Citations (Evidence Style)

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Citation style guides can help you capture all the information about a source that is necessary for you and others to evaluate the quality of the source, to relocate your source, and sometimes to find the source from which your source was derived. Practically speaking, users of the latest genealogy software may feel no need for citation guides because the software prompts users to enter specific source information into forms. The program then formats citations according to its interpretation of the chosen citation style. Conversely, style guides are necessary when using software that does not have forms for the many different types of sources used by genealogists, or when you need a better understanding of the materials you are using. 
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Citation style guides can help you capture all the information about a source that is necessary for others to evaluate the quality of the source, to find your source, and sometimes to find the source upon which your source was derived. In practice, style guides are not necessary when using the latest genealogy software because the software prompts you to enter source information into forms. You only need to fill in the appropriate boxes and the program formats citations appropriately. Style guides are only necessary when using software that doesn't have forms for the many different types of sources used by genealogists.<br>
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= The Basics  =
 
= The Basics  =
  
One citation style used by genealogists in the United States is Mills style. Mills is an extension of the [[Citations (Chicago Style)|Chicago Manual of Style]] (CMS) bibliography/note system. CMS is adequate for most published sources, but doesn't include many sources and elements about sources that are important to genealogists. Mills style is named for Elizabeth Shown Mills and is explained in her books (''Evidence<ref>to be added</ref> ''and ''Evidence Explained''<ref>to be added</ref>) and QuickSheets.  
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One citation style used by&nbsp;genealogical and historical&nbsp;researchers&nbsp;in the United States is&nbsp;Evidence Style, developed by Elizabeth Shown Mills. It is an extension of Chicago Style, as set forth in the&nbsp;classic writer's guide to style issues, [http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html Chicago Manual of Style].&nbsp;Chicago Style&nbsp;is adequate for citing most published sources. Evidence Style follows Chicago's general framework but adapts and extends it&nbsp;to cover&nbsp;historical documents and artifacts&nbsp;in many variant forms,&nbsp;a significant&nbsp;issue for those who work with original records. Evidence&nbsp;Style is&nbsp;detailed in&nbsp;the book ''Evidence Explained''<ref>Elizabeth Shown Mills, ''Evidence Explained: Citing History Sources from Artifacts to Cyberspace'' (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2007).</ref> and in a companion series of QuickSheets.  
  
Contrary to the terminology used by [[PAF]] and other genealogy programs, a ''source'' is a person or artifact that supplies information. A ''citation'' is the entire textual reference to the source.<ref>add this</ref>  
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Contrary to the terminology used by Personal Ancestral File (PAF) and some&nbsp;other genealogy programs,&nbsp;both Evidence and Chicago Styles, define a&nbsp;''source'' as a document, register, publication, film, artifact, website,&nbsp;or person that supplies information. A ''citation'' is the entire textual reference to the source.<ref>Mills, ''Evidence Explained,'' 820, 828. Also note this quote from p. 42: "The term ''citation'' is obviously not synonymous with the term ''source,'' and the two should not be used interchangeably."</ref>  
  
In the CMS/Mills style, there are four types of citations:  
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In the Evidence and Chicago Styles, there are four types of citations:  
  
#'''Source list'''. CMS calls this a ''bibliography''. Each citation—called a ''source list entry''— is punctuated as if it were a paragraph and each citation element were a sentence. Published works are sorted by the last name of the author. To effectively organize the source list, Mills gives considerable latitude in the treatment of unpublished works. Examples here and in her books often illustrate ordering unpublished works geographically. However, elements of the source list entry can be reordered to effect other organizations when appropriate. One source list entry can apply to multiple reference notes and excludes the detailed citation elements present in the notes. For example, page numbers would be present in notes but not the source list entry.<ref>add</ref>  
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#'''Source list'''.&nbsp;(Chicago calls this a ''bibliography''.) Each citation—called a ''source list entry''—is punctuated as if it were a paragraph and each citation element were a sentence. Published works are sorted by the last name of the author. To effectively organize the source list,&nbsp;Evidence Style allows considerable latitude in the arrangement of unpublished works. Examples in this article illustrate ordering unpublished works geographically. However, elements of the source list entry can be reordered to reflect other organization schemes&nbsp;when appropriate. One source list entry will often underpin&nbsp;multiple reference notes. Therefore, the source list entry excludes the more detailed citation elements present in the notes. For example, page numbers for books and manuscript volumes would be present in notes but not the source list entry.<ref>Mills, ''Evidence Explained,'' 43, 60-1, 67-71.</ref>  
#'''First reference note. '''CMS/Mills allows either footnotes or endnotes and uses the term ''reference notes, ''or simply ''notes ''to speak of both. Each note is punctuated as if it were a sentence containing a list of citation elements. As with any list, use commas to separate the elements. If commas within elements make the list ambiguous, then use semicolons to separate the elements.<ref>add</ref><br>  
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#'''First reference note. '''Both Evidence and Chicago&nbsp;allows either footnotes or endnotes and use the term ''reference notes, ''or simply ''notes ''to speak of both. Each note is punctuated as if it were a sentence containing a list of citation elements. As with any list, commas&nbsp;are the basic punctuation used to&nbsp;separate the elements. If commas within elements make the list ambiguous, then semicolons are used to separate the elements. Parentheses typically surround publication data (place, publisher and date). In Evidence Style, this convention is applied to both print works and online works.<ref>Mills, ''Evidence Explained,'' 43, 46, 60, 77, 86-7.</ref>  
#'''Subsequent note. '''When publishing a compiled genealogy, after the first reference to a source, it is not necessary to duplicate a complete citation in subsequent notes. In fact, abbreviating subsequent citations in a published work makes notes more understandable and signals source reuse. The abbreviated style of subsequent notes should be applied only at the time of publication since the order of notes can change along the way. Always enter complete citations into your genealogical records. If you never publish, you can safely ignore this type of citation.<ref>add</ref><br>  
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#'''Subsequent note. '''In the final draft of a narrative,&nbsp;after the first reference to a source, it is not necessary to duplicate a complete citation in subsequent notes. In fact, abbreviating subsequent citations in a published work makes notes more understandable and signals source reuse. The abbreviated style of subsequent notes should be applied only at the time of publication, because&nbsp;the order of notes can change as a manuscript is revised.&nbsp;You should always enter complete citations in genealogical records. If&nbsp;you never develop a manuscript for publication,&nbsp;then&nbsp;you&nbsp;can safely ignore the "subsequent note" format.<ref>Mills, ''Evidence Explained,'' 46, 62, 64-6.</ref>  
#'''Source label. '''This is the citation that should appear on the front of all photocopies and prints of original records, transcriptions, and abstracts. Mills does not specify whether this citation type should be punctuated like a paragraph or like a sentence. Suffice it to say that the citation should be complete in case the page is shared independently of other documents.<ref>add</ref><br>
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#'''Source label. '''This is the citation that should appear in the margin, on the front of all photocopies and prints of original records; it should also accompany all transcriptions and abstracts.&nbsp;Evidence Style&nbsp;does not&nbsp;dictate whether&nbsp;the researcher&nbsp;format a label&nbsp;as a&nbsp;Source List Entry or a Reference Note. Suffice it to say, the citation should be complete in case the page is shared independently of other documents.<ref>Mills, ''Evidence Explained,'' 43, 66-7.</ref><br>
  
 
= Examples  =
 
= Examples  =
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== Published Works  ==
 
== Published Works  ==
  
=== Simple Book  ===
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=== Simple Book<ref>Mills, ''Evidence Explained,'' 646.</ref> ===
  
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{| cellspacing="3" cellpadding="2" border="0" class="FCK__ShowTableBorders"
 
|-
 
|-
 
! bgcolor="#faf5ff" align="center" colspan="2" | Source List
 
! bgcolor="#faf5ff" align="center" colspan="2" | Source List
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|-
 
|-
 
! bgcolor="#eeeeee" align="right" | Page  
 
! bgcolor="#eeeeee" align="right" | Page  
| 42.<ref>add reference to pages in EE</ref>
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| 42.
 
|}
 
|}
  
 
<br>  
 
<br>  
  
=== Multiple authors<ref>add</ref><br>  ===
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=== Multiple authors<ref>Mills, ''Evidence Explained,'' 669-70.</ref><br>  ===
  
'''Source List: '''Clemensson, Per, and Kjell Andersson. ''Your Swedish Roots: A Step by Step Handbook''. Provo, Utah: Ancestry Publishing, 2004.<br>'''First Reference Note:''' 1.&nbsp; Per Clemensson and Kjell Andersson, ''Your Swedish Roots: A Step by Step Handbook'' (Provo, Utah: Ancestry Publishing, 2004), 115.<br>'''Subsequent Note:''' 11.&nbsp; Clemensson and Andersson, ''Your Swedish Roots'', 115.  
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{| cellspacing="3" cellpadding="2" border="0" class="FCK__ShowTableBorders"
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|-
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! bgcolor="#eeeeee" align="right" | Source List  
 +
| Clemensson, Per, and Kjell Andersson. ''Your Swedish Roots: A Step by Step Handbook''. Provo, Utah: Ancestry Publishing, 2004.
 +
|-
 +
! bgcolor="#eeeeee" align="right" | First Reference Note  
 +
| &nbsp; 1.&nbsp; Per Clemensson and Kjell Andersson, ''Your Swedish Roots: A Step by Step Handbook'' (Provo, Utah: Ancestry Publishing, 2004), 115.
 +
|-
 +
! bgcolor="#eeeeee" align="right" | Subsequent Note  
 +
| 11.&nbsp; Clemensson and Andersson, ''Your Swedish Roots'', 115.
 +
|}
  
 
=== Editor instead of author  ===
 
=== Editor instead of author  ===
  
'''Source List: <br>First Reference Note: <br>Subsequent Note:'''  
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{| cellspacing="3" cellpadding="2" border="0" class="FCK__ShowTableBorders"
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|-
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! bgcolor="#eeeeee" align="right" | Source List
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| insert source list example
 +
|-
 +
! bgcolor="#eeeeee" align="right" | First Reference Note
 +
| &nbsp;2.&nbsp; insert 1st ref note example
 +
|-
 +
! bgcolor="#eeeeee" align="right" | Subsequent Note
 +
| 12.&nbsp; insert subsequent note example
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
=== Revised edition<ref>Mills, ''Evidence Explained,'' 649.</ref>  ===
 +
 
 +
{| cellspacing="3" cellpadding="2" border="0" class="FCK__ShowTableBorders"
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|-
 +
! bgcolor="#eeeeee" align="right" | Source List  
 +
| Leary, Helen F. M., editor. ''North Carolina Research: Genealogy and Local History''. Second edition. Raleigh:<ref name="Mills806">The state was excluded here because it is present in the title and publisher's name. See Mills, ''Evidence Explained,'' 806-7. See pp. 221-2 for another instance where state name can be excluded.</ref> North Carolina Genealogical Society, 1996.
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|-
 +
! bgcolor="#eeeeee" align="right" | First Reference Note  
 +
| &nbsp;3.&nbsp; Helen F. M. Leary, editor, ''North Carolina Research: Genealogy and Local History'', 2d ed. (Raleigh:<ref name="Mills806" /> North Carolina Genealogical Society, 1996), 3-16.
 +
|-
 +
! bgcolor="#eeeeee" align="right" | Subsequent Note  
 +
| 13.&nbsp; Leary, ''North Carolina Research'', 3-16.
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
=== Journal article<ref>Mills, ''Evidence Explained,'' 779-780, 791-8.</ref>  ===
 +
 
 +
This example is online. For a paper source, leave off the elements starting with "online archives."&nbsp;No change is required for the short note.
 +
 
 +
{| cellspacing="3" cellpadding="2" border="0" class="FCK__ShowTableBorders"
 +
|-
 +
! bgcolor="#eeeeee" align="right" | Source List
 +
| Waters, Henry F. Waters. "Genealogical Gleanings in England." ''The New England Historical and Genealogical Register'' 49 (January 1895). Online archives. ''Google Books.'' [http://books.google.com/books?id=zsYMAAAAYAAJ http://books.google.com/books?id=zsYMAAAAYAAJ]&nbsp;: 2010.
 +
|-
 +
! bgcolor="#eeeeee" align="right" | First Reference Note
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| &nbsp; 4.&nbsp; Henry F. Waters, "Genealogical Gleanings in England," ''The New England Historical and Genealogical Register'' 49 (January 1895): 136; online archives, ''Google Books'' ([http://books.google.com/books?id=zsYMAAAAYAAJ http://books.google.com/books?id=zsYMAAAAYAAJ]&nbsp;: accessed 4 January 2010).
 +
|-
 +
! bgcolor="#eeeeee" align="right" | Subsequent Note
 +
| 14.&nbsp; Waters, "Genealogical Gleanings in England," 136.
 +
|}
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 +
<br>
  
 
== FamilySearch Sources  ==
 
== FamilySearch Sources  ==
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=== Historical Books  ===
 
=== Historical Books  ===
  
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{| cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" border="0" class="FCK__ShowTableBorders"
 
|-
 
|-
 
! bgcolor="#faf5ff" align="center" colspan="2" | Source List
 
! bgcolor="#faf5ff" align="center" colspan="2" | Source List
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| Raymond, Samuel,<br>
 
| Raymond, Samuel,<br>
 
|-
 
|-
! bgcolor="#eeeeee" align="right" | Creator's role<ref>EE, 666.</ref>  
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! bgcolor="#eeeeee" align="right" | Creator's role<ref>Mills, ''Evidence Explained,'' 666.</ref>  
 
| compiler.
 
| compiler.
 
|-
 
|-
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| ''Genealogies of the Raymond families of New England, 1630-1 to 1886:''
 
| ''Genealogies of the Raymond families of New England, 1630-1 to 1886:''
 
|-
 
|-
! bgcolor="#eeeeee" align="right" | Subtitle<ref>EE, 80; in this example the subtitle was truncated so ellipses are not necessary.</ref>  
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! bgcolor="#eeeeee" align="right" | Subtitle<ref>Mills, ''Evidence Explained,'' 80; in this example the subtitle was truncated so ellipses are not necessary.</ref>  
 
| ''With a Historical Sketch of Some of the Raymonds of Early Times.''
 
| ''With a Historical Sketch of Some of the Raymonds of Early Times.''
 
|-
 
|-
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|-
 
|-
 
! bgcolor="#eeeeee" align="right" | Place of publication  
 
! bgcolor="#eeeeee" align="right" | Place of publication  
| http://www.lib.byu.edu/fhc/&nbsp;:
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| [http://www.lib.byu.edu/fhc/ www.lib.byu.edu/fhc/]&nbsp;:
 
|-
 
|-
 
! bgcolor="#eeeeee" align="right" | Date (of access)  
 
! bgcolor="#eeeeee" align="right" | Date (of access)  
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| Samuel Raymond,
 
| Samuel Raymond,
 
|-
 
|-
! bgcolor="#eeeeee" align="right" | Creator's role<ref>EE, 666.</ref>  
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! bgcolor="#eeeeee" align="right" | Creator's role<ref>Mills, ''Evidence Explained,'' 666.</ref>  
 
| compiler,
 
| compiler,
 
|-
 
|-
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| ''Genealogies of the Raymond families of New England, 1630-1 to 1886:''
 
| ''Genealogies of the Raymond families of New England, 1630-1 to 1886:''
 
|-
 
|-
! bgcolor="#eeeeee" align="right" | Subtitle<ref>EE, 80; in this example the subtitle was truncated so ellipses are not necessary.</ref>  
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! bgcolor="#eeeeee" align="right" | Subtitle<ref>Mills, ''Evidence Explained,'' 80; in this example the subtitle was truncated so ellipses are not necessary.</ref>  
 
| ''With a Historical Sketch of Some of the Raymonds of Early Times,''
 
| ''With a Historical Sketch of Some of the Raymonds of Early Times,''
 
|-
 
|-
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|-
 
|-
 
! bgcolor="#eeeeee" align="right" | Place of publication  
 
! bgcolor="#eeeeee" align="right" | Place of publication  
| (http://www.lib.byu.edu/fhc/&nbsp;:
+
| ([http://www.lib.byu.edu/fhc/ www.lib.byu.edu/fhc/]&nbsp;:
 
|-
 
|-
 
! bgcolor="#eeeeee" align="right" | Date (of access)  
 
! bgcolor="#eeeeee" align="right" | Date (of access)  
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|-
 
|-
 
! bgcolor="#eeeeee" align="right" | Notes (optional)<br>  
 
! bgcolor="#eeeeee" align="right" | Notes (optional)<br>  
| reference URL is http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/u?/FH15,32222 .<br>
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| reference URL is https://dcms.lds.org/delivery/DeliveryManagerServlet?dps_pid=IE95837
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| Also for broken links Add in its place the following replacing the 76851 with the IE number you found in the permanent link on the digital image page: {{FSbook|76851}} .<br>
 
|}
 
|}
  
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=== New FamilySearch (Common Pedigree)  ===
 
=== New FamilySearch (Common Pedigree)  ===
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insert example here
  
 
=== Record Search Collection  ===
 
=== Record Search Collection  ===
  
= Underlying Principles  =
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insert example here
  
It can be difficult to construct a citation when no matching example is given unless you know the underlying principles. Mills does not provide a summary of the principles used for Mills style. This list is an attempt to provide that summary. As such, citations are given to Mills's works in support of each principle.
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= Citation Principles  =
  
*Mills Style is grounded in the Chicago Manual of Style, Humanities style.<ref>add</ref>  
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It can be difficult to construct a citation when no matching example is given unless you know the underlying [[Citation Principles|citation principles]]. Users of Evidence&nbsp;Style can find, in ''Evidence Explained'', a synopsis of all principles common to historical research and writing as well as guidance on issues peculiar to specific types of records.
*Redundant information need not be repeated in a citation.<ref>add more</ref><ref>EE, 666; creator's role.</ref>  
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*Default values in citations do not need to be specified.  
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<br>
**"Author" is the default creator's role.<ref>EE, 666.</ref>  
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**"Paper" is the default medium.<ref>CMS 15th ed., 684.</ref>
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= Differences from Chicago Manual of Style =
 +
 
 +
Differences between&nbsp;Evidence Style&nbsp;and Chicago Style may be considered acceptable alternatives, improved practice, or&nbsp;minor deviations.The major difference in the two guides is this:
 +
 
 +
Evidence Style is designed for researchers to use at ''input stage''; therefore, it&nbsp;helps users capture all information about&nbsp;a source that may be needed to subsequently identify it ''and to evaluate&nbsp;the reliability of that source.''&nbsp;Chicago Style reflect parameters designed by a publishing house for editors and writers seeking publication; therefore, it focuses upon the ''output'' stage&nbsp;at which&nbsp;citations are pared to the minimum required to relocate a source.
 +
 
 +
Other minor differences include the following:
 +
 
 +
*Evidence Style&nbsp;italicizes series titles if, in common usage,&nbsp;it "is considered a formal title for [the] set of materials." (Example: the series&nbsp;''Pennsylvania Archives'', which is composed of many different volumes carrying widely different titles.<ref>Mills, ''Evidence Explained,'' 716.</ref> Chicago, which never italicizes a series title, does not address this issue.<ref>''CMS'' 15th ed., 669.</ref>  
 +
*"Evidence Style identifies [periodical] issues by their dates rather than issue numbers, because unrecognized typing errors are more common with numbers than with words."<ref>Mills, ''Evidence Explained,'' 794.</ref> Chicago allows either, but recognizes that "although not all these elements may be required to locate an article, furnishing them all provides a hedge against possible error in one or another of them."<ref>''CMS'' 15th ed., 690.</ref>  
 +
*Evidence Style is more cautious in the use of abbreviations. Because historical researchers use records across&nbsp;wide time frames&nbsp;in which place-name abbreviations change, because family historians&nbsp;use records for many countries whose proper abbreviations may not be widely known,&nbsp;and because "abbreviations rarely save a significant amount of space, the thoughtful writer avoids all but the truly obvious ones."<ref>Mills, ''Evidence Explained,'' 71.</ref> In general, Evidence Style spells out&nbsp;the names of states and references to political jurisdictions ("county,"&nbsp;"parish," etc.)&nbsp;in the first citation to a source, but allows abbreviations in shortened subsequent citations to the same source.<ref>See "Cooperstown, New York" on p. 98 of ''Evidence Explained.''</ref> Both Evidence and Chicago agree that&nbsp;(in&nbsp;Chicago's words), "If the city of publication may be unknown to readers or may be confused with another city of the same name, ... the state, province, or (sometimes) country is added." However, Chicago&nbsp;recommends that the state, province, or country name be abbreviated.<ref>''Chicago Manual of Style'' 15th ed., 672.</ref>  
 +
*Evidence Style&nbsp;allows an optional space after the colon separating volume and page numbers.<ref>Mills, ''Evidence Explained,'' 77.</ref> CMS, on the other hand, specifies that no space be present. "But when parenthetical information intervenes,"<ref>''CMS'' 15th ed., 692.</ref> such as "12 (Winter): 345" then a space after the colon is required for clarity.
  
 
= Notes<br>  =
 
= Notes<br>  =
  
<references />
+
<references /><br>
 +
 
 +
[[Category:Citations]]

Revision as of 17:11, 21 December 2012

Citation style guides can help you capture all the information about a source that is necessary for you and others to evaluate the quality of the source, to relocate your source, and sometimes to find the source from which your source was derived. Practically speaking, users of the latest genealogy software may feel no need for citation guides because the software prompts users to enter specific source information into forms. The program then formats citations according to its interpretation of the chosen citation style. Conversely, style guides are necessary when using software that does not have forms for the many different types of sources used by genealogists, or when you need a better understanding of the materials you are using. 

Contents

The Basics

One citation style used by genealogical and historical researchers in the United States is Evidence Style, developed by Elizabeth Shown Mills. It is an extension of Chicago Style, as set forth in the classic writer's guide to style issues, Chicago Manual of Style. Chicago Style is adequate for citing most published sources. Evidence Style follows Chicago's general framework but adapts and extends it to cover historical documents and artifacts in many variant forms, a significant issue for those who work with original records. Evidence Style is detailed in the book Evidence Explained[1] and in a companion series of QuickSheets.

Contrary to the terminology used by Personal Ancestral File (PAF) and some other genealogy programs, both Evidence and Chicago Styles, define a source as a document, register, publication, film, artifact, website, or person that supplies information. A citation is the entire textual reference to the source.[2]

In the Evidence and Chicago Styles, there are four types of citations:

  1. Source list. (Chicago calls this a bibliography.) Each citation—called a source list entry—is punctuated as if it were a paragraph and each citation element were a sentence. Published works are sorted by the last name of the author. To effectively organize the source list, Evidence Style allows considerable latitude in the arrangement of unpublished works. Examples in this article illustrate ordering unpublished works geographically. However, elements of the source list entry can be reordered to reflect other organization schemes when appropriate. One source list entry will often underpin multiple reference notes. Therefore, the source list entry excludes the more detailed citation elements present in the notes. For example, page numbers for books and manuscript volumes would be present in notes but not the source list entry.[3]
  2. First reference note. Both Evidence and Chicago allows either footnotes or endnotes and use the term reference notes, or simply notes to speak of both. Each note is punctuated as if it were a sentence containing a list of citation elements. As with any list, commas are the basic punctuation used to separate the elements. If commas within elements make the list ambiguous, then semicolons are used to separate the elements. Parentheses typically surround publication data (place, publisher and date). In Evidence Style, this convention is applied to both print works and online works.[4]
  3. Subsequent note. In the final draft of a narrative, after the first reference to a source, it is not necessary to duplicate a complete citation in subsequent notes. In fact, abbreviating subsequent citations in a published work makes notes more understandable and signals source reuse. The abbreviated style of subsequent notes should be applied only at the time of publication, because the order of notes can change as a manuscript is revised. You should always enter complete citations in genealogical records. If you never develop a manuscript for publication, then you can safely ignore the "subsequent note" format.[5]
  4. Source label. This is the citation that should appear in the margin, on the front of all photocopies and prints of original records; it should also accompany all transcriptions and abstracts. Evidence Style does not dictate whether the researcher format a label as a Source List Entry or a Reference Note. Suffice it to say, the citation should be complete in case the page is shared independently of other documents.[6]

Examples

Some examples are shown with each citation element labeled. Don't forget to include the punctuation at the end of each element. Some examples are shown as they normally appear, except for indenting. The numbers 1 and 11 are illustrative only and are used for the first reference note and subsequent reference note, respectively.

Published Works

Simple Book[7]

Source List
Creator (Author) Mills, Elizabeth Shown.
Title Evidence Explained:
Subtitle Citing History Sources from Artifacts to Cyberspace.
Place of publication Baltimore:
Publisher Genealogical Publishing Company,
Year of publication 2007.
First Reference Note
Creator (Author) Elizabeth Shown Mills,
Title Evidence Explained:
Subtitle Citing History Sources from Artifacts to Cyberspace
Place of publication (Baltimore:
Publisher Genealogical Publishing Company,
Year of publication 2007),
Page 42.


Multiple authors[8]

Source List Clemensson, Per, and Kjell Andersson. Your Swedish Roots: A Step by Step Handbook. Provo, Utah: Ancestry Publishing, 2004.
First Reference Note   1.  Per Clemensson and Kjell Andersson, Your Swedish Roots: A Step by Step Handbook (Provo, Utah: Ancestry Publishing, 2004), 115.
Subsequent Note 11.  Clemensson and Andersson, Your Swedish Roots, 115.

Editor instead of author

Source List insert source list example
First Reference Note  2.  insert 1st ref note example
Subsequent Note 12.  insert subsequent note example

Revised edition[9]

Source List Leary, Helen F. M., editor. North Carolina Research: Genealogy and Local History. Second edition. Raleigh:[10] North Carolina Genealogical Society, 1996.
First Reference Note  3.  Helen F. M. Leary, editor, North Carolina Research: Genealogy and Local History, 2d ed. (Raleigh:[10] North Carolina Genealogical Society, 1996), 3-16.
Subsequent Note 13.  Leary, North Carolina Research, 3-16.

Journal article[11]

This example is online. For a paper source, leave off the elements starting with "online archives." No change is required for the short note.

Source List Waters, Henry F. Waters. "Genealogical Gleanings in England." The New England Historical and Genealogical Register 49 (January 1895). Online archives. Google Books. http://books.google.com/books?id=zsYMAAAAYAAJ : 2010.
First Reference Note   4.  Henry F. Waters, "Genealogical Gleanings in England," The New England Historical and Genealogical Register 49 (January 1895): 136; online archives, Google Books (http://books.google.com/books?id=zsYMAAAAYAAJ : accessed 4 January 2010).
Subsequent Note 14.  Waters, "Genealogical Gleanings in England," 136.


FamilySearch Sources

Historical Books

Source List
ORIGINAL BOOK
Creator
Raymond, Samuel,
Creator's role[12] compiler.
Title Genealogies of the Raymond families of New England, 1630-1 to 1886:
Subtitle[13] With a Historical Sketch of Some of the Raymonds of Early Times.
Place of publication New York:
Publisher J. J. Little and Co.,
Date (of publication) 1886.
DIGITAL IMAGES[14]
Item type or format Digital images.
Creator FamilySearch and Brigham Young University.
Title Family History Archives.
Place of publication www.lib.byu.edu/fhc/ :
Date (of access) 2009.
First Reference Note
Creator Samuel Raymond,
Creator's role[15] compiler,
Title Genealogies of the Raymond families of New England, 1630-1 to 1886:
Subtitle[16] With a Historical Sketch of Some of the Raymonds of Early Times,
Place of publication (New York:
Publisher J. J. Little and Co.,
Year of publication 1886),
Page 143
DIGITAL IMAGES[14]   ;
Item type or format
digital images,
Creator FamilySearch and Brigham Young University,
Title Family History Archives
Place of publication (www.lib.byu.edu/fhc/ :
Date (of access) accessed 10 September 2009),
Notes (optional)
reference URL is https://dcms.lds.org/delivery/DeliveryManagerServlet?dps_pid=IE95837 Also for broken links Add in its place the following replacing the 76851 with the IE number you found in the permanent link on the digital image page: FamilySearch Books Online .


New FamilySearch (Common Pedigree)

insert example here

Record Search Collection

insert example here

Citation Principles

It can be difficult to construct a citation when no matching example is given unless you know the underlying citation principles. Users of Evidence Style can find, in Evidence Explained, a synopsis of all principles common to historical research and writing as well as guidance on issues peculiar to specific types of records.


Differences from Chicago Manual of Style

Differences between Evidence Style and Chicago Style may be considered acceptable alternatives, improved practice, or minor deviations.The major difference in the two guides is this:

Evidence Style is designed for researchers to use at input stage; therefore, it helps users capture all information about a source that may be needed to subsequently identify it and to evaluate the reliability of that source. Chicago Style reflect parameters designed by a publishing house for editors and writers seeking publication; therefore, it focuses upon the output stage at which citations are pared to the minimum required to relocate a source.

Other minor differences include the following:

  • Evidence Style italicizes series titles if, in common usage, it "is considered a formal title for [the] set of materials." (Example: the series Pennsylvania Archives, which is composed of many different volumes carrying widely different titles.[17] Chicago, which never italicizes a series title, does not address this issue.[18]
  • "Evidence Style identifies [periodical] issues by their dates rather than issue numbers, because unrecognized typing errors are more common with numbers than with words."[19] Chicago allows either, but recognizes that "although not all these elements may be required to locate an article, furnishing them all provides a hedge against possible error in one or another of them."[20]
  • Evidence Style is more cautious in the use of abbreviations. Because historical researchers use records across wide time frames in which place-name abbreviations change, because family historians use records for many countries whose proper abbreviations may not be widely known, and because "abbreviations rarely save a significant amount of space, the thoughtful writer avoids all but the truly obvious ones."[21] In general, Evidence Style spells out the names of states and references to political jurisdictions ("county," "parish," etc.) in the first citation to a source, but allows abbreviations in shortened subsequent citations to the same source.[22] Both Evidence and Chicago agree that (in Chicago's words), "If the city of publication may be unknown to readers or may be confused with another city of the same name, ... the state, province, or (sometimes) country is added." However, Chicago recommends that the state, province, or country name be abbreviated.[23]
  • Evidence Style allows an optional space after the colon separating volume and page numbers.[24] CMS, on the other hand, specifies that no space be present. "But when parenthetical information intervenes,"[25] such as "12 (Winter): 345" then a space after the colon is required for clarity.

Notes

  1. Elizabeth Shown Mills, Evidence Explained: Citing History Sources from Artifacts to Cyberspace (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2007).
  2. Mills, Evidence Explained, 820, 828. Also note this quote from p. 42: "The term citation is obviously not synonymous with the term source, and the two should not be used interchangeably."
  3. Mills, Evidence Explained, 43, 60-1, 67-71.
  4. Mills, Evidence Explained, 43, 46, 60, 77, 86-7.
  5. Mills, Evidence Explained, 46, 62, 64-6.
  6. Mills, Evidence Explained, 43, 66-7.
  7. Mills, Evidence Explained, 646.
  8. Mills, Evidence Explained, 669-70.
  9. Mills, Evidence Explained, 649.
  10. 10.0 10.1 The state was excluded here because it is present in the title and publisher's name. See Mills, Evidence Explained, 806-7. See pp. 221-2 for another instance where state name can be excluded.
  11. Mills, Evidence Explained, 779-780, 791-8.
  12. Mills, Evidence Explained, 666.
  13. Mills, Evidence Explained, 80; in this example the subtitle was truncated so ellipses are not necessary.
  14. 14.0 14.1 QuickSheet, Citing Online Historical Resources, Evidence! Style 1st rev. ed., 4 page pamphlet (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 2007), 2.
  15. Mills, Evidence Explained, 666.
  16. Mills, Evidence Explained, 80; in this example the subtitle was truncated so ellipses are not necessary.
  17. Mills, Evidence Explained, 716.
  18. CMS 15th ed., 669.
  19. Mills, Evidence Explained, 794.
  20. CMS 15th ed., 690.
  21. Mills, Evidence Explained, 71.
  22. See "Cooperstown, New York" on p. 98 of Evidence Explained.
  23. Chicago Manual of Style 15th ed., 672.
  24. Mills, Evidence Explained, 77.
  25. CMS 15th ed., 692.