Charleston-Ft. Charlotte Trail

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''[[United States|United States]]  [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]]  [[United States Migration Internal|Migration]]  [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]]  [[US Migration Trails and Roads|Trails and Roads]]  [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]]  [[Charleston-Ft._Charlotte_Trail|Charleston-Ft. Charlotte Trail]]''  
 
''[[United States|United States]]  [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]]  [[United States Migration Internal|Migration]]  [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]]  [[US Migration Trails and Roads|Trails and Roads]]  [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]]  [[Charleston-Ft._Charlotte_Trail|Charleston-Ft. Charlotte Trail]]''  
  
[[Image:Charleston Ft. Charlotte Trail.png|border|right|300px]]The '''Charleston-Ft. Charlotte Trail''' connected the [[South Carolina|South Carolina]] colonial town of Charleston with the British military's colonial Fort Charlotte on the Savannah River in what is now McCormick County, South Carolina. Charleston was the largest European settlement, the capital, on the [[King's Highway|King's Highway]], and the start of several other trails. Fort Charlotte was built 1765-1767 to help protect European settlers near Long Cane Creek from Creek Indian raids. Fort Charlotte was near the place where the Middle Creek Trading Path crossed the Savannah River into South Carolina. Several other trails also radiated out from this fort. The Charleston-Ft. Charlotte Trail was opened to European settlers about 1765. It began in [[Charleston County, South Carolina]] and ended in [[McCormick County, South Carolina]]. The length of the trail was about 105 miles (169 km).<ref name="HBG">''Handybook for Genealogists: United States of America, 10th ed.'' (Draper, Utah: Everton Pub., 2002), 848. ({{FHL|1049485|item|disp=FHL Book 973 D27e 2002}}). [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/50140092 WorldCat entry.]</ref>  
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[[Image:Charleston Ft Charlotte Trail.png|border|right|380px]]The '''Charleston-Ft. Charlotte Trail''' connected the [[South Carolina|South Carolina]] colonial town of [[Charleston County, South Carolina|Charleston]] with the British military's colonial [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fort_Charlotte_(South_Carolina) Fort Charlotte] on the Savannah River in what is now [[McCormick County, South Carolina]]. Charleston was the largest European settlement, the capital, on the [[King's Highway|King's Highway]], and the start of several other trails. Fort Charlotte was built 1765-1767 to help protect European settlers from Indian raids. Fort Charlotte was near the place where the [[Middle Creek Trading Path]] crossed the Savannah River from [[Georgia]] into South Carolina. Several other trails also radiated out from this fort. The Charleston-Ft. Charlotte Trail was opened to European settlers about 1765. It began in [[Charleston County, South Carolina]] and ended in [[McCormick County, South Carolina]]. The length of the trail was about 105 miles (169 km).<ref name="HBG">''Handybook for Genealogists: United States of America, 10th ed.'' (Draper, Utah: Everton Pub., 2002), 848. ({{FHL|1049485|item|disp=FHL Book 973 D27e 2002}}). [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/50140092 WorldCat entry.]</ref>  
  
 
=== Historical Background  ===
 
=== Historical Background  ===
  
The British military constructed Fort Charlotte between 1765 and 1767 to help protect local colonists from hostile Indians. The fort was then turned over to South Carolina. The Charleston-Ft. Charlotte Trail probably followed older Indian trails. Fort Charlotte was built at or became the nexus of several trails along the Savannah River in South Carolina and Georgia.  
+
Scots-Irish (that is Ulster-Irish), French Huguenots, and German farmers began settling the area in the 1750s. Some of these early colonists near Long Cane Creek were killed by Cherokee Indians in 1760.<ref>"McCormick County" in ''South Carolina State Library'' at http://www.statelibrary.sc.gov/mccormick-county (accessed 24 March 2011).</ref> As a result, the British military constructed Fort Charlotte between 1765 and 1767 to help protect local colonists from hostile Indians. The fort was then turned over to South Carolina. The Charleston-Ft. Charlotte Trail probably followed older Indian trails. Fort Charlotte was built at or became the nexus of several trails along the Savannah River in South Carolina and Georgia.  
  
 
As roads developed in America settlers were attracted to nearby communities because the roads provided access to markets. They could sell their products at distant markets, and buy products made far away. If an ancestor settled near a road, you may be able to trace back to a place of origin on a connecting highway.  
 
As roads developed in America settlers were attracted to nearby communities because the roads provided access to markets. They could sell their products at distant markets, and buy products made far away. If an ancestor settled near a road, you may be able to trace back to a place of origin on a connecting highway.  
  
Fort Charlotte played a role in the American Revolution. The South Carolina colonial government used the fort as an arsenal. The first Revolutionary War action in South Carolina ocurred when Patriots seized those supplies. They also negotiated at the fort trying in vain to win the Indians to the Patriot cause.<ref>Wikipedia contributors, "Fort Charlotte (South Carolina)," ''Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia'', http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Fort_Charlotte_(South_Carolina)&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;oldid=417072816 (accessed 24 March 2011).</ref>  
+
Fort Charlotte played a role in the American Revolution. The South Carolina colonial government used the fort as an arsenal. The first Revolutionary War action in South Carolina ocurred when Patriots seized those supplies. They also negotiated at the fort trying in vain to win the Indians to the Patriot cause.<ref>Wikipedia contributors, "Fort Charlotte (South Carolina)," ''Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia'', http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Fort_Charlotte_(South_Carolina) (accessed 24 March 2011).</ref>  
  
 
=== Route  ===
 
=== Route  ===
  
The first European colonists settled in counties along this path (north to south) as follows:<ref>South Carolina - The Counties, http://www.carolana.com/SC/Counties/sc_counties_alphabetical_order.html (accessed 22 March 2011).</ref>  
+
The first European colonists settled in counties along this&nbsp;trail (north to south) as follows:<ref>South Carolina - The Counties, http://www.carolana.com/SC/Counties/sc_counties_alphabetical_order.html (accessed 22 March 2011).</ref>  
  
:*[[McCormick County, South Carolina|McCormick]] 1750s  
+
:*[[McCormick County, South Carolina|McCormick]] 1750s by Scots-Irish
:*[[Edgefield County, South Carolina|Edgefield]] 1750s  
+
:*[[Edgefield County, South Carolina|Edgefield]] 1750s by Scots-Irish
:*[[Aiken County, South Carolina|Aiken]] 1737  
+
:*[[Aiken County, South Carolina|Aiken]] 1737 by Swiss/Palatines, and French Huguenots
:*[[Orangeburg County, South Carolina|Orangeburg]] 1731  
+
:*[[Orangeburg County, South Carolina|Orangeburg]] 1731 by Reformed Swiss, German Lutherans, and French Huguenots
:*[[Dorchester County, South Carolina|Dorchester]] 1696  
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:*[[Dorchester County, South Carolina|Dorchester]] 1696 by New Englanders from Massachusetts
:*[[Charleston County, South Carolina|Charleston]] 1670
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:*[[Charleston County, South Carolina|Charleston]] 1670 by English and African Barbadians
  
'''Connecting trails.''' The Charleston-Ft. Charlotte Trail links to other trails at each end. The migration pathways connecting in Charleston included:  
+
'''Connecting trails.''' The Charleston-Ft. Charlotte Trail links to other trails at each end. The migration pathways connecting in Charleston included:<ref>''Handybook for Genealogists: United States of America, 10th ed.'' (Draper, Utah: Everton Pub., 2002), 847-61. ({{FHL|1049485|item|disp=FHL Book 973 D27e 2002}}) [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/50140092 WorldCat entry.], and William E. Myer, ''Indian Trails of the Southeast''. (Nashville, Tenn.: Blue and Gray Press, 1971), 12-14, and the book's pocket map "The Trail System of the Southeastern United States in the early Colonial Period" (1923). ({{FHL|54678|item|disp=FHL Book 970.1 M992i}}) [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/1523234 WorldCat entry].</ref>
  
 
:*the Atlantic Ocean 1670  
 
:*the Atlantic Ocean 1670  
:*[[King's Highway]] about 1704
 
 
:*[[Fort Moore-Charleston Trail]] about 1716  
 
:*[[Fort Moore-Charleston Trail]] about 1716  
 
:*[[Camden-Charleston Path|Camden-Charleston Path]] 1732  
 
:*[[Camden-Charleston Path|Camden-Charleston Path]] 1732  
 +
:*[[King's Highway]] built 1732-1735 in SC<ref>"South Carolina Counties and Parishes - 1740" in ''The Royal Colony of South Carolina'' at http://www.carolana.com/SC/Royal_Colony/sc_royal_colony_counties_parishes_1740.html (accessed 22 April 2011).</ref>
 +
:*[[Charleston-Savannah Trail]] late 1730s
 +
:*[[Secondary Coast Road]] late 1730s or early 1740s
 
:*[[Old South Carolina State Road]] 1747  
 
:*[[Old South Carolina State Road]] 1747  
:*[[Charleston-Ft._Charlotte_Trail|Charleston-Ft. Charlotte Trail]] about 1765  
+
:*[[Charleston-Ft._Charlotte_Trail|Charleston-Ft. Charlotte Trail]] about 1765
:*[[Charleston-Savannah Trail]]
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:*[[Secondary Coast Road]]
+
  
 
The migration routes connecting in Fort Charlotte included:  
 
The migration routes connecting in Fort Charlotte included:  
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=== Settlers and Records  ===
 
=== Settlers and Records  ===
  
Most of the early colonists along the trail and near Fort Charlotte were Englishmen from Charleston. Later settlers included Quakers, and eventually immigrants from the Ulster part of Ireland.  
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The first colonists in what became the Fort Charlotte area arrived before the Charleston-Ft. Charlotte Trail existed. They would have arrived by way of the Savannah River, the [[Middle Creek Trading Path]], the [[Fort Moore-Charleston Trail]], the [[Augusta and Cherokee Trail]] on the Georgia side of the river, or even the [[Occaneechi Path]] and its overlapping [[Fall Line Road]], and [[Great Valley Road]]. Only after Fort Charlotte was started in 1765 would travelers have been able to use what became the Charleston-Ft. Charlotte Trail. Even then, they may have used the older Fort Moore-Charleston Trail most of the way to [[Aiken County, South Carolina|Aiken County]] before splitting off toward Fort Charlotte.  
  
No complete list of settlers who used the '''Charleston-Ft. Charlotte Trail''' is known to exist. However, local and county histories along the road may reveal first pioneer settlers who were candidates to have travelled the Charleston-Ft. Charlotte Trail from the Charleston area. However, it is also possible that many earlier settlers used the Savannah River, or the earlier connecting trails such as the [[Occaneechi Path|Occaneechi Path]], [[Fall Line Road|Fall Line Road]], and [[Great Valley Road|Great Valley Road]] to reach the area.  
+
Ulster-Irish, French Huguenots, and Germans were among the earliest, pre-Fort Charlotte pioneer settlers.  
  
For partial lists of early settlers who may have used the Charleston-Ft. Charlotte Trail, see:  
+
No complete list of settlers who used the '''Charleston-Ft. Charlotte Trail''' is known to exist. Nevertheless, local and county histories along that trail may reveal&nbsp;pioneer settlers who arrived after 1765 and who were candidates to have travelled the Charleston-Ft. Charlotte Trail from the Charleston area.
 +
 
 +
For partial lists of early settlers who '''''may'''''&nbsp; have used the Charleston-Ft. Charlotte Trail, see histories like:  
  
 
'''''in McCormick County:'''''  
 
'''''in McCormick County:'''''  
  
*
+
*Bobby F. Edmonds, ''The Huguenots of New Bordeaux'' (McCormick, SC: Cedar Hill, 2005) (({{FHL|1317791|item|disp=FHL Book 975.736 F2e}}) [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/63189507 WorldCat entry].
 +
*Bobby F. Edmonds, ''The Making of McCormick County [South Carolina]'' (McCormick, SC: Cedar Hill, 1999) ({{FHL|834738|item|disp=FHL Book 975.736 H2e}}) [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/42047218 WorldCat entry].
 +
*[Willie Mae Wood], ''Old Families of McCormick County, South Carolina and Dorn families of Edgefield, Greenwood and McCormick counties'' ([S.l.&nbsp;: s.n.], 1982) ({{FHL|634329|item|disp=FHL Book 975.736 D2w; Film 2056008 Item 2-3}}) [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/21493707 WorldCat entry].
  
 
'''''in Edgefield County:'''''  
 
'''''in Edgefield County:'''''  
  
*
+
*John A. Chapman, ''History of Edgefield County from the earliest settlements to 1897&nbsp;: biographical and anecdotical, with sketches of the Seminole War, nullification, secession, reconstruction, churches and literature, wtih rolls of all the companies from Edgefield in the war of secession, war with Mexico and with the Seminole Indians'' (Newberry, S.C.: E. H. Aull, 1897) ({{FHL|223810|item|disp=FHL Film 162293}}) [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/1724974 WorldCat entry].
  
 
'''''in Aiken County:'''''  
 
'''''in Aiken County:'''''  
  
*
+
*Gasper Loren Toole, ''Ninety Years in Aiken County: Memoirs of Aiken County and Its People'' (Charleston?, S.C.: s.n., 1959) ({{FHL|66488|item|disp=FHL Book 975.775 H2t; Film 1425280 Item 3}}) [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/3363918 WorldCat entry].
  
 
'''''in Orangeburg County:'''''  
 
'''''in Orangeburg County:'''''  
Line 81: Line 85:
  
 
{{reflist}} {{South Carolina|South Carolina}}  
 
{{reflist}} {{South Carolina|South Carolina}}  
<div></div>
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<div></div>  
 
[[Category:Migration_Routes]] [[Category:US_Migration_Trails_and_Roads]] [[Category:South_Carolina]] [[Category:McCormick_County,_South_Carolina]] [[Category:Edgefield_County,_South_Carolina]] [[Category:Aiken_County,_South_Carolina]] [[Category:Orangeburg_County,_South_Carolina]] [[Category:Dorchester_County,_South_Carolina]] [[Category:Charleston_County,_South_Carolina]] [[Category:Georgia]] [[Category:Lincoln_County,_Georgia]] [[Category:Elbert_County,_Georgia]]
 
[[Category:Migration_Routes]] [[Category:US_Migration_Trails_and_Roads]] [[Category:South_Carolina]] [[Category:McCormick_County,_South_Carolina]] [[Category:Edgefield_County,_South_Carolina]] [[Category:Aiken_County,_South_Carolina]] [[Category:Orangeburg_County,_South_Carolina]] [[Category:Dorchester_County,_South_Carolina]] [[Category:Charleston_County,_South_Carolina]] [[Category:Georgia]] [[Category:Lincoln_County,_Georgia]] [[Category:Elbert_County,_Georgia]]

Revision as of 18:50, 23 April 2011

United States  Gotoarrow.png  Migration  Gotoarrow.png  Trails and Roads  Gotoarrow.png  Charleston-Ft. Charlotte Trail

Charleston Ft Charlotte Trail.png
The Charleston-Ft. Charlotte Trail connected the South Carolina colonial town of Charleston with the British military's colonial Fort Charlotte on the Savannah River in what is now McCormick County, South Carolina. Charleston was the largest European settlement, the capital, on the King's Highway, and the start of several other trails. Fort Charlotte was built 1765-1767 to help protect European settlers from Indian raids. Fort Charlotte was near the place where the Middle Creek Trading Path crossed the Savannah River from Georgia into South Carolina. Several other trails also radiated out from this fort. The Charleston-Ft. Charlotte Trail was opened to European settlers about 1765. It began in Charleston County, South Carolina and ended in McCormick County, South Carolina. The length of the trail was about 105 miles (169 km).[1]

Contents

Historical Background

Scots-Irish (that is Ulster-Irish), French Huguenots, and German farmers began settling the area in the 1750s. Some of these early colonists near Long Cane Creek were killed by Cherokee Indians in 1760.[2] As a result, the British military constructed Fort Charlotte between 1765 and 1767 to help protect local colonists from hostile Indians. The fort was then turned over to South Carolina. The Charleston-Ft. Charlotte Trail probably followed older Indian trails. Fort Charlotte was built at or became the nexus of several trails along the Savannah River in South Carolina and Georgia.

As roads developed in America settlers were attracted to nearby communities because the roads provided access to markets. They could sell their products at distant markets, and buy products made far away. If an ancestor settled near a road, you may be able to trace back to a place of origin on a connecting highway.

Fort Charlotte played a role in the American Revolution. The South Carolina colonial government used the fort as an arsenal. The first Revolutionary War action in South Carolina ocurred when Patriots seized those supplies. They also negotiated at the fort trying in vain to win the Indians to the Patriot cause.[3]

Route

The first European colonists settled in counties along this trail (north to south) as follows:[4]

  • McCormick 1750s by Scots-Irish
  • Edgefield 1750s by Scots-Irish
  • Aiken 1737 by Swiss/Palatines, and French Huguenots
  • Orangeburg 1731 by Reformed Swiss, German Lutherans, and French Huguenots
  • Dorchester 1696 by New Englanders from Massachusetts
  • Charleston 1670 by English and African Barbadians

Connecting trails. The Charleston-Ft. Charlotte Trail links to other trails at each end. The migration pathways connecting in Charleston included:[5]

The migration routes connecting in Fort Charlotte included:

The newer Charleston-Ft. Charlotte Trail also crossed the much older Occaneechi Path in Aiken County. The Occaneechi Path was overlapped here by the Fall Line Road starting about 1735, and also the Great Valley Road (south fork) starting in the 1740s.

Modern parallels. The modern roads that roughly match the old Charleston-Ft. Charlotte Trail start in Charleston. Follow I-26 north to the Orangeburg. Then take the Neeses Highway west to Springfield. Then take Highway 4 west to Aiken. Then follow Highway 19 northwest until it becomes Highway 25. Continue northwest along Highway 25 to where it meets Highway 378 in northern Edgefield County. Turn west onto Highway 378 to reach McCormick. Then go northwest on Highway 28 until Highway 81 forks off to the west. Follow Highway 81 winding westerly to Mt. Carmel. From Mt. Carmel take the Fort Charlotte Road 6.5 miles (10.4 km) southwest to Strom Thurmond Lake. The Old Fort Charlotte site lies under that lake.

Settlers and Records

The first colonists in what became the Fort Charlotte area arrived before the Charleston-Ft. Charlotte Trail existed. They would have arrived by way of the Savannah River, the Middle Creek Trading Path, the Fort Moore-Charleston Trail, the Augusta and Cherokee Trail on the Georgia side of the river, or even the Occaneechi Path and its overlapping Fall Line Road, and Great Valley Road. Only after Fort Charlotte was started in 1765 would travelers have been able to use what became the Charleston-Ft. Charlotte Trail. Even then, they may have used the older Fort Moore-Charleston Trail most of the way to Aiken County before splitting off toward Fort Charlotte.

Ulster-Irish, French Huguenots, and Germans were among the earliest, pre-Fort Charlotte pioneer settlers.

No complete list of settlers who used the Charleston-Ft. Charlotte Trail is known to exist. Nevertheless, local and county histories along that trail may reveal pioneer settlers who arrived after 1765 and who were candidates to have travelled the Charleston-Ft. Charlotte Trail from the Charleston area.

For partial lists of early settlers who may  have used the Charleston-Ft. Charlotte Trail, see histories like:

in McCormick County:

in Edgefield County:

  • John A. Chapman, History of Edgefield County from the earliest settlements to 1897 : biographical and anecdotical, with sketches of the Seminole War, nullification, secession, reconstruction, churches and literature, wtih rolls of all the companies from Edgefield in the war of secession, war with Mexico and with the Seminole Indians (Newberry, S.C.: E. H. Aull, 1897) (FHL Film 162293) WorldCat entry.

in Aiken County:

in Orangeburg County:

in Dorchester County:

External Links

Sources

  1. Handybook for Genealogists: United States of America, 10th ed. (Draper, Utah: Everton Pub., 2002), 848. (FHL Book 973 D27e 2002). WorldCat entry.
  2. "McCormick County" in South Carolina State Library at http://www.statelibrary.sc.gov/mccormick-county (accessed 24 March 2011).
  3. Wikipedia contributors, "Fort Charlotte (South Carolina)," Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Fort_Charlotte_(South_Carolina) (accessed 24 March 2011).
  4. South Carolina - The Counties, http://www.carolana.com/SC/Counties/sc_counties_alphabetical_order.html (accessed 22 March 2011).
  5. Handybook for Genealogists: United States of America, 10th ed. (Draper, Utah: Everton Pub., 2002), 847-61. (FHL Book 973 D27e 2002) WorldCat entry., and William E. Myer, Indian Trails of the Southeast. (Nashville, Tenn.: Blue and Gray Press, 1971), 12-14, and the book's pocket map "The Trail System of the Southeastern United States in the early Colonial Period" (1923). (FHL Book 970.1 M992i) WorldCat entry.
  6. "South Carolina Counties and Parishes - 1740" in The Royal Colony of South Carolina at http://www.carolana.com/SC/Royal_Colony/sc_royal_colony_counties_parishes_1740.html (accessed 22 April 2011).