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Various Spellings: Chippewa, Ojibway, Ojibwa
Bands: Missisaugaa and Salteaux Other Bands: Fish, Loon, Marten, Crane, and the Bear
Little Shell Band of Chippewa
Original Homelands: Great Lakes region; Wisconsin, Minnesota, Michigan, North Dakota and Ontario.
See also: Chippewa-Cree
The Chippewa or Ojibway Indians are one of the largest groups of American Indians in North America. There are nearly 150 different bands of Chippewa in the northern part of the United States and in southern Canada (especially in Ontario, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan).
The Chippewa were exposed to non-indians in the early 1600's. The tribe established trade relations with the French. During the French and Indian War they fought with the French to protect their trade relationships.
The tribe fought with and supported the British during the Revolutionary War.
Land cessions began in 1815, and continued through the mid 1800's. As land was ceded many tribal members migrated.
In 1860 the tribe was removed to Indian Territory in Oklahoma. In 1892 assigned to Turtle Mountain Reservation in North Dakota, later assigned to the Rocky Boy's reservation in Montana with the Cree tribe with whom they had united with in the 1890's later becoming known as Chippewa-Cree
Additional References to the History of the Tribe and/or Bands
Frederick Webb Hodge, in his Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, gave a more complete history of the Chippewa tribe, with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods. Additional details are given in John Swanton's The Indian Tribes of North America.
Ohio History Central article on the Chippewa Indians
- 1622: encounter a Frenchman employed by Samuel de Champlain
- 1689-1763: fought with French in the French and Indian War, to protect their trade interest
- 1754-63:fought with French in French and Indian War
- 1769:Joined the Ottawa, Potawatomi, Sac, Meskwaki and Kickapoo to defeat the Illinois tribe
- 1776-1783: Fought with British during the Revolutionary War
- 1815:Ceded much of their land
- 1830: in opposition to the Indian removal Act; many of the tribe moved north to Canada. Some remained in the U.S.
- 1836: May 9, the Swan Creek and Black River Chippewa sign a treaty.
- 1847: ceded land in Michigan and Wisconsin
- 1860: removed to Indian territory (Oklahoma)
- 1890's the Chippewa tribe united with the Cree tribe
- 1892: assigned to Turtle Mountain Reservation in North Dakota
- 1916: assigned to Rocky Boy's Reservation in Montana with the Plains Cree
- 1968: the American Indian Movement (AIM) founded by three Ojibwa: Dennis Banks, George Mitchell, and Clyde Bellecourt
From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.
Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.
The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether
Bay Mills, Grand Portage, Leeck Lake, Mille Lacs, Red Lake, Nett Lake, Turtle Mountain, White Earth, Rocky Boy's, Bad River, Lac Courte Oreilles, Lac du Flambeau, Keweenaw Bay, Fond Du Lac, Mole Lake, Red Cliff, and St. Croix
Bands and Other Subdivisions of the Chippewa Tribe
Many of the bands or groups of Chippewa in the United States reside in Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. The band names have changed or have been spelled differently over time. Many of the groups listed below have their own reservation. Some are federally recognized and have an agency of the Bureau of Indian Affairs with whom they interact. Multiple groups sometimes interact with a single BIA Agency. More information will be forthcoming on pages for each of the bands or groups listed below.
Some of the larger bands of Chippewa in the United States are:
The Ojibway First Nation in Canada live primarily in Ontario, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan.
Agencies and subagencies were created as administrative offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and its predecessors. Their purpose was (and is) to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.
The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in Idaho has been compiled from Hill's Office of Indian Affairs..., Hill's Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians, and others.
Land Tenure of the Rainy Lake Chippewa. FHL film: 965791 item 5
Correspondence and Census
Black River Treaty
Important Web Sites