specific night. Several enumeration districts make up a section of the census known as a census piece or bundle.

Census folio number

   A census folio is a two-sided sheet of paper used for recording the census. The folio number is stamped in the top right corner of the front of the sheet. Folio numbers run consecutively through a section of the census known as a piece or bundle.

Census index
  • An alphabetical list of some or all of the people on a census that identifies where within the census an individual can be found.
Census of Confederate Veterans, Arkansas
  • A special census taken in 1911 in Arkansas of all living veterans who served in the Confederate Army.
Census page number

   A number printed on a page in an enumerator's book. The number appears in the top middle or a top corner of each page. Page numbers run consecutively through one enumeration district only.

Census piece number

   A number assigned by the Public Record Office in England to each section of the census returns, 1841 to the present. Also called a bundle number.

Census Place Index, 1881 British Census
  • An index to the 1881 British Census that is organized alphabetically by surname then alphabetically by the census place.
Census Record-As-Enumerated, 1881 British Census

   An index to the 1881 British census that is arranged in the same order as the original census, with individuals listed by the household in which they were enumerated. Use this index after using the Surname Index, Birthplace Index, or Census Place Index.

Census schedule
  • A type of list in a census. A census can have many types of schedules, such as a population or mortality schedule.
Census, Family History Library Catalog™
  • A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize censuses (official counts and descriptions of the people living in a country, colony, state, county, township, or city).
Census, general
  • An official count and description of the people living in a country, colony, state, county, township, or city.
Census, PERiodical Source Index
  • A record type used in the Locality and Research Methodologies sections of the PERiodical Source Index (PERSI) to identify articles that contain information about census records.

Census street index

   An alphabetical list of streets appearing in the census record of a geographic area. The index shows the name of the street and a set of reference numbers that are helpful in finding the street in a census record of most large cities.

Census subdistrict, Canada

   In Canadian national censuses, an area covered by the census. Canadian provinces are divided into census districts. Districts are divided into subdistricts. In some provinces, townships are census subdistricts. A political ward in a city may also be a census subdistrict. Only sometimes are the subdistricts further divided into two or more divisions.

Census substitutes

   Records which can be used instead of a census. The substitutes are lists of people in an area, such as tax lists.

Census Surname Index, 1881 British Census

   An index to the 1881 British census that is arranged alphabetically by surname, then by first name and age in descending order.

Census, PERiodical Source Index

   A record type used in the Locality and Research Methodologies sections of the PERiodical Source Index (PERSI) to identify articles that contain information about census records.

Census, Latin and Czech

   Latin and Czech word for "census."

cent

   French word for "hundred."

centenario

   Spanish word for "centennial."

centenarius

   Latin word for "a person one hundred years of age."

centenário

   Portuguese word for "centennial."

centesimo, -a

   Italian word for "hundredth."

centesimus

   Latin word for "hundredth."

centesimus primus

   Latin word for "one-hundred-first."

centesimus quinquagesimus

   Latin word for "one-hundred-fiftieth."

centième

   French word for "hundredth."

cento

   Italian and Portuguese word for "one hundred."

Central Bureau of Statistics, Sweden
  • An office that keeps statistics about the Swedish population. Swedish ministers were required to send extracts of their records to this office. The Swedish term for the bureau is Statistika Centralbyrån.
Central Estadística, Philippines
  • A government office, translated as the Central Office of Statistics, established by the Spanish in the Philippines in 1899. It was charged with gathering birth, marriage, and death information from parish priests.
Central provinces, Canada
  • A grouping of Canadian provinces comprising Québec and Ontario.
centum

   Latin word for "hundred."

centum quinquaginta

   Latin word for "one-hundred-fifty."

centum unus

   Latin word for "one-hundred-one."

Century Farm Applications, Iowa

   A collection of records gathered by the Iowa American Revolution Bicentennial Commission. These records contain information about farm owners in Iowa whose property had remained in the family for 100 years or longer.

centésimo

   Portuguese and Spanish word for "one-hundredth."

centésimo primero

   Spanish word for "one-hundred-first."

cerca

   Portuguese and Spanish word for "near, approximate."

cerdo (cerdonis)

   Latin word for "handworker."

cerrajero

   Spanish word for "locksmith."

certidão

   Portuguese word for "certificate."

certificado

   Spanish word for "certificate."

Certificate of arrival
  • A document given to immigrants upon their arrival in the United States. The certificate is proof of how long they have been living in the United States and is a required part of the naturalization process. It is kept in the case file with the petition for citizenship.
Certificate of Naturalization (Form 2207)
  • A form given to a former alien as proof that he or she has become a citizen of the United States.
Certificate, general
  • A record that documents an individual's or group's accomplishment or participation in an event.
Certificate, immigration
  • A legal document given to immigrants after they have met all immigration requirements and have been sworn in as citizens of the United States. Also called a Certificate of Naturalization and Form 2207.
certificato

   Italian word for "certificate."

Certificats
  • A French term for marriage certificate, a record that documents the date and place of a couple's marriage.
certifichiamo
Italian word for "we certify."
cervecero
Spanish word for "brewer."
cervejeiro
Portuguese word for "brewer."
cesarski
Polish word for "imperial."
cesarstwo
Polish word for "empire."
cesta
Czech word for "road."
cestovní pas
Czech word for "passport."
ceux
French word for "those."
confronta (cfr.)
Italian word for "compare."
chalupnik
Polish word for "cottager, poor peasant."
chalupník
Czech word for "cottager, poor peasant."
Chamizo
  • A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian, African, and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
Chancery case
  • A court case in which parties disputing over a matter that does not involve a violation of law ask a court to make a fair decision. Chancery cases commonly involve disputes over property rights or probate matters. Also called equity case.
Chancery court, Arkansas
  • A court with countywide jurisdiction over equity, divorce, probate, and adoption cases.
Chancery court, Delaware
  • A court in Delaware with countywide jurisdiction over equity matters.
Chancery court, England
  • A court in England that hears equity cases. Records from this court include disputes over land and property rights, debts, inheritance, trusts, and fraud. The court began operating in 1199 and continues today.
Chancery court, general
  • A court that administers justice and decides controversies in accordance with the rules of equity as opposed to the rules of law. These courts commonly hear cases that involve disputes over property rights or probate matters. Also called equity court.
Chancery court, Maryland
  • A court in Maryland with statewide jurisdiction over equity cases, such as divorces, name changes, mortgage foreclosures, civil damage suits, and guardianships. This court existed from 1668 to 1851.
Chancery court, Mississippi
  • A court with countywide jurisdiction over equity cases, divorce, land grants, probates, and guardianships.
Chancery court, Tennessee
  • A court with countywide jurisdiction over property title disputes.
Chancery register
  • A record kept by a court of chancery.
Chapel of ease, Church of England
  • A small division within a large parish of the Church of England. A chapel of ease has its own chapel to serve members who live too far away to attend the parish church. Chapels of ease often keep their own christening, marriage, and burial registers. Also called a chapelry.
Chapelry, Church of England
  • A small division within a large parish of the Church of England. A chapelry has its own chapel to serve members who live too far away to attend the parish church. Chapelries often keep their own christening, marriage, and burial registers. Also called a chapel of ease.
Chaplain
  • A clergyman in charge of a chapel; also a person who serves in the military as a clergyman. The chaplain is considered an officer.
charbonnier
French word for "charcoal burner."
charcutier
French word for "pork merchant."
Charles Carroll Gardner's Collections, New Jersey
  • Several collections of information about families from northeastern New Jersey, especially those from Essex County.
Charles D. Parkhurst manuscripts
  • A collection of compiled genealogies about people from New London, Connecticut.
Charles R. Hale Collection, Connecticut
  • A collection of cemetery records from Connecticut. The collection has cemetery inscriptions from more than 2,000 cemeteries. It also includes notices of deaths and marriages listed in newspapers.
charretier
French word for "cart or carriage man."
charron
French word for "cartwright, wheelwright."
chartarius
Latin word for "paper miller."
chasseur
French word for "hunter."
chaudronnier
French word for "cooper, barrel maker."
chce
Polish and Czech word for "he wants."
che
Italian word for "which, than, what, who, that, whom."
Cherokee
  • A powerful tribe of Native Americans who originally lived in the southeastern United States. In 1838 United States troops forced the Cherokee tribe to move to Indian Territory, which is now part of Oklahoma. This forced exodus became known as the Trail of Tears. About 1,000 Cherokee escaped into the Great Smoky Mountains. They eventually bought land, and the government allowed them to stay. This group became the Eastern Band of Cherokee. Most Cherokee now live in northeastern Oklahoma, though some still live in North Carolina. The Cherokee were considered part of the Five Civilized Tribes.
Cherokee Outlet
  • A section of land allocated to the Cherokees by treaty. Treaties made in 1828 and 1833 guaranteed this land to the tribe. The tribe could not place homes on it. It was to be used as an "outlet." The tribe sold the land to the United States in 1891, and it became part of Oklahoma Territory. Also called Cherokee Strip.
Cherokee Removal (1838)
  • A forced exodus that occurred when the United States government forced the Cherokee to move from their lands in the southeastern United States to Indian Territory, which is now part of Oklahoma. The Cherokee called this march the Trail of Tears because so many people died along the way.
Cherokee War (1760-1761)
  • A war between the Cherokee and white settlers in South Carolina. The treaty that ended the war opened up much of frontier South Carolina for settlement.
Chevalier
  • The French term for the highest ranking title in the French gentry (petite noblesse). A chevalier is equivalent to a British knight.
Cheyenne Indians
A tribe of Native Americans that lived on the western plains in the United States.
chez
French word for "at the home of."
chi
Italian word for "who, whom."
Chicago fire, USA
  • A fire that started on the Southwest side of Chicago on 8 October 1871. The fire burned for over 24 hours, destroying downtown Chicago and many Northside homes. Many of Chicago’s public records were also burned. At least three hundred people died, and 98,500 were left homeless. The fire caused an estimated $200 million in damage.
Chicago, Illinois
  • A city in Cook County, Illinois.
Chicago Road
The military highway that ran between Detroit and Fort Dearborn, now Chicago, after the 1820s. It was a major route for settlers moving to the Northwest.
Chickasaw
  • A tribe of Native Americans who originally lived in northern Mississippi, western Tennessee, and northwestern Alabama. In 1837 they moved to Indian Territory.
chiesa
Italian word for "church."
chiesa ortodossa
Italian word for "Greek Catholic."
chilometro
Italian word for "kilometer."
chimico
Italian word for "chemist."
China
  • A term used in Brazilian and Argentinean Catholic Church registers to describe a female Indian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
Chinese
  • Pertaining to something or someone from China; also the languages used by the people of China and other countries.
Chino
  • A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian, African, and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
hirotherarus
Latin word for "glover."
Chirurg
German word for "surgeon."
chirurgien
French word for "surgeon."
chirurgo
Italian word for "surgeon."
chirurgus
Latin word for "surgeon."
chiunque
Italian word for "whoever."
chlap
Czech word for "peasant, country fellow."
chlapec
Czech word for "boy."
chlop
Polish word for "peasant, country fellow."
chlopiec
Polish word for "boy."
Choctaw
  • A tribe of Native Americans who originally lived in southern Alabama and Mississippi. In 1830 they ceded their land to the United States in exchange for a large tract of land in what is now southeastern Oklahoma. Most members of the tribe moved there between 1831 and 1833.
Cholo
  • A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
choroba
Polish and Czech word for "disease."
Christening (chr)
An ordinance performed on a baby by the minister of the local parish in the Church of England, Wales, and Ireland. The child is baptized, given a name, and received into the church.
chramarius
Latin word for "merchant."
Christelik
Afrikaans word for "Christianlike, religious."
Christen
Afrikaans word for "Christian."
Christen, religious
  • To baptize an individual or to give an infant a name.
Christen, shipping
  • To name a new ship on its first voyage.

Christening records: Records created when an individual is christened (a religious ceremony in which an individual is baptized or an infant is given a name).

Christening records
Records created when an individual is christened (a religious ceremony in which an individual is baptized or an infant is given a name).
Christian Church
  • A Protestant religion formed in Kentucky in 1809 by Thomas Campbell, Alexander Campbell, and Barton W. Stone. Its full name is the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ). The church practices baptism by immersion, but most congregations will accept people as members if they were baptized into another church.
Christian name
  • A first name, often from the Bible, used to identify an individual. Also called first name or given name.
Christian Reformed Church
  • A church founded in 1857 in the United States by people who separated from the Dutch Reformed Church (now called the Reformed Church in America). It adopted its current name in 1904. The church follows the teachings of John Calvin and Huldrych Zwingli, maintaining a conservative, orthodox interpretation of doctrine and practices. It used to conduct its services and keep its records in Dutch.
Christmonat
German word for "December."
chrzczony
Polish word for "christened."
chrzest
Polish word for "christening."
chrzestna, chrzestny
Polish word for "godparent(s)."


Church Almanac, Latter-day Saint
  • A book currently published every other year by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints that gives information about Church leaders, historical events related to the Church, and statistics related to Church members around the world.
Church archive
  • An archive where a church stores its records and documents.
Church cemetery
  • A church-owned cemetery where that church's members, leaders, and others are buried.
Church census
  • A list and description of members of a church that is taken to track growth and update membership records. Church censuses are a major source of family history information for members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
Church Directories, Family History Library Catalog™
  • A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize lists of churches' organizational divisions and officials, including the names of the places and congregations where the officials have served.
Church directory
  • A list of a church's organizational divisions and officials, including the names of the places and congregations where the officials have served. A church directory may also contain historical information about the local congregations, complete addresses of the churches, and the address of the church headquarters where additional records may be kept.
Church History, Family History Library Catalog™
  • A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize information about the history of various churches.
Church history, general
  • An account of the events surrounding a specific church or the events related to all of the religions and religious developments in an area.
Church marriage register
  • A record kept by a church of marriages performed by a priest or other church authority.
Church of England
  • The state church of England. It was established in 1534 by King Henry VIII who, when Pope Clement VII refused to grant him a divorce, compelled Parliament to pass the Act of Supremacy. This act made the king of England, not the pope, the head of the church in England. Doctrines of the church are based on the Nicene and Apostles' Creeds and the Book of Common Prayer. The clergy are divided into bishops, priests, and deacons. The Church of England is now part of the Anglican Communion.
Church of Ireland
  • An independent Anglican Church in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. It is the largest Protestant church in Ireland. The Church of Ireland separated from the Church of England in 1871.
Church of Scotland
  • The Presbyterian Church in Scotland. The Church of Scotland was once the state church.
Church of the Brethren
  • A religion that developed in 1708 in Germany under Alexander Mack. Persecution in Germany led many members to immigrate to Germantown, Pennsylvania. The Brethren stress obedience to Christ and living the gospel according to the New Testament. They practice trine baptism (baptism by immersion in which an individual is immersed three times, once for each member of the Trinity) and refuse to take oaths or serve in the military. They are also called Dunkards or Dunkers.
Church of the Nazarene
  • A Protestant religion established in Texas in 1908. The church follows the early teachings of Methodism and sponsors many schools, liberal arts colleges, and theological seminaries.
Church Records, Family History Library Catalog™
  • A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize records kept by churches, such as baptism records, marriage records, and burial records.
Church records, general
  • Records kept by religious institutions.
Church unit boundaries, Latter-day Saint
  • The jurisdictions of various congregations of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
Church, PERiodical Source Index
  • A record type used in the Locality and Research Methodologies sections of the PERiodical Source Index (PERSI) to identify articles that contain information about church records.
Churchwarden account
  • Records kept by a churchwarden.
Churchwarden, Church of England
  • A lay officer in a parish or district of the Church of England. The churchwarden helps the minister with various administrative duties and represents the parishioners in church matters. Most parishes have two churchwardens, who are elected on Easter Tuesday. Before large parishes were broken down into divisions, they may have had up to four churchwardens to represent various areas of the parish. Also called churchman, churchmaster, church reeve, and kirkmaster.
chwilowo
Polish word for "temporarily."
château
French word for "castle."
châtelain
French word for "owner of a castle."
ci
Italian word for "there, us, to us."
CI
Roman numeral for "one-hundred-one."
ci-dessous
French word for "below here."
ci-dessus
French word for "above here."
ciabattino
Italian word for "cobbler."
cidade
Portuguese word for "city."
cidadão (ã)
Portuguese word for "citizen."
ciego (a)
Spanish word for "blind."
ciento
Spanish word for "one hundred."
ciento uno
Spanish word for "one hundred one."
cigány
Hungarian word for "gypsy."
cikán
Czech word for "gypsy."
Cimarrón
A term used in Mexican and Guatemalan Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of Indian (1/4), African (1/2), and Spanish Caucasian (1/4). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
cimeterium
Latin word for "cemetery."
cimetière
French word for "cemetery."
cimitero
Italian word for "cemetery."
cinco
Portuguese and Spanish word for "five."
cincuenta
Spanish word for "fifty."
cingarus
Latin word for "gypsy."
cinq
French word for "five."
cinquanta
Italian word for "fifty."
cinquante
French word for "fifty."
cinquantesimo, -a
Italian word for "fiftieth."
cinquantième
French word for "fiftieth."
cinque
Italian word for "five."
cinquième
French word for "fifth."
cinqüenta
Portuguese word for "fifty."
cinterem
Hungarian word for "burial ground."
ciocia (ciotka)
Polish word for "aunt."
cioè
Italian word for "that is, namely."
cipész
Hungarian word for "shoemaker."
circa, Danish
Danish word for "approximately."
circa, German (ca.)
German word for "about."
circa, Italian
Italian word for "about, approximately."
circa, Latin
Latin word for "about, around, round about."
circa, Swedish ((ca.) (Latin))
Swedish word for "about, approximately."
circiter
Latin word for "about, approximately."
Circuit court guardian docket
  • A list of guardian judgments made by the circuit court.
Circuit court of appeals
  • The former name of the United States Court of Appeals. The court of appeals may review and revise decisions made by federal district courts. The United States Supreme Court may review and revise decisions made by the circuit courts of appeals.
Circuit court, Alabama
  • A court in Alabama with countywide jurisdiction over felonies, major criminal and civil cases, and appeals from inferior courts.
Circuit court, New Jersey
  • A court in New Jersey with countywide jurisdiction over civil and equity cases such as mortgage foreclosures, name changes, marriages, adoptions, estate partitions, naturalizations, debts, and probate suits. Circuit courts were replaced by superior courts in 1947.
Circuit court, Ohio
  • A court in Ohio with countywide jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases, including equity and divorce cases.
Circuit court, USA
  • A court used in many states of the United States. The court generally has jurisdiction over several towns, counties, or districts in the state. Circuit courts have jurisdiction over both criminal and civil matters.
Circuit court, Virginia
  • A court in Virginia with circuitwide jurisdiction. Circuit courts were created in 1851 and continue today.
Circuit court, Wisconsin
  • A court in Wisconsin with countywide jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases and some appeals.

Circuit superior court of law and chancery, Virginia

  • A court in Virginia with districtwide jurisdiction. In 1851 these courts were replaced by circuit courts.
Circuit superior court of law, West Virginia
  • A court in West Virginia with circuitwide jurisdiction. Circuit superior courts of law were used from 1809 to 1852.
Circumcision register, Jewish
  • A book containing information about Jewish circumcisions. They include the Hebrew given name of the child, the date of circumcision in the Hebrew calendar, and the father's Hebrew given name. Also called Mohel books.
cirka
Norwegian word for "approximately."


Citizen, early England and Wales
  • A freeman who lived in a city.
Citizenship
  • The allegiance of an individual to a government and its laws and customs. In return, the individual is granted all rights allowed by the government.
Citizenship book, Danish
  • A list of people who received the rights to citizenship extended by a city. Citizenship rights included the right to engage in business in the city, protection under the law, and permission to live in the city without being expelled. Citizenship books include the names of the people granted citizenship and their age, social and economic status, occupation and training, and sometimes birthplace and names of relatives. Until the twentieth century, only males of the middle or upper class, usually merchants and tradesmen, were granted citizenship. The Danish citizenship books are called borgerskabprotokoller.
Citizenship book, Germany
  • A book used to record the names of people who had received the rights to citizenship. These books were frequently kept in Germany, where they were called Bürgerbücher or Bürgerlisten.
Citizenship record
Citizenship records document the process of a person becoming a member of a country.
The records may give the name, age, country of birth, ethnic background, date and port of arrival, name of the ship, previous residences, or current address. Each of the various types of records created during the citizenship process can give different details about the person.
In the United States, records for earlier years usually contain less information than those after 1906, when the names, birth dates, and birth places of the spouse and children are given.
Citizenship records are found in town, county, state, and federal court records.
citoyen(ne)
French word for "citizen."
cittadinanze
Italian word for "citizenship."
cittadino, -a
Italian word for "citizen."
città
Italian word for "city, town."
City
An inhabited place that has more people than a town or village. Different countries have different requirements for what is considered a city. In some countries, for example, a city must be an incorporated entity. In others, it must have a charter from the government.
City census
  • A census taken by a city rather than a state or federal government.
City court, Kansas
  • A court in Kansas with citywide jurisdiction over minor criminal cases and traffic matters. Also called magistrate court.

City court, Utah

  • A court used in Utah between 1906 and 1977. City courts had limited jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases in a county. They were replaced by the circuit court system in 1977.
City directory
  • A list of the names, addresses, and telephone numbers (if applicable) of the people living in a city. City directories may also provide other information about individuals such as their profession, trade, or place of employment.
City livery company, England
  • A craft or trade association in London that is descended from the medieval trade guilds. The term livery originally referred to the distinctive uniform that each guild (or company) used on special occasions. Eventually the term was used to refer to the collective membership of the company.
City map
  • A map that shows the streets and sometimes political divisions of a large city.
City records
  • Records, such as those for births and deaths, kept at a city level.
ciudad
Spanish word for "city."
ciudadano (a)
Spanish word for "citizen."
Civil authorities
Authorities in charge of a country or other non-church unit.
Civil case
  • A lawsuit involving a violation of laws when an individual (but not society) is harmed, such as property damage, trespass, or libel. Civil cases seek enforcement of private rights or compensation for infringement on private rights.
Civil court, Florida
  • A court in Florida that exists in counties with more than 100,000 residents. In these counties, civil courts take the place of county courts.
Civil court, general
  • A court that hears civil cases (lawsuits involving a violation of laws when an individual but not society is harmed, such as property damage, trespass, or libel). Civil cases seek enforcement of private rights or compensation for infringement of private rights.
Civil district, Denmark
  • An area covered by a Danish court. In Danish they are called herred and birke.
Civil division
The part of a governmental unit which oversees noncriminal matters.
Civil government
  • A government that has authority over a country or other non-church unit.
Civil law
  • The laws in a country that define the rights and obligations that people owe one another. Civil law covers issues such as the borrowing and lending of money, contracts, land and property ownership, marriage, divorce, adoption, and injury due to the actions of another person. In the Canadian province of Québec civil law is based on a French code of laws. In other provinces, civil law is based on English common law.
Civil marriage register
  • A government record of marriages performed by various civil and religious officials. A register is usually a record in a bound book.
Civil parish, Ireland
  • An administrative division of a county in Ireland. Before the Reformation, the civil parish was an ecclesiastical division.
Civil Registration District
The geographic area of a country in which the birth, marriage, divorce, and death records of the citizens are kept. In the United States, civil registration is called vital records.
Civil registration office
  • A local government office that keeps the government's local birth, marriage, and death records. Some civil registration offices may also have records regarding divorces.
Civil Registration, Family History Library Catalog™
  • A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize birth, marriage, divorce, and death records kept by civil governments. Birth, marriage, divorce, and death records from the United States and all Canadian provinces except Québec are cataloged under the subject heading "Vital Records."
Civil registration, general
  • Birth, marriage, divorce, and death records kept by a government. In the United States, civil registration is called vital records.
Civil Secretary, Canada
  • A government official in Upper Canada (Ontario) who served as a private secretary to the lieutenant-governor of the province. He received letters and petitions. This position does not exist in modern-day Ontario.
Civil War, American
  • A term for the American Civil War, 1861 to 1865. Also called the War between the States and the War of Secession.
Civil war, general
  • A type of war in which two or more factions within the same country are at war with each other.
civilregistret
  • Swedish word for "civil registrar."
civis
  • Latin word for "citizen."
cizozemský
  • Czech word for "foreign."
cizí
  • Czech word for "foreign, strange."
ciò
  • Italian word for "that."
CL
  • Roman numeral for "one-hundred-fifty."
Claim
  • A request made in a court of law.
Claim registers
  • Records of claims made against a deceased person's estate.
Claims docket
  • A list of court cases.
Clarence Torrey Collection, New England
  • A collection of marriage records gathered by Clarence Torrey. It lists marriages that occurred during the 1600s in colonial New England. Its proper name is New England Marriages Prior to 1700.
Class 1 settler
  • A settler who was part of a system that filed headright grants by time period. These particular settlers arrived in Texas before 1 March 1836 and received headright land grants from Spain and Mexico.
Class 2 settler
  • A settler who was part of a system that filed headright grants by time period. These particular settlers arrived in Texas from 2 March 1836 to 1 October 1837 and received headright land grants from the Republic of Texas.
Class 3 settler
  • A settler who was part of a system that filed headright grants by time period. These particular settlers arrived in Texas from 1 October 1837 to 1 January 1840 and received headright land grants from the Republic of Texas.
Class 4 settler
  • A settler who was part of a system that filed headright grants by time period. These particular settlers arrived in Texas from 1 January 1840 to 1 January 1842 and received headright land grants from the Republic of Texas.
clausit
Latin word for "he/she finished, closed." Diem clausit extremem means "(died) he/she finished the last day."
claustrarius
Latin word for "locksmith."
clausum
Latin word for "closed, finished."
Clergy directory
  • A list of the religious leaders in an area or religion.
clergé
French word for "clergymen."
Clerical register of souls, Norway
  • A census taken by the Lutheran clergy in Norway during the mid-1700s. It lists all members of a family and all persons living with the family. In Norwegian this census is called a sjeleregister.
Clerical survey records, Sweden
  • A roll kept in Sweden that lists all members of a parish, their place of residence, and their knowledge of catechism. The Evangelical Lutheran Church (Svenska Kyrkan) passed a law in 1686 requiring ministers to keep these records. Some records exist for as early as 1700, but most start much later. From about 1820, surveys are available for most parishes. In Swedish the word for clerical survey records is husförslängder.
clericus
Latin word for "clergyman."
Clerk
  • An individual charged with keeping records.
Clerk of the court
  • A government official who keeps the records of a court.
clero
Portuguese word for "clergy."
Clipping file
  • A file of obituaries and other articles cut out of newspapers.
clostrarius
Latin word for "locksmith."
clérigo
Portuguese and Spanish word for "clergyman."
CM
Roman numeral for "nine-hundred."
cmentarz
Polish word for "cemetery, churchyard."
co
Polish and Czech word for "what."
Coast Guard
  • The branch of a nation's armed forces that is employed to protect and police a nation's coastline. In Great Britain, the Coast Guard was originally formed to prevent smuggling.
Coat of arms
  • An emblem used on shields and other implements of war. Coats of arms, invented in the Holy Land during the Crusades, were introduced to England by Richard I. They were originally painted on the shields of Christian soldiers to identify them. Later, the Crown granted the right to use a coat of arms to an individual to identify him in battle. Then a coat of arms became a reward for performing a heroic deed, making a notable achievement, or holding a prominent position.
cocchiere
Italian word for "coachman."
Codicil
  • A signed supplement, change, or addition to a will.
oelebs
Latin word for "bachelor, single man."
coemeterium
Latin word for "cemetery."
Coextensive (District of Columbia)
Having the same boundaries. Washington is coextensive with the District of Columbia which means that the City of Washington occupies the same space and has the same boundaries as the District of Columbia.
cofradía
Spanish word for "religious brotherhood, guild."
Cofradías, Spain
  • An organization in Spain whose membership was restricted to persons of hidalgo status (untitled Spanish nobility). In Spanish, the terms órdenes militares, confradías and confraternidades refer to military orders of chivalry that were established during the Crusades (1100–1450) to provide a fraternal religious life among the Spanish nobility. The orders were dedicated to retaking Spain from the Moors and protecting pilgrimages to the Holy Land. These orders functioned under the direction of the Pope and were independent of other ecclesiastical or civil authority. However, as the orders grew in wealth and power, they came into conflict with the Spanish Crown. By 1587 most of the orders fell under the control of the monarch. The orders became honorary in nature.
cognationis
Latin word for "blood relationship."
cognato, -a
Italian word for "brother-in-law, sister-in-law."
cognome, -i
Italian word for "surname(s)."
cognomen
Latin word for "name, family name, surname."
Cohabitation certificates
  • A record that states the legal marital status of freed slaves.
cojo
Spanish word for "lame."
col consenso
Italian word for "with the consent."
colera
Italian word for "cholera."
colheita
Portuguese word for "harvest."
colina
Portuguese and Spanish word for "hill."
Collaboration Lists
A feature on the FamilySearch Internet Genealogy Service that allows people to type in information that other people can then read or download. Users can also post questions for others to answer, answer questions posted by others, or read questions and answers already on the service. Each collaboration list focuses on a particular place, surname, or topic. Also called a computer bulletin board system (BBS) or computer message board.
Collateral (genealogy)
A member of a family but not in the direct line, such as an aunt, uncle, or cousin.
Collection Fabien, Canada
  • A collection of Catholic marriage records at the National Archives of Canada. It covers marriages that occurred from 1657 to 1974 in counties surrounding Montréal and on both the Québec and Ontario sides of the Ottawa River Valley.Collection Gagnon, Canada
    Collection Gagnon, Canada: A collection of marriage indexes, church records, and vital records about French Canadians. This collection is at the city library of Montreal.
Collection Gagnon, Canada
A collection of marriage indexes, church records, and vital records about French Canadians. This collection is at the city library of Montreal.
Collection Rhode Island Family Records
  • A collection of will abstracts and family records created by Martha A. Benns. The collection is available at the Rhode Island Historical Society and the Family History Library™.
Collections, Family History Library Catalog™
  • A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize collections of genealogical or historical information gathered by a person or group and then made available for public research.
Collective biography
  • A group of biographies about a specific group of people, such as merchants, students of an academy, or prominent citizens in an area.
Collective naturalization, USA
  • The process of granting a group of people United States citizenship. This happened in 1803 for residents of the Louisiana Purchase, in 1845 for residents of Texas, in 1868 for African-Americans, in 1898 for residents of Hawaii, and in 1924 for Native Americans. No individual naturalization records were made for people granted collective naturalization.
Collectors' roll
  • A list of property owners and how much tax they paid in a given year.
collina
Italian word for "hill."
colline
French word for "hill."
collis
Latin word for "hill."
Colonel
  • Usually the senior staff or administrative officer in the army, air force, or marines who commands a regiment. The British often gave this as an honorary title to members of noble families.
colonia
Spanish word for "colony."
Colonial census
  • A list and description of the population of a colony.
Colonial government
The government of any of the Thirteen Colonies, such as Delaware, before it became a state of the United States.
Colonial land records
  • Records kept about land matters during colonial times. These records were kept at the colony level but not at the county level.
Colonial legislature
A legislature (law-making group of people) that existed while an area was a colony of some "mother" country.
Colonial naturalization
  • A naturalization that occurred during a country's colonial period.
Colonial period, Latin America
  • The period of time from 1492 to the 1820s when Spain and Portugal controlled Latin America. During this period, the Spanish and Portuguese exploited native resources, suppressed native cultures, imported slaves from Africa, and established Catholic missions that oversaw the conversion (sometimes forced) of the native peoples to Catholicism. The native-born Spanish controlled the local governments, even pure-blooded Spaniards who had been born in the New World had little influence. The colonial period ended as the various countries in Latin America won their independence and established their own governments.
Colonial records
  • Records kept about a colony or by a colonial government.
Colonial Wars
  • Wars that occurred in what is now the United States between the French, Spanish, and British governments and between the colonists and Native Americans.
Colonist
German word for "settler, tenant farmer."
Colonization Policy
  • Agreements made by the Mexican government during the 1820s to allow Americans to colonize Texas. Moses Austin was the first American to receive permission to form a colony, but he died before he could establish it. Stephen F. Austin, his son, organized the first colony at Washington-on-the-Bravos. Other colonies soon formed. By 1830 the Mexican government was alarmed at the number of American colonists in Mexico and halted the immigration.
Colonizer
  • A person who moves from an established area to a colony.

Colony of New York: An English colony established in 1664 when Peter Stuyvesant, the Dutch governor of New Netherland, surrendered to the English. The Dutch formally gave the colony of New Netherland to the English. The English renamed it New York, calling it after the Duke of York, who would later become King James II of England.

colono
Italian word for "farmer, colonist."
colonus
Latin word for "colonist, settler, resident, farmer, peasant."
Colony of New York
An English colony established in 1664 when Peter Stuyvesant, the Dutch governor of New Netherland, surrendered to the English. The Dutch formally gave the colony of New Netherland to the English. The English renamed it New York, calling it after the Duke of York, who would later become King James II of England.
colorado (a)
Spanish word for "red."
Colorado Territory
  • A territory established in 1861 that comprised all of the present-day state of Colorado.
colorator
Latin word for "dyer."
coltivatore
Italian word for "cultivator, farmer."
colônia
Portuguese word for "colony."
come
Italian word for "as, like, how."
come sopra
Italian word for "as above."
comerciante
Portuguese and Spanish word for "merchant."
comercio 
Spanish word for "business, commerce."
comes
Latin word for "count."
comitas 
Latin word for "county."
comitatus 
Latin word for "county."
comitissa 
Latin word for "countess."
Commander
  • An officer in the navy or coast guard who ranks above a lieutenant commander and below a captain. The commander is usually second in command of the ship.
commater
Latin word for "godmother."
Commercial directory
  • An alphabetical list of craftsmen, tradesmen, merchants, and others in business within a given area.
Commercial on-line service
  • A business such as America On-line and CompuServe that is established to provide computer users with various types of services, including E-mail and access to the Internet.
commerciante di vino
Italian word for "wine merchant."
Commissariat court, Scotland
  • A Scottish court with jurisdiction over executory (probate) and civil matters until 1823. Most of the civil matters concerned debt. Also called commissary court.
Commissary court, Church of England
  • The highest court in a diocese of the Church of England. These courts also had superior jurisdiction over lesser courts in probate matters. Commissary courts are also called episcopal, bishop's, diocesan, exchequer, and consistory courts.
Commissary court, Scotland
  • A Scottish court with jurisdiction over executory (probate) and civil matters until 1823. Most of the civil matters concerned debt. Also called commissariat court.
commissionario
Italian word for "broker."
Commissioned officer
  • A military officer who holds the rank of second lieutenant, ensign, or above.
Commissioners court, Texas
  • A court in Texas with countywide jurisdiction.
Commodore, British
  • An officer in the British navy who commands a squadron.
Common pleas court, West Virginia
  • A court created by special acts of the West Virginia legislature. Its jurisdiction varies, but it may include limited civil and domestic cases and appeals from municipal and justice courts.
Commonwealth, USA
  • A term used in the official names of four states in the United States: Pennsylvania, Kentucky, Massachusetts, and Virginia.

commorantes

   Latin word for "living, residing."

Commot

   An early Welsh administrative division that was part of a cantrev.

Commstock Load

   Named for Henry Comstock (nicknamed "Old Pancake"). In 1859 he held the rights to a large silver deposit in the mines of Virginia City, Nevada, but later sold the rights for almost nothing.

communauté

   French word for "community (of goods), religious community."
Commune
  • The French word for community.

communicanten

   Dutch word for "members, communicants."

communion

   French and Norwegian word for "communion."

communionsbog

   Danish word for "communion book."
Community cemetery
  • A cemetery owned by a civil government.

Compact disc: A disc similar to the music and audio discs available in many stores. A compact disc can store large amounts of information and can be read by computers equipped with compact disc drives.

como

   Portuguese and Spanish word for "as, how."

Compact disc

   A disc similar to the music and audio discs available in many stores. A compact disc can store large amounts of information and can be read by computers equipped with compact disc drives.
Compact disc catalog
  • The Family History Library Catalog™ on compact disc.
Compact disc index
  • A computerized index to a set of records that is stored on a compact disc.
compagnon
  • French word for "journeyman, partner."
comparant
  • Dutch word for "one who appeared."
comparatio
  • Latin word for "presence, appearance."
compareerde
  • Dutch word for "appeared before."
comparu
  • French word for "appeared."
comparuit
  • Latin word for "he/she appeared, was present."
compater
  • Latin word for "godfather."


Compendium
  • A collection or compilation of information gathered from other sources.
compenso
  • Italian word for "fee."


Compiled biography
  • A compilation of the histories of people’s lives. The people selected for a compiled biography usually have something in common, such as an occupation, place of origin or residence, or experience in a historical event. Also called a biographical encyclopedia or biographical dictionary.
Compiled record:
  • collection of information that has been gathered and interpreted from many sources.
Compiled service records
  • All of the records concerning people who served in the military. These records are usually indexed.
Compiled source
  • A collection of information that has been gathered and interpreted from many sources.
Complete record
  • A complete transcript of probate cases involving the titles to real property.
compos
  • Latin word for "in possession of."
Compound surname
  • A surname (last name) that has two parts, such as McKay, MacDouglas, Van Dyke, or DeWess.
comprare
  • Italian word for "to buy."
comprend
  • French word for "includes."
Computer bulletin board system
  • A computer service that allows people to enter information that other people can then read or download. Users can also post questions for others to answer, answer questions posted by others, or read questions and answers already on the service. Many bulletin boards focus on a particular topic. Also called a computer message board or computer news group.
Computer chat session
  • A computer resource that allows people to send messages to each other in real time. This may also be called a conference.
Computer interest group
  • A group of people who share a common interest and use computer on-line services to share information, learn about the particular topic, promote projects, or publish newsletters.
Computer lecture session
  • A computer program that allows an individual to conduct a “classroom lecture” through a computer network or on-line service.
Computer message board
  • A computer service that allows people to enter information that other people can then read or download. Users can also post questions for others to answer, answer questions posted by others, or read questions and answers already on the service. Many computer message boards focus on a particular topic. Also called a computer bulletin board system (BBS) or computer news group.
Computer network
  • A group of computers electronically connected to each other so they can share information and programs.
Computer news group
  • A computer service that allows people to enter information that other people can then read or download. Users can also post questions for others to answer, answer questions posted by others, or read questions and answers already on the service. Many news groups focus on a particular topic. Also called a computer bulletin board system (BBS) or computer message board.
Computer number
  • A number used to identify each entry in the Family History Library Catalog™. Using the Computer Number search is the fastest way to find a record in the catalog.
Computer on-line services
  • The various features available to computer users through networks and modems, such as E-mail and Internet access. Computer on-line services usually refer to commercial organizations, such as America On-line or CompuServe, that provide such services for a fee.
Computer record
  • A record that is stored in a computer-readable format.
Computerized phone directory
  • A list of people's names, addresses, and telephone numbers that can be searched by computer.
Comstock Lode
  • A large gold and silver deposit discovered in central Nevada, near Virginia City, in 1859. It attracted many miners from California, and Virginia City became one of the largest, most prosperous cities in the Rocky Mountain West. Mining began to fade in the 1880s, and the population of Nevada declined as a result.
Comte
  • The third highest ranking title in the French peerage. A comte ranks below a marquis (marquess) and above a vicomte (viscount). A comte is equal to a count in other parts of continental Europe and an earl in Great Britain.

comune

   Italian word for "municipality."

comunhão

   Portuguese word for "communion."

comunione

   Italian word for "communion."

comunità

   Italian word for "community, township."

comunión

   Spanish word for "communion."

con

   Italian and Spanish word for "with."

concejal

   Spanish word for "councilman."

concelho

   Portuguese word for "council, counsel."

concepta est

   Latin word for "she was pregnant."

concernente

   Portuguese word for "concerning."

concerniente

   Spanish word for "concerning."


Concession, Canada
  • A division of a township in eastern Canada.

concessit

   Latin word for "consented."

conciatore

   Italian word for "tanner."




concilio

   Spanish word for "council."

concilio tridentino

   Spanish word for "Council of Trent."

concubina

   Italian word for "concubine."

concubine

   French word for "concubine."

condado

   Spanish word for "county."

conde, Portuguese

   Portuguese word for "count, earl".
Conde
  • The third highest raking title of Spanish nobility. A conde (equivalent in rank to a count or earl) ranks below a marqués (marques or marquis) and above a vizconde (viscount).

conditione, sub

   Latin word for "conditionally."

condizione

   Italian word for "status, condition."

conducente

   Italian word for "driver."


Confederacy
  • The southern states that seceded from the United States in 1861. These states were Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia.


Confederate

   A person who supported the Southern States prior to, during, and after the Civil War. Also an adjective describing things relating to the states that seceded from the United States, such as places, military forces, and flags.
Confederate prisoners
  • Men who served in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War and were taken as prisoners of war.

Confederate armed forces

   The army and navy of the Southeran states during the United States Civil War.
Confederate scrip lands
  • Land grants issued by Texas to Confederate veterans who were permanently disabled in the American Civil War or to widows of soldiers who were killed during the war.

Confederation (of Canada)

   The union on 1 July 1867 of the former British colonies of Canada West (Ontario), Canada East (Quebec), New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia as the Dominion of Canada. It now includes all the present provinces and territories of Canada.

confermazione

   Italian word for "confirmation."

confettiere

   Italian word for "confectioner."
Confirmación
  • A Spanish term meaning confirmation. Also used in the Philippines. The plural is confirmaciones.
Confirmações
  • A Portuguese word for confirmations.

confirmatie

   Dutch word for "confirmation."
Confirmation record
  • A record created by a church when an individual is confirmed.
Confirmation, general
  • A church rite that allows an individual to become a member of a church.

Confirmation, Latter-day Saint

   An ordinance of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in which an individual becomes a member of the Church and receives the gift of the Holy Ghost. 

confirmeraður

   Icelandic word for "confirmed, confirmand."

confirmerede

   Norwegian word for "confirmed."

confirmeret

   Danish word for "confirmed."
Conflict between Denmark and Sweden (1643-1645)
  • A military action in which Sweden invaded and defeated Denmark and Jutland. In 1645 the Treaty of Christianopel forced Denmark to cede some of its possessions to Sweden.
Confraternidades, Spain
  • An organization in Spain whose membership was restricted to persons of hidalgo status (untitled Spanish nobility). In Spanish, the terms órdenes militares, confradías and confraternidades refer to military orders of chivalry that were established during the Crusades (1100–1450) to provide a fraternal religious life among the Spanish nobility. The orders were dedicated to retaking Spain from the Moors and protecting pilgrimages to the Holy Land. These orders functioned under the direction of the Pope and were independent of other ecclesiastical or civil authority. However, as the orders grew in wealth and power, they came into conflict with the Spanish Crown. By 1587 most of the orders fell under the control of the monarch. The orders became honorary in nature.

confronta (cfr.)

   Italian word for "compare."

congestion cérébrale

   French word for "stroke."

congiunto

   Italian word for "related."
Congo
  • A term used in Brazilian Catholic Church registers to describe a person who is from the Congo region of Africa. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
Congregation
  • A group of people who support the same parish or branch of a church or regularly meet together for religious services. The term can also refer to any gathering of people.
Congregationalist Church
  • A group of Protestant churches whose beliefs are based on the teachings of John Calvin. They support the right of individual congregations to rule themselves, including selecting their own ministers, and oppose government interference in religion. Congregationalism developed out of the Separatist movement in Great Britain, where they are also known as Independents. In 1931 the Congregationalist churches in the United States merged with three smaller churches to form the Congregational Christian Churches. In 1957 they merged with the Evangelical and Reformed Churches to form the United Church of Christ. However, several Congregational groups did not join. In 1972 Congregationalist and Presbyterians congregations in England united to form the United Reformed Church. Welsh and Scottish congregations did not join.
Congress lands
  • Land in Ohio that was owned by the United States government and sold by general acts of Congress. Congress lands included land sold to the Ohio Company and John Cleves Symmes. Much of the land was reserved for soldiers who had served in the Revolutionary War and refugees from Canada who had supported the colonies during the war. Much of the reserved land was not claimed, and it reverted back to being Congress land. Most of what is now the state of Ohio was Congress land. The term Congress land can also refer to any federal land disposed of by acts of Congress.

Congress, USA

   The legislative or law-making branch of the government. Congress is divided into two groups: the House of Representatives and the Senate.

conhecido (a)

   Portuguese word for "known, acquaintance."

conhecido (a) como

   Portuguese word for "known as."

coniugati

   Italian word for "married."

coniugi

   Italian word for "married couple."

conjoint

   French word for "spouse, assistant."

conjugatus

   Latin word for "married."

conjuges

   Latin word for "married couple."

conjugum

   Latin word for "of/from the married couple."

conjuncti sunt

   Latin word for "they were joined (in marriage)."

conjux

   Latin word for "spouse."

connaissance

   French word for "acquaintance."

connessione

   Italian word for "relationship."

conocido (a)

   Spanish word for "known, acquaintance."

conocido (a) como

   Spanish word for "known as."

consanguinidad

   Spanish word for "blood relationship, kinship."

consanguinitatis

   Latin word for "of blood relationship (such as cousins)."

consangüinidade

   Portuguese word for "blood relationship, kinship."


Conscription
  • Mandatory enrollment for military service.
Conscription list
  • A type of military record used in Latin America, translated as listas de quintas or conscripciones. These are lists of new recruits and, in some cases, all males eligible for military service. In many cases, these records are found in town or municipal archives. They can serve as a type of census of all the males who lived in a community at the time the list was compiled.

conseil d'état civil

   French word for "civil registrar's."
Conseil Superieur, French Louisiana
  • The judicial arm of government in French Louisiana. It handled all judicial matters in the colony. The administrative arm of government was called the conseil de regie. These two branches often met together, and it is difficult to distinguish them. The conseil superieur is also called the French Superior Council.

conseiller

   French word for "councilor."

consejo

   Spanish word for "council."

consenso

   Italian word for "consent."
Consent papers
  • A document signed by the parents of children who are legally too young to marry to give them permission to marry.

consentement

   French word for "consent."

conservato

   Italian word for "preserved."

consigliere

   Italian word for "counselor."
Consistory court, Church of England
  • The highest court in a diocese of the Church of England. These courts also had superior jurisdiction over lesser courts in probate matters. Consistory courts are also called episcopal, commissary, diocesan, exchequer, and bishop's courts.

consobrina

   Latin word for "female cousin (usually on the mother's side)."

consobrinus

   Latin word for "male cousin (usually on the mother's side)."

consors (consortis)

   Latin word for "wife."

consorte

   Portuguese and Spanish word for "spouse, partner."

constipación

   Spanish word for "constipation."

constipação

   Portuguese word for "constipation."

Constitution

   The document that lists the basic laws, powers, and duties of a state or nation and which guarantees certain rights of the people.

consumimiento

   Spanish word for "consumption."

consunção

   Portuguese word for "consumption."

conta

   Portuguese word for "account, bill."

contabile

   Italian word for "accountant."

contadino, -a

   Italian word for "farm laborer, peasant."

conte

   Italian word for "count, earl."

contea

   Italian word for "county."

contenido

   Spanish word for "contents."


Contents
  • The information contained in a record.

contenu

   French word for "content."

conteúdo

   Portuguese word for "contents."
Continental Line
  • Troops who were part of the regular Revolutionary War army raised by the Continental Congress. They were not part of state militia units.
Continental pedigree
  • A table that lists the name and date and place of birth, marriage, and death for an individual and a specified number of his or her ancestors. This chart is also called an ahnentafel chart.

conto

   Italian word for "account, bill."

contra, Latin

   Latin word for "against, opposite."

contra, Portuguese

   Portuguese word for "against."


Contract
  • A legally binding agreement between parties.

contractant

   French word for "the groom (in a marriage record)."

contractante

   French word for "the bride (in a marriage record)."

contracti

   Latin word for "contracted, drawn together."

contrada

   Italian word for "town quarter."

contraente

   Portuguese word for "contracting party in a marriage."

contrajó matrimonio con (c.m.c.)

   Spanish word for "contracted marriage with."
Contrat de mariage
  • A French term for marriage contract, a document created to protect the legal rights and property of a couple who are to be married.
Contrato de compra-venta
  • The Spanish term for a contract documenting the purchase and sale of goods.

contratto di matrimonio

   Italian word for "marriage contract."

contraxerunt

   Latin word for "they contracted (marriage)."

contrayente

   Spanish word for "contracting party in a marriage."

contre

   French word for "against."

contro

   Italian word for "against."

Conversion guide

   A guide that lists two sets of microfilm numbers for the same set of microfilms. For example, the Archives of Ontario and the Family History Library both have copies of the same microfilms of vital records of births, marriages, and deaths from the Province of Ontario, Canada. The Archives of Ontario uses one numbering system for those records, and the Family History Library uses another numbering system. The Archives of Ontario has a conversion guide that lists both the Archives of Ontario and the Family History Library film numbers for each roll of microfilm in the set.

conversione

   Italian word for "conversion."

conversión

   Spanish word for "conversion."

conversão

   Portuguese word for "conversion."

Conveyance

   A title deed; a document drawn up to transfer property from one person to another.

Convict records

   Records of convicts who were deported to colonies of their country. These include records made in the new colony or country while the people were still convicts.

Convict Records, FamilySearch

   A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize records of convicts who were deported to colonies of their country. These include records made in the new colony or country while the people were still convicts.

convulsione, -i

   Italian word for "convulsion(s)."

convulsionis

   Latin word for "of convulsions."

convulsión

   Spanish word for "convulsion."

convulsão

   Portuguese word for "convulsion."
Cook
  • In the British military, an officer who prepares food. In the United States military, the cook is an enlisted man rather than an officer.
Cook County, Illinois
  • The county in Illinois of which Chicago is a part.

cooperta

   Latin word for "married (of a woman)."

coopvaerdi

   Swedish word for "merchant marine."

Gilbert Cope's Collection of Family Data (Cope collection)

   A collection of family history information about Quakers and others who lived in southeastern Pennsylvania and Burlington, Cumberland, Gloucester, and Salem counties in New Jersey.

copie civili di registri parrocchiali

   Italian word for "parish register transcripts."

copulati sunt

   Latin word for "they were married, joined."

copulationis

   Latin word for "of marriage."

copulatus

   Latin word for "married, joined."

copulavit

   Latin word for "he married (performed wedding)."


Copulerede
  • A Danish word for marriages.

copuleret

   Danish word for "married."

copulieren

   German word for "to marry."

Copyhold land, England

   Land held subject to the will of the lord of a manor. Title to the land was recorded in the manor court rolls, and the tenant was given a copy. A copyhold could not be inherited unless the heir released the land to the lord and was confirmed by the lord on payment of a fee. The same applied to other copyhold land transfers.
Copyhold records, Denmark
  • Danish land contracts that document agreements between the landowner and farmers wishing to lease crown-held land. These contracts were made before 1850 and include the name of the former occupant, his reason for leaving the farm, the name and sometimes birthplace of the new leaseholder, the new leaseholder's relationship to the former leaseholder (if any), the date of transfer, and a description of the land. If there was no breach of contract, the landowner could not evict the leaseholder. In Danish these records are called fæsteprotokoller.
Copyright
  • The exclusive legal right to reproduce, publish, and sell an original literary or artistic work that is granted for a specific time to the author or originator.

coqueluche

   French and Portuguese word for "whooping cough."

coquus

   Latin word for "cook."

coram

   Latin word for "in the presence of."
Corbin Manuscript Collection, Massachusetts
  • A manuscript collection of information about people from central and western Massachusetts. It includes local histories, church records, town records, genealogies, and transcripts of Bible and cemetery records. It is helpful for the years 1650 to 1850.

cordaio

   italian word for "rope maker."

cordelero

   Spanish word for "rope maker."

cordier

   French word for "rope maker."

cordoeiro

   Portuguese word for "rope maker."

cordonnier

   French word for "shoemaker."

coriarius

   Latin word for "tanner, leather worker."


Cornet, British
  • The fifth-ranking commissioned officer in a British infantry. The cornet carries the colors. The rank is equal with the ensign in the cavalry.
Cornish
  • A member of the ethno-linguistic group which originated in Cornwall. A speaker of the Brythonic Celtic language of Cornwall.
Coroner
  • A public official who inquires into deaths of people who did not die under the care of a physician or people whose deaths may not have been due to natural causes.
Coroner's inquest
  • The records relating to a coroner's examination of a body to determine the cause of death.
Corporation court, Virginia
  • A court formed in 1850 in independent cities, such as Richmond, to handle minor civil and criminal cases and equity, probate, and orphan matters. In 1902, the circuit courts assumed the duties of the corporation courts.

corpus (corporis)

   Latin word for "body."
Corrected record of birth
  • A document showing a change or addition to a birth certificate.
Correctional Institutions, Family History Library Catalog™
  • A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize information about jails, prisons, halfway houses, and other correctional institutions.

corrente

   Italian and Portuguese word for "current."
Correspondence
  • The exchange of written communication, such as a letter and a response.

corriente

   Spanish word for "current."

corriere

   Italian word for "couier."

corte

   Italian and Portuguese word for "court."

cortiça

   Portuguese word for "cork."

cosecha

   Spanish word for "harvest."

costruttore

   Italian word for "builder."

così

   Italian word for "thus, so."

cotarius

   Latin word for "cottager."

couches

   French word for "bed, marital bed." Morte en couches means "died in childbirth."
Council of probate, Rhode Island
  • A probate court in Rhode Island. The council of probate is also known as the general council.
Council of Trent
  • A series of conferences held between 1545 and 1563 in Trent, Italy. The focus of the council was to define Catholic beliefs and counteract the Protestant Reformation. The council also formalized record-keeping practices that were being followed in much of the Catholic world.

Council, Virginia

   The legislative body and court of appeals for the colony of Virginia during its earliest period. 
Count
  • A title of nobility in continental Europe, equal in rank to a British earl. Generally, a count ranks below a marquess and above a viscount. In German, a count is called a Graf. In Spain, Portugal, and Latin America, a count is called a conde. In France, a count is called a comte.
Counter Reformation
  • A religious movement that occurred during the 1500s and 1600s as the Catholic Church tried to unify its beliefs and stop the spread of Protestantism. It led to a series of wars that occurred when Catholic governments tried to stop the spread of Protestantism in their countries. These wars include civil war in France (1565–1648), rebellion in the Netherlands (1585–1604), conflicts between Spain and England (1585–1604), and the Thirty Years War (1618–1648).

Country

   The highest level of government in a given area.
Country of arrival
  • The country to which an immigrant moves.
Country of origin
  • The country from which an individual moved.
County
  • A division within a country, state, or province.
County commissioner
  • An elected official who sits on the council that creates county laws and ordinances.
County commissioner's court, Illinois
  • A court in Illinois with countywide jurisdiction over disputes concerning county roads, turnpikes, canals, taxes, and licenses. These courts have evolved into administrative rather than judicial bodies.
County commissioner's court, Maine
  • A court in Maine with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases. From 1699 to 1831 county commissioner's courts were called courts of general sessions. They were replaced by the district courts in 1961.
County court orders, Kentucky
  • Land grants sold by counties in Kentucky beginning in 1835.
County court, Alabama
  • A court with countywide jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases. These courts have also been called inferior courts, superior courts, chancery courts, intermediate courts, common pleas courts, civil courts, criminal courts, law and equity courts, general sessions courts, and law and juvenile courts.
County court, Arkansas
  • A court with countywide jurisdiction over juvenile cases, taxes, claims, and county expenditures.
County court, Canada
  • A provincial court in Canada that handles certain types of criminal cases and civil cases involving more than a specified amount of money. Also called a midlevel county court or judicial district court. Many provinces no longer use these courts.
County court, Colorado
  • A court with countywide jurisdiction over misdemeanors, preliminary hearings, the issuance of some warrants, some bail matters, minor civil cases, probates, and some appeals.
County court, Connecticut
  • A court with countywide jurisdiction over civil, minor criminal, chancery, and divorce cases. These courts existed from 1666 to 1855.

County court, Florida

   A court with countywide jurisdiction over probates, marriages, administration, and guardianships. 
County court, general
  • A court with jurisdiction over a county.
County court, Illinois
  • A court with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases. In some counties, the county courts also have jurisdiction over probates.
County court, Kansas
  • A court with countywide jurisdiction over some criminal cases, including traffic violations, and minor civil cases.
County court, Kentucky
  • A court with countywide jurisdiction over criminal and civil cases, bonds, deeds, probates, and juvenile matters. After 1852 most criminal cases were heard by the circuit or quarterly courts.
County court, Maryland
  • A court with countywide jurisdiction over criminal and civil cases. In 1851 the county courts were replaced by circuit courts.
County court, Massachusetts
  • A court in Massachusetts with countywide jurisdiction. County courts are also called quarter courts or inferior quarter courts.
County court, Michigan
  • A court with countywide jurisdiction. Michigan abolished these courts in 1833. Few of the remaining records have genealogical value.
County court, Mississippi
  • A court with countywide jurisdiction over misdemeanors, some law and equity cases, and appeals from other courts.
County court, Nebraska
  • A countywide court with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases and juvenile and probate actions.
County court, New Jersey
  • A court in New Jersey with countywide jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases. County courts replaced the courts of common pleas, oyer and terminer, general quarter sessions, special sessions, and orphan's courts. In 1978 county courts were replaced by the superior courts.
County court, New York
  • A court with countywide jurisdiction over criminal cases, minor equity cases, and some appeals. These are the major trial courts for each county in New York.
County court, North Carolina
  • A court with countywide jurisdiction over civil cases, estate settlements, land entries, military pension declarations, and criminal cases. These courts were abolished in 1868.
County court, North Dakota
  • A court with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases, probates, and guardianships.
County court, Ohio
  • A court in Ohio with countywide jurisdiction over minor criminal cases and civil cases.
County court, Oregon
  • A court with countywide jurisdiction over probate, juvenile cases, and civil cases under $500.
County court, Pennsylvania
  • A court in Pennsylvania with countywide jurisdiction over equity and estate cases, civil cases, and criminal cases (except for capital crimes). The courts also performed many executive duties, such as laying out roads, registering marks and brands, levying taxes, supervising indentured servants, and so forth. The justices of county courts also met as an orphan's court to deal with orphan matters. County courts were used from 1682 to 1722.
County court, South Carolina
  • A court with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases. These courts existed between 1785 to 1798.

County court, Texas: A court with countywide jurisdiction over major criminal cases, civil cases, and naturalizations.

County court, Virginia
  • A court in Virginia with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases and equity, probate, and orphan matters. County courts existed from 1618 to 1902, when they were replaced by circuit courts. Also called monthly courts (1618–1634) and courts of the shire.
County court, Wisconsin
  • A court in Wisconsin with countywide jurisdiction over criminal and civil cases, probates, juvenile matters and dependency and neglect matters. From 1854 to 1913 the county courts handled probate matters but did not have criminal or civil jurisdiction.
County courthouse, archive
  • A building that houses county offices and county records.
County courthouse, court records
  • A building that houses a county-level court of law.


===============
County directory
  • A list of the names and addresses of people living in a county.
County history
  • A written account of the events that took place in a county. County histories often include biographical sketches of county residents.
County justice court, North Dakota
  • A court in North Dakota with jurisdiction in counties that do not have county courts. They have jurisdiction over misdemeanors and civil cases.
County map
  • A map that shows the land in a county.
County probate court, Arizona
  • A court in Arizona with countywide jurisdiction over paying a deceased person's debts and distributing his or her property. Since 1912 the superior courts have handled probates.
County probate court, Utah
  • A court in Utah with countywide jurisdiction over probate actions. These courts were used from 1850 to 1896.
County record office
  • An archive that houses records for a particular county in England, Scotland, and Wales.
County records
  • Records, such as birth, marriage, death, and land records, kept by a county government.
County registrar
  • A county official charged with keeping deed records.
County seat
  • The town that houses a county's governmental offices. Also called a county town.
County surrogate court indexes, New Jersey
  • Indexes to probate records kept by the county surrogate courts in New Jersey.
County surrogate court, New Jersey
  • A court that began handling New Jersey probate cases in 1804.
County town
  • The town that houses a county's governmental offices. Also called a county seat.
Countywide index
  • An index to a group of records covering a single county. For example, a countywide index may cover one county of a state within a federal census.

coup de sang

   French word for "paralytic stroke."

cour

   French word for "court."

courant

   French word for "current."
Court calendar
  • Lists of cases heard by a court. Court calendars may list the names of the plaintiff and defendant, the date the case was heard, the case file number, and all documents related to the case. They are also called dockets.
Court case file
  • A packet or bundle of the loose documents relating to a court case, such as copies of evidence, testimonies, bonds, depositions, correspondence, and petitions.
Court clerk
  • An officer of the court who files pleadings, motions, and judgments and keeps records of court proceedings.
Court decree
  • A record of a court’s decision on a case. Also called a court judgment or court order.
Court directory
  • A list of city officers, government officials, and private residents.

Court district

   The area of land over which a court has authority.

Court executions, New Jersey

   Recorded actions taken by a New Jersey court of chancery.
Court executions, New Jersey
  • Recorded actions taken by a New Jersey court of chancery.
Court for trial of Negroes, Pennsylvania
  • A court in Pennsylvania with countywide jurisdiction over African-Americans who were accused of committing crimes. This court existed from 1700 to 1780.
Court judgment
  • A record of a court’s decision on a case. Also called a court decree or court order.
Court minutes
  • Brief daily accounts of all actions taken by a court. Minutes list the names of the plaintiff and defendant and briefly describe the action taken.
Court of appeal, Ohio
  • A court in Ohio with countywide jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases, including equity and divorce cases.
Court of appeals deed book, Kentucky
  • A record of disputes and litigation that occurred over land rights in Kentucky.
Court of appeals, California
  • A statewide court in California that hears cases appealed from lower courts.
Court of appeals, Canada
  • A division of a provincial superior or supreme court in Canada. The court hears appeals of civil and criminal cases from the Trial Division (Court of Queens' Bench) and from lower courts.
Court of appeals, Colorado
  • An intermediate court in Colorado with statewide jurisdiction over appeals from district courts, the Denver Superior Court, probate courts, and juvenile courts.
Court of appeals, Maryland
  • The highest court in Maryland. It has statewide jurisdiction over criminal, civil, and probate appeals.
Court of appeals, Oklahoma
  • An intermediate court in Oklahoma with statewide jurisdiction to hear appeals from lower courts.
Court of arches, England
  • A court that heard appeals from the Prerogative Court of Canterbury.
Court of assistants, Connecticut
  • The main court of jurisdiction in Connecticut for all matters of law, including appeals from town and borough courts. The court of assistants lasted from 1665 to 1711.
Court of assizes, New York
  • The highest provincial court in New York from 1665 to 1683. It was located in New York City and heard civil, criminal, and probate cases.
Court of chancery, New Jersey
  • A court in New Jersey with statewide jurisdiction that gradually received jurisdiction over civil and equity cases, mortgage foreclosures, lis pendens, land partitions, payment of debt, probate suits, lunacy inquisitions, naturalizations, divorces, and child custody. These functions are now handled by the superior courts.
Court of chancery, New York
  • A court in New York with statewide jurisdiction over civil equity matters such as mortgage foreclosures, real property proceedings, sales of estates in dower and curtesy, naturalizations, matrimonial disputes, divorces, guardianships, and child custody. It absorbed the court of probate and had appellate jurisdiction over surrogates' courts. After 1847 equity responsibilities were assigned to the state's supreme court.
Court of chancery, Ontario, Canada
  • A court with jurisdiction over equity cases in Ontario. (Equity cases are court cases in which parties are disputing over a matter that is not a violation of law, and the court is asked to make a fair decision.) This court was established in 1837.
Court of chancery, South Carolina
  • A type of court used in South Carolina from 1671 to the 1790s. It handled land and inheritance matters for the entire colony.
Court of chancery/equity, Pennsylvania
  • A court in Pennsylvania with jurisdiction over equity cases.
Court of civil appeals, Alabama
  • A court in Alabama with statewide jurisdiction over civil cases appealed from lower courts.

Court of common law

   A court with jurisdiction over criminal cases. 
Court of common pleas, Delaware
  • A court in Delaware with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil suits, minor criminal cases, appeals from lesser courts, adoption cases, and cases to terminate parental rights. Courts of common pleas operated from 1701 to 1831, when the authority of the court of common pleas was given to the superior courts. Before 1792 the courts of common pleas also heard cases now handled by the chancery courts.
Court of common pleas, England
  • One of the four superior courts at Westminster. It heard civil cases between commoners. In 1873 it became the Common Pleas division of the High Court of Justice, which was merged with the Queen's Bench division in 1880.

Court of common pleas, general

   A countywide court, usually having civil and criminal jurisdiction. 
Court of common pleas, Indiana
  • A court that existed from 1790 to 1817 and from 1853 to 1873. It heard insanity, guardianship, probate, naturalization, equity, criminal, and civil cases.
Court of common pleas, Missouri
  • A court with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases before the 1880s. Not all counties in Missouri had courts of common pleas.
Court of common pleas, New Hampshire
  • A court in New Hampshire with jurisdiction over civil matters from 1769 to 1820 and from 1824 to 1859.
Court of common pleas, New Jersey
  • A court in New Jersey with countywide jurisdiction over civil cases and appeals from the justice and small cause courts.
Court of common pleas, New York
  • A court established in each city or county in New York to handle civil cases such as marriages, naturalizations, name changes, probates, exemptions from military duty, lunacy cases, tavern licenses, insolvency cases, old age assistance, manumissions, the laying of roads, settlements of boundary disputes, and child support and custody. These courts also handled appeals from the justices of the peace. These courts existed from 1691 to 1847, when they were replaced by county courts.
Court of common pleas, Ohio
  • A court in Ohio with districtwide jurisdiction over felonies, marriages, major civil cases, juvenile matters, probates (until 1852), naturalizations (until 1860 and after 1906), chancery matters (until 1900), and divorces (until 1894).
Court of common pleas, Pennsylvania
  • A court in Pennsylvania with countywide jurisdiction over criminal and civil cases including real estate, bankruptcy, tax collection, naturalization, and divorce. The court was created in 1722 and is still used today.
Court of common pleas, Rhode Island
  • A court in Rhode Island with countywide jurisdiction over most criminal and civil matters. These courts were established in 1730 and continue today.
Court of common pleas, South Carolina
  • A court that had statewide jurisdiction over guardianship and civil cases until 1790, when district courts assumed these cases. Courts of common pleas continue to operate today.
Court of common pleas, West Virginia
  • A court established in some counties. The court has limited jurisdiction over civil and domestic cases. It also hears appeals from municipal and justice courts. These courts have also been called criminal courts, intermediate courts, and statutory courts.
Court of criminal appeals, Alabama
  • A court in Alabama with statewide jurisdiction over criminal cases appealed from lower courts.
Court of criminal appeals, Oklahoma
  • A court in Oklahoma that hears appeals of criminal cases from lower courts.
Court of delegates, England
  • A court that heard final appeals from the Court of Arches until 1832. It was formerly the great court of appeal in all ecclesiastical cases. The High Court of Delegates was established by law during the reign of Henry VIII. No permanent judges were appointed, but in every case of appeal a special commission usually appointed three judges to hear the case.
Court of equity, South Carolina
  • A court in South Carolina with countywide jurisdiction over property matters. Courts of equity were used from 1791 to 1900.
Court of First Instance, Philippines
  • A court in the Philippines with jurisdiction over land records, wills, etc.
Court of general quarter session, New Hampshire
  • A court in New Hampshire with jurisdiction over civil and criminal matters from 1769 to 1794 and from 1820 to 1824.
Court of general quarter sessions, Delaware
  • A court in Delaware with jurisdiction over all criminal cases except capital crimes. These courts have existed since 1676 and continue to operate today.
Court of general sessions of the peace, New York
  • A court in New York with countywide jurisdiction over criminal cases such as desertions, apprenticeship disputes, bastardy, and other violations of vice and immorality laws. These courts existed from 1665 to 1962, handling probate matters from 1665 to 1683 and then only criminal cases after 1691. Their jurisdiction was transferred to the county court in 1847, except in New York County, where they continued until 1962.
Court of general sessions, Maine
  • A court in Maine with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases. These courts became the county commissioner's courts in 1831 and were replaced by the district courts in 1961.
Court of general sessions, South Carolina
  • A court in South Carolina with statewide jurisdiction over criminal cases. This court was used from 1769 to 1790.
Court of ordinary, Georgia
  • A court with countywide jurisdiction over homesteads, land warrants, licenses, indentures, paupers, voting registers, and marriages. From 1777 to 1798 and after 1852 these courts also had jurisdiction over probates.
Court of oyer and terminer and general gaol delivery, New York
  • A court in New York with countywide jurisdiction over capital crimes such as treason and murder. These courts were used from 1683 to 1895.
Court of oyer and terminer, Delaware
  • A court in Delaware with jurisdiction over capital cases. These courts have existed since 1746 and continue to operate today.
Court of oyer and terminer, New Jersey
  • A court in New Jersey with countywide jurisdiction over all crimes committed within the county except for capital offenses of treason and murder. These courts were abolished in 1947.
Court of probates, New York
  • A court in New York that had jurisdiction over probates from 1778 to 1823. Until 1783, the prerogative court also handled probates in British-occupied New York City, Long Island, and Staten Island.
Court of quarter sessions of the peace, Pennsylvania
  • A court in Pennsylvania with countywide jurisdiction over criminal and other cases. This court was created in 1722 and is still used today.
Court of quarter sessions, England and Ireland
  • A countywide court that met quarterly in England and Ireland to hear criminal cases such as murder, riot, theft, assault, poaching, and so forth. The court did not hear civil cases or criminal cases involving treason or forgery. Starting in 1531 these courts also administered the poor law.
Court of quarter sessions, general
  • A court that meets four times a year.
Court of quarter sessions, Georgia
  • A court used in colonial Georgia. No records exist from these courts.
Court of quarter sessions, Indiana
  • A statewide court with jurisdiction over all criminal and civil cases and probate matters between 1796 and 1813.
Court of quarter sessions, Kentucky
  • A court with jurisdiction over suits involving large amounts of money. This court existed between 1787 and 1802.
Court of quarter sessions, Tennessee
  • A court with countywide jurisdiction over minor civil and criminal cases and estate matters.
Court of Queen's Bench, Canada
  • A division of a provincial superior or supreme court in Canada. The court hears serious civil and criminal cases and has the authority to grant divorces. Also called Court of King's Bench if the reigning monarch is a king and also called Trial Division.

Court of Requests, England

   A court used to recover small debts, intended originally for use by the poor. It was abolished in 1642, and its function was taken over by county Quarter Sessions courts.
Court of schouts and schepens, New Netherland
  • A court in New Netherland, which later became the state of New York, that had jurisdiction over criminal and civil cases from 1653 to 1674. These courts were replaced by mayor's courts.
Court of Session, Scotland
  • The highest court in Scotland. It handles cases that deal with revenue, including debt to the Crown, and cases that lower courts refer to it.

Court of Star Chamber, England

   A high court, under the direct authority of the king, that mostly handled cases involving riots, perjury, and serious misdemeanors. It was abolished in 1642.
Court of the Exchequer, England
  • A court in England that originally had charge over keeping the king's accounts and collecting taxes. It began hearing cases between subjects, but this ended in 1290. After 1290 its jurisdiction was limited to cases regarding people who were withholding taxes or who refused to repay debts to the Crown. It later regained its jurisdiction over suits between subjects.
Court of the Exchequer, Scotland
  • A national court in Scotland that dealt with revenue issues, including debt to the Crown. This court existed from 1708 to 1856, when its jurisdiction was transferred to the Court of Session.
Court of the general quarter session, Upper Canada
  • A court with jurisdiction over criminal matters in Upper Canada (Ontario). These courts operated from 1777 to 1868. They met four times a year.
Court of the general quarter sessions of the peace, New Jersey
  • A court in New Jersey with countywide jurisdiction over minor criminal cases, such as desertions, vice, apprenticeship disputes, and bastardy. Before 1704 these courts also had jurisdiction over civil cases. These courts were dissolved in 1947. They are also called county courts.

Court of the King's Bench, England

   A court of Common Law that handled matters of direct interest to the King or which were to be tried by his court. It was one of three courts that evolved from the earlier Curia Regis.

Court of Ward and Liveries, England

   A high court, under the direct authority of the king, which handled cases of inheritance of land. It was abolished in 1646.
Court order
  • A record of a court’s decision on a case. Also called a court decree or court judgment.


Court Records, Family History Library Catalog™
  • A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize records, such as dockets and court minutes, kept by courts.
Court records, general
  • Records kept by courts of law.

Court, PERiodical Source Index

   A record type used in the Locality and Research Methodologies sections of the PERiodical Source Index (PERSI) to identify articles that contain information about court records. 
Courthouse, archive
  • A building that houses a court of law or county offices and county records.

cousin(e)

   French word for "cousin."

cousin(e) germain(e)

   French word for "first cousin."
Coûtume de Paris
  • An old French law system, used in the area surrounding Paris in 1664, on which civil law in Québec (Canada) was based.

couvreur

   French word for "roofer."

cova

   Portuguese word for "grave."
Covenant, general
  • A legally binding agreement between two or more parties.

coxo (a),

   Portuguese word for "lame."
Coyote
  • A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian (3/8), African (1/8), and Spanish Caucasian (1/2). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.

Coûtume de Paris

   An old French law system, used in the area surrounding Paris in 1664, on which civil law in Québec (Canada) was based.

cras

   Latin word for "tomorrow."

Creator (of a record)

   The person, church, or government official or agency who made an original document or record. The "author" of a record.

creatura dei

   Latin word for "foundling (creature of God)."
Creek War (1836-1837)
  • A disturbance in eastern Alabama caused by the impending removal of the Creek tribe of Native Americans according to a treaty signed in 1832.
Creek, Native Americans
  • Tribes of Native Americans who originally lived in Alabama and Georgia. In 1832 they were forced to sign a treaty that required them to move to the Indian Territory, west of the Mississippi River.
Creole
  • A descendant of the original Spanish, Portuguese, or French settlers of the Americas.

cresima

   Italian word for "confirmation."

cresimato, -i

   Italian word for "confirmee(s)."

criada

   Portuguese and Spanish word for "maid."

criança

   Portuguese word for "child."

criatura

   Spanish word for "infant, child."
Crimean War (1854-1856)
  • A war fought over religious, commercial, and strategic issues between Russia and the combined forces of Great Britain, France, the Ottoman Empire, and Sardinia. Russia was defeated and forced to give up some of the land it had taken from the Ottoman Empire.
Criminal case
  • A proceeding against an individual charged with a violation of law that harmed or could have harmed society. Criminal cases include theft, murder, and drunk driving.
Criminal court
  • A court that hears criminal cases (cases in which a violation of law harmed or could have harmed society). Such cases include theft, murder, and drunk driving.
Criminal court, West Virginia
  • A court created by special acts of the West Virginia legislature. The jurisdiction of these courts varies, but it may include limited civil and domestic cases and appeals from municipal and justice courts.
Criminal jurisdiction
  • The authority of a court to hear criminal cases that involve violations of law in which society was harmed or could have been harmed.
Criminal law
  • The laws in a country that define criminal offences (offences that harm society), set the rules for the arrest and possibly for the trial of those accused of crimes, and define punishment for crimes. Offences range in seriousness from disorderly conduct to murder.
Criollo
  • A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person born in Latin America whose ancestors are all from Spain (a pure-blooded Spaniard born in Latin America).
Crioulo
  • A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person born in Latin America whose ancestors are all from Europe.
Crismas
  • A Spanish word for chrism, or holy oil used in Latin and Greek churches for baptisms, confirmations, and other rites.

cristiano (a)

   Spanish word for "Christian."

cristiano, -a

   Italian word for Christian (or Catholic)."

cristão (ã)

   Portuguese word for "Christian."
Croato
  • Italian word for "Croat".
Cromwellian period (1649-1660), England
  • The period in English history when Oliver Cromwell ruled England. After the Civil War, Parliament refused to reform the English government as much as Cromwell and his Puritan supporters desired. As a result, Cromwell dismissed Parliament and established himself as lord protector of England. During this time, Cromwell severely limited freedom of the press and enforced strict moral standards. He also strengthened England's navy, brought Scotland and Ireland under English control, and helped in the development of English colonies in North America and Asia.
Cross Index to Selected City Streets and Enumeration Districts
  • An index that lists street addresses and the corresponding enumeration district in the 1910 census for many large cities in the United States.
Crossing the Ocean Index
  • A list of Latter-day Saints who left Great Britain and Europe between 1840 and 1925 to settle in the western United States. Its official name is the European Emigration Card Index.
Crossing the Plains Index
  • An incomplete but valuable list of Latter-day Saint pioneers who crossed the plains before 1869, when the railroad arrived in Utah. Its official name is the Utah Immigration Card Index.

Crown colony

   A colony that was governed under the direction of the King of England, who appointed a governor over the colony and provided instructions on how the governor was to exercise his authority. All undisposed land was owned by the king, but the governor had the authority to dispose of it through the grant process.
Crown colony land grants
  • Land grants issued by Kings George II and III between 1735 and 1775. North Carolina became a Crown colony in 1729 when seven of the eight Lords Proprietors sold their land to King George II.
Crown grant
  • A land grant issued by the British or French monarch.
Crown land
  • Land that is held (owned) in the name of a monarch.
Crown Lands Administration, Canada
  • A branch of the government in Newfoundland, Canada, that manages public lands.
Crown Lands Registry, Canada
  • A branch of the government in Manitoba, Canada, that houses land records made before 1930.
Crown lease, British
  • A contract that allows a person to use land held by the British Crown in return for money or some other form of recompense.

csak

   Hungarian word for "only, but, just."

család

   Hungarian word for "family, clan."

családfa

   Hungarian word for "pedigree, family tree."

családi állapota

   Hungarian word for "marital status of."

családikönyv

   Hungarian word for "family book."

családinév

   Hungarian word for "family name, surname."

családtag

   Hungarian word for "family member."

családtörténet

   Hungarian word for "genealogy, family history."

cseh

   Hungarian word for "czech."

Csehország

   Hungarian word for "Bohemia."

cseléd

   Hungarian word for "servant."

csikós

   Hungarian word for "horseherder."

csizmadia

   Hungarian word for "bootmaker."

csütörtök

   Hungarian word for "Thursday."

cuadragésimo

   Spanish word for "fortieth."

cuadringéntesimo

   Spanish word for "four-hundredth."

cuarenta

   Spanish word for "forty."


Cuarteado
  • A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian (1/4), African (1/4), and Spanish Caucasian (1/2). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
Cuarterón
  • A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of African (1/4) and Spanish Caucasian (3/4). Also spelled quarterón. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
Cuarterón de Chino, Peru
  • A term used in Peruvian Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of African and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
Cuarterón de Mestizo, Peru
  • A term used in Peruvian Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of Indian and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
Cuarterón de Mulato, Peru
  • A term used in Peruvian Catholic Church registers to describe a person whose ancestry is a mix of Indian, African, and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.

cuarto

   Spanish word for "room, fourth."

cuarto (a)

   Spanish word for "fourth."

cuate

   Spanish word for "twin."


Cuatrero
  • A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian (3/4) and Spanish Caucasian (1/4). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.

cuatro

   Spanish word for "four."

cuatrocientos

   Spanish word for "four hundred."

cucitrice

   Italian word for "seamstress."

cudzoziemski

   Polish word for "foreign."

cuenta

   Spanish word for "account."

cugino, -a

   Italian word for "cousin."

cuius

   Latin word for "whose."

cuiusdam

   Latin word for "of a certain."

cujo (a)

   Portuguese word for "whose."

cukrovka

   Czech word for "diabetes."

cukrzyca

   Polish word for "diabetes."

culte

   French word for "religion."

cultellarius

   Latin word for "cutler."

cultivateur

   French word for "farmer, cultivator."

cum

   Latin word for "with."
Cumberland Gap
  • A natural mountain pass in the Appalachian Mountains. It is located near where the boundaries of Tennessee, Kentucky, and Virginia intersect. It was a major passage into lands west of Virginia. During the American Civil War, the Cumberland Gap was held at different times by the Union and the Confederacy.
Cumberland Plateau
  • A highland area that covers parts of eastern Tennessee and Kentucky. The Cumberland Plateau is bounded on the east by the Appalachian Mountain range.
Cumberland Plateau

   A highland area that covers parts of eastern Tennessee and Kentucky. The Cumberland Plateau is bounded on the east by the Appalachian Mountain range.

cumpleaños

   Spanish word for "birthday."

cunhado (a)

   Portuguese word for "brother-in-law, sister-in-law."

cuoco

   Italian word for "cook."

cuore

   Italian word for "heart."

cuprifaber

   Latin word for "coppersmith."

cur

   Latin word for "why."

cura

   Portuguese and Spanish word for "clergyman."

curateur

   French word for "guardian".


Curation
  • Guardianship over a child who is old enough to marry but not yet 21 years of age.

curato

   Portuguese and Spanish word for "parish."

curia, Latin

   Latin word for "court."

curia, Spanish

   Spanish word for "ecclesiastical tribunal."

currarius

   Latin word for "carriage builder."
Curtesy
  • The right a husband had to his deceased wife's real property. The husband received all of his wife's property, providing they had legitimate children who were born alive.

curtidor

   Portuguese and Spanish word for "tanner."

curé

   French word for "parish minister, pastor, priest, clergyman."
Customs passenger list
  • Passenger lists that masters of ships submitted to United States customs officials when ships arrived in the United States.

custos (custodis)

   Latin word for "custodian, guard."

cuyo (a)

   Spanish word for "whose."

cuál

   Spanish word for "which."

cuándo

   Spanish word for "when."

cuñada

   Spanish word for "sister-in-law."

cuñado

   Spanish word for "brother-in-law."

cyrkul

   Polish word for "district (of a city), ward."

cyrulnik

   Polish word for "barber-surgeon."

czarny

   Polish word for "black."

czas

   Polish word for "time."

czasopismo

   Polish word for "magazine, periodical."

czasowo

   Polish word for "temporarily."

czemu

   Polish word for "why."

czerwca (VI.)

   Polish word for "of June."

czerwony

   Polish word for "red."

czesc

   Polish word for "part, portion."

czeski

   Polish word for "Czech."

czesto

   Polish word for "often."

czlonek

   Polish word for "member."

czterdziesci

   Polish word for "forty."

czterdziesty

   Polish word for "fortieth."

czterechsetny

   Polish word for "four hundredth."

czternascie

   Polish word for "fourteen."

czternasty

   Polish word for "fourteenth."

cztery

   Polish word for "four."

czterysetny

   Polish word for "four hundredth."

czterysta

   Polish word for "four hundred."

czwartek

   Polish word for "Thursday."

czwarty

   Polish word for "fourth."

czy

   Polish word for "whether (introduces a question)."

czyli

   Polish word for "or."

czynszownik

   Polish word for "renter."

cáncer

   Spanish word for "cancer."

cárcel

   Spanish word for "jail."

câncer

   Portuguese word for "cancer."

céans

   French word for "here within."

cédula

   Spanish word for "royal decree."

cél

   Hungarian word for "purpose."

célibataire

   French word for "bachelor, unmarried, single."

célèbre

   French word for "famous."

cím

   Hungarian word for "title, address."

címer

   Hungarian word for "coat of arms."

címtár

   Hungarian word for "directory."

církev

   Czech word for "church."

cónyuge

   Spanish word for "spouse."

córka

   Polish word for "daughter."

cônjuge

   Portuguese word for "spouse."

cônjuges

   Portuguese word for "partners, couple."

côte

   French word for "hill."

cúria, Portuguese

   Portuguese word for "religious tribunal."