Creek Indians

From FamilySearch Wiki

(Difference between revisions)
(adding subject)
(33 intermediate revisions by 7 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
[[Image:The Creek Indians Benjamin Hawkins.jpg|thumb|right]]&nbsp;{{Indians of North America-stub}}<br><br>
+
To get started in [[American Indian Genealogy|American Indian Research]]  
  
<br>
+
[[Image:The Creek Indians Benjamin Hawkins.jpg|thumb|right|328px|The Creek Indians Benjamin Hawkins.jpg]]
  
<br>
+
Creek Indians were also known as Muskogee.  
 
+
<br>
+
 
+
<br>
+
 
+
Creek Indians were also known as Muskogee.&nbsp;
+
  
 
The Creek Indians are one of the [[Five Civilized Tribes|Five Civilized Tribes]].  
 
The Creek Indians are one of the [[Five Civilized Tribes|Five Civilized Tribes]].  
  
'''Cultural area '''is the Southeast United States.&nbsp;
+
'''Cultural area '''is the Southeast United States.  
  
 
'''Linguistic group:''' Muskogean  
 
'''Linguistic group:''' Muskogean  
Line 21: Line 15:
 
'''Clans: '''Wind, Bird, Alligator, Bear  
 
'''Clans: '''Wind, Bird, Alligator, Bear  
  
'''Original homeland:''' along the banks of the Alabama, Coosa, Tallapoosa, Flint, Ocmulgee, and Chattahoochee Rivers, In the Gerogia, Alabama, Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Tennessee  
+
'''Original homeland:''' along the banks of the Alabama, Coosa, Tallapoosa, Flint, Ocmulgee, and Chattahoochee Rivers, In the Georgia, Alabama, Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Tennessee  
  
Creek Indians trace their ancestry through the female line.&nbsp; The children belong to the same clan as their mother. Clan members were closely related so they had to marry someone from a different clan than his or her own.  
+
Creek Indians trace their ancestry through the female line. The children belong to the same clan as their mother. Clan members were closely related so they had to marry someone from a different clan than his or her own.  
  
The Creek Nation is comprised of six political districts: 1. Coweta, 2. Deep Fork, 3. Eufaula, 4. Muscogee, 5. Okmulgee, 6. Wewoka;&nbsp;these districts functions like counties.  
+
The Creek Nation is comprised of six political districts: 1. Coweta, 2. Deep Fork, 3. Eufaula, 4. Muscogee, 5. Okmulgee, 6. Wewoka;these districts functions like counties.  
  
== Tribal Headquarters  ==
+
=== Tribal Headquarters  ===
  
== History  ==
+
Muscogee Nation of Oklahoma <br>P. O. Box 580 <br>Okmulgee, Oklahoma 74447 <br>Phone: 918-756-8700
  
Their ancestral homeland was in Alabama and Georgia.  
+
Creek Nation: [http://www.genealogynation.com/creek www.genealogynation.com/creek]
  
<br>
+
=== History  ===
  
==== Brief Timeline  ====
+
Their ancestral homeland was in Alabama and Georgia.
 +
 
 +
=== Brief Timeline  ===
  
*'''1540:''' First contact Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto  
+
*'''1540:''' First contact Spanish explorer Hernando De Soto  
 
*'''1703-08:''' Creeks were allies of the English in the Apalachee wars.  
 
*'''1703-08:''' Creeks were allies of the English in the Apalachee wars.  
 
*'''1775:''' supported the British in the American Revolutionary War  
 
*'''1775:''' supported the British in the American Revolutionary War  
 
*'''1813-1814:''' Creek Wars, General Andrew Jackson, in command of some of the forces  
 
*'''1813-1814:''' Creek Wars, General Andrew Jackson, in command of some of the forces  
 
*'''1796-1816:''' Benjamin Hawkins, was the federal agent to the Creeks  
 
*'''1796-1816:''' Benjamin Hawkins, was the federal agent to the Creeks  
*'''1816:''' after the death of Benjamin Hawkins, President James Madison appointed David B. Mitchell, a former governor of Georgia.&nbsp; He undermined the Creeks' sovereignty and&nbsp;initated acts to take all of their lands in Georgia.&nbsp;
+
*'''1816:''' after the death of Benjamin Hawkins, President James Madison appointed David B. Mitchell, a former governor of Georgia. He undermined the Creeks' sovereignty and initiated acts to take all of their lands in Georgia.  
*'''1836-1837:'''&nbsp; removed from Georgia and Alabama to eastern Oklahoma. Some were taken by a southern route to New Orleans and then by steamboats (''Monmouth'')&nbsp;up the Mississippi River to Arkansas. The ''Monmouth'' collided with the ''Trenton'' more than 300 Creeks drowned.&nbsp; During removal 3,500 died of the 15,000.  
+
*'''1836-1837:''' removed from Georgia and Alabama to eastern Oklahoma. Some were taken by a southern route to New Orleans and then by steamboats (''Monmouth'') up the Mississippi River to Arkansas. The ''Monmouth'' collided with the ''Trenton'' more than 300 Creeks drowned. During removal 3,500 died of the 15,000.  
 
*'''November 25, 1785:''' Treaty at Hopewell, South Carolina  
 
*'''November 25, 1785:''' Treaty at Hopewell, South Carolina  
 
*'''June 29, 1796:''' Coleraine, Georgia  
 
*'''June 29, 1796:''' Coleraine, Georgia  
Line 49: Line 45:
 
*'''January 22, 1818:''' Creek agency on Flint river  
 
*'''January 22, 1818:''' Creek agency on Flint river  
 
*'''January 8, 1821 / February 12, 1825:''' Treaty of Indian Springs negotiated by Creek leader William McIntosh. He was later (1825) executed by the Creek Nation for the deed.  
 
*'''January 8, 1821 / February 12, 1825:''' Treaty of Indian Springs negotiated by Creek leader William McIntosh. He was later (1825) executed by the Creek Nation for the deed.  
*'''January 24, 1826''': Washington D.C.;Creeks would sell their land. Ratified April 22, 1826  
+
*'''January 24, 1826''': Washington D.C.; Creeks would sell their land. Ratified April 22, 1826  
 
*'''March 24, 1832:''' Treaty that the United States would remove intruders.  
 
*'''March 24, 1832:''' Treaty that the United States would remove intruders.  
*'''1836-1837: '''removal &nbsp;
+
*'''1836-1837: '''removal  
 
*'''November 23, 1838: '''Ft. Gibson  
 
*'''November 23, 1838: '''Ft. Gibson  
 
*'''1861-1865:''' the tribe was split; some allying with the Union others with the Confederate Army  
 
*'''1861-1865:''' the tribe was split; some allying with the Union others with the Confederate Army  
Line 57: Line 53:
 
*'''1887:''' [[Dawes Commission Enrollment Records for Five U.S. Indian Tribes|Dawes Act]]
 
*'''1887:''' [[Dawes Commission Enrollment Records for Five U.S. Indian Tribes|Dawes Act]]
  
====  ====
+
=== Additional References to the History of the Tribe  ===
 
+
==== Additional References to the History of the Tribe  ====
+
  
 
Frederick Webb Hodge, in his [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/creek/creekhist.htm Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico], gave a more complete history of the Creek tribe, with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods. Additional details are given in John Swanton's [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/alabama/index.htm#Creek_Confederacy The Indian Tribes of North America.]  
 
Frederick Webb Hodge, in his [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/creek/creekhist.htm Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico], gave a more complete history of the Creek tribe, with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods. Additional details are given in John Swanton's [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/alabama/index.htm#Creek_Confederacy The Indian Tribes of North America.]  
  
==== Reservations  ====
+
A Migration Legend of the Creek Indians. By Albert Samuel Gatschet and Daniel Garrison Brinton. NY Kraus Reprint CO., 1969. {{FHL| 167879|item|disp=Book 970.3 C861g or fiche 6050043 }}(six fiche)
 +
 
 +
Benjamin Hawkins. A Sketch of the Creek County, in the Years 1798-1799. Spartanburg, SC. Reprint Co., 1974. {{FHL|86195|item|disp= FHL Book 970.3 C861h or Film 962258 }}
 +
 
 +
=== Reservations  ===
  
== Records  ==
+
=== Records  ===
  
'''Census Records'''
+
=== Census Records ===
  
 
{| cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" border="1"
 
{| cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" border="1"
Line 75: Line 73:
 
Census  
 
Census  
  
Years
+
Years  
  
 
! scope="col" |  
 
! scope="col" |  
Line 82: Line 80:
 
M595 RG 75 Rolls 693  
 
M595 RG 75 Rolls 693  
  
Roll Numbers
+
Roll Numbers  
  
 
! scope="col" |  
 
! scope="col" |  
Line 89: Line 87:
 
Film  
 
Film  
  
Number
+
Number  
  
 
|-
 
|-
| Crow Creek  
+
| [[Crow Creek Indian Agency (South Dakota)|Crow Creek]]
 
| 1886-1892  
 
| 1886-1892  
 
| -  
 
| -  
| 575779
+
| FHL Film:575779
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Crow Creek  
 
| Crow Creek  
 
| 1883-1905  
 
| 1883-1905  
 
| -  
 
| -  
| 575780
+
| FHL Film:575780
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Crow Creek  
 
| Crow Creek  
 
| 1906-1920  
 
| 1906-1920  
 
| -  
 
| -  
| 575781
+
| FHL Film:575781
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Crow Creek  
 
| Crow Creek  
 
| 1921-1929  
 
| 1921-1929  
 
| -  
 
| -  
| 575782
+
| FHL Film:575782
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Crow Creek  
 
| Crow Creek  
 
| 1930-1933  
 
| 1930-1933  
 
| -  
 
| -  
| 575783
+
| FHL Film:575783
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Crow Creek  
 
| Crow Creek  
 
| 1934-1942  
 
| 1934-1942  
 
| -  
 
| -  
| 575784
+
| FHL Film:575784
 
|}
 
|}
  
<br>'''Correspondence Records'''
+
==== Correspondence Records ====
  
 
{| cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" border="1"
 
{| cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" border="1"
Line 134: Line 132:
 
Correspondence M234 RG 75 Rolls 962  
 
Correspondence M234 RG 75 Rolls 962  
  
Roll Number
+
Roll Number  
  
 
! scope="col" |  
 
! scope="col" |  
 
FHL  
 
FHL  
  
Film Number
+
Film Number  
  
 
|-
 
|-
| Creek Agency, 1824-1866  
+
| [[Creek Indian Agency (Georgia)|Creek Agency,]] 1824-1866  
 
| Washington D.C.  
 
| Washington D.C.  
 
| -  
 
| -  
 
| -
 
| -
 
|-
 
|-
| Union Agency, 1875-1914  
+
| [[Union Indian Agency (Oklahoma)|Union Agency]], 1875-1914  
 
| Washington D.C. and Fort Worth  
 
| Washington D.C. and Fort Worth  
 
| Rolls 865-77  
 
| Rolls 865-77  
 
| -
 
| -
 
|-
 
|-
| Eufala Boarding School, 1925-52  
+
| [[Eufaula Indian Boarding School (Oklahoma)|Eufala Boarding School]], 1925-52  
 
| Fort Worth  
 
| Fort Worth  
 
| -  
 
| -  
Line 163: Line 161:
 
|}
 
|}
  
<br>
+
<br>  
  
'''Enrollment Records'''
+
==== Enrollment Records ====
  
 
*[[Dawes Commission Enrollment Records for Five U.S. Indian Tribes|Dawes Commission Enrollment Records]]
 
*[[Dawes Commission Enrollment Records for Five U.S. Indian Tribes|Dawes Commission Enrollment Records]]
  
'''Treaties'''  
+
=== Military  ===
 +
 
 +
*Some Creek Indians are listed as serving in the Second Creek War (1836) in the [[Indian Wars Compiled Service Records Index, 1815-1858|Indian Wars Compiled Service Records Index, 1815-1858]]. This index includes the soldier’s name, rank, and unit along with the name of the war or disturbance.
 +
 
 +
=== Removal  ===
 +
 
 +
The Second tribe of the Five Civilized tribes to be removed.Removal of the Creek Indians living in Alabama, Georgia and northern Florida began with the treaty of Cusseta in 1832.
 +
 
 +
At the time of removal there was estimated 22,700 Creeks and 900 Creek slaves were removed with 19,600 surviving the ordeal. Removal was supervised by the United States Army, the Creeks were divided into groups to be removed.
 +
 
 +
'''Dates of removal by groups:'''
 +
 
 +
*1827 seven hundred and three Creeks and eighty six Slaves with Chief William McIntosh left and traveled by Keel boats, the Tennessee, Ohio, and Mississippi Rivers to Fort Gibson
 +
*1828: 400
 +
*June 1829: 1,200 steam boat Virginia ran aground on the Arkansas River
 +
*Dec 1834 six hundred thirty- under Captain John Page, four hundred sixty nine arrived 28 Mar 1835, two men in the group: Sampson Grayon with 34 Slaves and Widow Stidham with 23 Slaves.
 +
*10 July 1836: nine hundred of the Encah Emalhea Band - shipped in chains
 +
*1 Aug 1836 left Alabama, 2,700 leader Opthleyaholo
 +
*5 September 1836 1,984 Lt. J.T. Sprague (known&nbsp; as 5th group of Friendly Creek)
 +
*1836: 2,700 arrived at Ft Gibson - (1st group friendly Creek)
 +
*18 &amp; 22 Dec 1836; (2nd group Friendly Creek)
 +
*March 1837: 4,000 Lt. Edward Deas, arrived 2 Jun 1837 at Little rock Arkansas. with 500. 3,500 still at Mobile Point
 +
*29 Oct 1837 1,600 Lt. T.P. Sloan three steamboats: Monmoth 611- 311 drowned when it struck the steamboat Trenton
 +
 
 +
=== Trade  ===
 +
 
 +
Superintendent of Indian Trade. Letter Book of the Creek Trading House, 1785-1816. {{FHL|88843|item|disp= FHL Film: 1024433 }}
 +
 
 +
'''Treaties''' The year link,the date of the treaty will connect to an online copy of the Treaty.
  
 
*1785:  
 
*1785:  
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cre0025.htm 1790] August 7, at New York&nbsp;
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cre0025.htm 1790] August 7, at New York  
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cre0046.htm 1796] June 29, at Colerain&nbsp;
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cre0046.htm 1796] June 29, at Colerain  
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cre0058.htm 1802] June 16, at Fort Wilkinson&nbsp;
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cre0058.htm 1802] June 16, at Fort Wilkinson  
 
*October 27, 1805,  
 
*October 27, 1805,  
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cre0085.htm 1805] November 14, at Washington&nbsp;
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cre0085.htm 1805] November 14, at Washington  
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cre0107.htm 1814] August 9, &nbsp;
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cre0107.htm 1814] August 9,  
 
*March 22, 1816, - Cherokee  
 
*March 22, 1816, - Cherokee  
 
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cre0155.htm 1818] October 19, with the Chickasaw, Flint River  
 
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cre0155.htm 1818] October 19, with the Chickasaw, Flint River  
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cre0195.htm 1821] January 8, at Indian Spring&nbsp;
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cre0195.htm 1821] January 8, at Indian Spring  
 
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cre0197.htm 1821]  
 
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cre0197.htm 1821]  
 
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cre0214.htm 1824] February 12, at Indian Spring  
 
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cre0214.htm 1824] February 12, at Indian Spring  
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cre0214.htm 1825] June 29, at Broken Arrow - unratified&nbsp;&nbsp;
+
*1825: Population estimated at 20,000 for Creek Indians in Georgia and Alabama, reported by T.C. McKenny - of the Indian Office
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cre0264.htm 1826] January 24,&nbsp;at Washington&nbsp;
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cre0214.htm 1825] June 29, at Broken Arrow - unratified  
 +
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cre0264.htm 1826] January 24,at Washington  
 
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cre0284.htm 1827] November 15, at Creek Agency  
 
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cre0284.htm 1827] November 15, at Creek Agency  
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cre0341.htm 1832] March 24,&nbsp;at Washington&nbsp;
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cre0341.htm 1832] March 24,at Washington  
 
*May 9, 1832, Seminole  
 
*May 9, 1832, Seminole  
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cre0388.htm 1833] February 14, at Fort Gibson&nbsp;
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cre0388.htm 1833] February 14, at Fort Gibson  
 
*March 28, 1833  
 
*March 28, 1833  
 
*June 18, 1833, Appalachicola Band  
 
*June 18, 1833, Appalachicola Band  
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/com0435.htm 1835]&nbsp;&nbsp;August 24,&nbsp; at Camp Holmes, with the Comanche  
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/com0435.htm 1835]August 24, at Camp Holmes, with the Comanche  
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cre0524.htm 1838] November&nbsp;23, at Fort Gibson&nbsp;
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cre0524.htm 1838] November 23, at Fort Gibson  
 
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cre0550.htm 1845] January 4,with the Seminole  
 
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cre0550.htm 1845] January 4,with the Seminole  
 
*April 1, 1850 - Wyandot  
 
*April 1, 1850 - Wyandot  
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cre0647.htm 1854] June 13,&nbsp;
+
*1853: Population estimated at 25,000 by Commissioner of Indian Affairs at the request of the Department of Census
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cre0756.htm 1856] August 7, at Washington&nbsp;
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cre0647.htm 1854] June 13,  
 +
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cre0756.htm 1856] August 7, at Washington  
 
*September 13, 1865, at Fort Smith - unratified  
 
*September 13, 1865, at Fort Smith - unratified  
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cre0931.htm 1866] June&nbsp;14, at Washington&nbsp;
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cre0931.htm 1866] June 14, at Washington  
 +
*1867: Population estimated at 14,396 by Commissioner of Indian Affairs
 +
*1910: Population as reported from census 6,945
 +
 
 +
=== Vital Records  ===
 +
 
 +
*Crow Creek Agency, M595, births and deaths 1924-1932, {{FHL|Film: 575783}}
 +
 
 +
=== Indian Pioneer Papers  ===
  
'''Vital Records'''
+
In 1936, the Oklahoma Historical Society and University of Oklahoma requested a writer's project grant from the Works Progress Administration (WPA) in which interviews would be conducted with early settlers in Oklahoma who had lived on Indian land. More than 100 writers conducted over 11,000 interviews and were asked to "call upon early settlers and (record) the story of the migration to Oklahoma and their early life here."<ref>Blackburn, Bob L. "Battle Cry for History: The First Century of the Oklahoma Historical Society." n.d. Oklahoma Historical Society. 5 Oct. 1998.</ref> The [http://digital.libraries.ou.edu/whc/pioneer/ University of Oklahoma Western History Collection] has digitized the Indian Pioneer Papers which consists of approximately 80,000 indexed entries arranged alphabetically by personal name, place name, or subject. <ref>The University of Oklahoma Western History Collections http://digital.libraries.ou.edu/whc/pioneer/</ref> An index to the Indian Pioneer Papers may also be found at [http://www.okgenweb.org/pioneer/ OkGenWeb Oklahoma Genealogy.] A separate index of Indians interviewed, including the Creek, may be viewed at: [http://goodoowah.50megs.com/indpio/ “Indians in the Indian Pioneer Papers”] Some of the surnames from the Creek tribe found in the collection are: Barnett, Beam (Stevens), Berryhill, Bond, Breeding, Canard, Coker, Fisher (Postoak), Jobe, Postoak, Sells (Jobe).
  
*Crow Creek Agency, M595, births and deaths 1924-1932, FHL Film: 575783
+
=== Important Web Sites  ===
  
'''Indian Pioneer Papers'''
+
*Muscogee (Creek) Indians [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muscogee_(Creek) Wikipedia]
 +
*Creek Native Americans [http://creeknativeamericans.blogspot.com http://creeknativeamericans.blogspot.com]
 +
*Native American Research [http://nativeamericanresearch.blogspot.com http://nativeamericanresearch.blogspot.com]
 +
*Indian Research [http://researchindians.blogspot.com http://researchindians.blogspot.com]
  
In 1936, the Oklahoma Historical Society and University of Oklahoma requested a writer's project grant from the Works Progress Administration (WPA) in which interviews would be conducted with early settlers in Oklahoma who had lived on Indian land. More than 100 writers conducted over 11,000 interviews and were asked to "call upon early settlers and (record) the story of the migration to Oklahoma and their early life here."<ref>.” Blackburn, Bob L. "Battle Cry for History: The First Century of the Oklahoma Historical Society." n.d. Oklahoma Historical Society. 5 Oct. 1998.</ref> The [http://digital.libraries.ou.edu/whc/pioneer/ University of Oklahoma Western History Collection] has digitized the Indian Pioneer Papers which consists of approximately 80,000 indexed entries arranged alphabetically by personal name, place name, or subject. <ref>The University of Oklahoma Western History Collections http://digital.libraries.ou.edu/whc/pioneer/</ref> An index to the Indian Pioneer Papers may also be found at [http://www.okgenweb.org/pioneer/ OkGenWeb Oklahoma Genealogy.] A separate index of Indians interviewed, including the Creek, may be viewed at: [http://goodoowah.50megs.com/indpio/ “Indians in the Indian Pioneer Papers”] Some of the surnames from the Creek tribe found in the collection are: Barnett, Berryhill, Canar, Coker, Breeding, Fisher, Jobe, Postoak, Sells (Jobe).
+
Access Genealogy [http://www.acessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/creek/index.htm http://www.acessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/creek/index.htm]  
  
== Important Web Sites ==
+
=== References ===
  
*Muscogee (Creek) Indians [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muscogee_(Creek) Wikipedia]
+
{{reflist}}
  
== References  ==
+
Hawkins, Benjamin. A Sketch of the Creek Country, in the years 1798 and 1799, and letters of Benjamin Hawkins, Spartanburg,SC., Reprint Co., 1974. {{FHL|86195|item|disp=FHL Book 970.3 C861h or Film 962258}}
  
<references />
+
<references />  
  
==== Bibliography  ====
+
=== Bibliography  ===
  
 
*[http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/075.html Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75], Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.  
 
*[http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/075.html Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75], Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.  
 
*Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/ Available online].  
 
*Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/ Available online].  
*Klein, Barry T., ed. ''Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian''. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/317923332?referer=list_view WorldCat 317923332]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=1122745&disp=Reference+encyclopedia+of+the+American+I%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 R259e].  
+
*Klein, Barry T., ed. ''Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian''. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/317923332?referer=list_view WorldCat 317923332]; {{FHL|1122745|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 R259e}}.
*Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. [http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=no:037475188 WorldCat 37475188]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=831087&disp=The+Gale+encyclopedia+of+Native+American%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 G131g].
+
*Lennon, Rachal Mills. ''Tracing Ancestors Among the Five Civilized Tribes; Southeastern Indians Prior to Removal''. Baltimore, Md.: Genealogical Publishing Co., 2002. {{FHL|1038175|item|disp=FHL Book 970.1 L548t}}.  
 +
*Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. [http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=no:037475188 WorldCat 37475188]; {{FHL|831087|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 G131g}}.
  
 
:Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean  
 
:Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean  
Line 228: Line 268:
 
:Vol. 4 -- California, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Islands
 
:Vol. 4 -- California, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Islands
  
*Sturtevant, William C. ''Handbook of North American Indians''. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– . <br>
+
*Sturtevant, William C. ''Handbook of North American Indians''. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .
  
 
:Volume 1 -- Not yet published  
 
:Volume 1 -- Not yet published  
:Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/234303751&referer=brief_results WorldCat 234303751]<br>
+
:Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/234303751&referer=brief_results WorldCat 234303751]  
:Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/255572371&referer=brief_results WorldCat 255572371]<br>
+
:Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/255572371&referer=brief_results WorldCat 255572371]  
:Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/19331914&referer=brief_results WorldCat 19331914]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4].<br>
+
:Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/19331914&referer=brief_results WorldCat 19331914]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4}}.  
:Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/299653808&referer=brief_results WorldCat 299653808]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5].<br>
+
:Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/299653808&referer=brief_results WorldCat 299653808]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5}}.  
:Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/247493742&referer=brief_results WorldCat 247493742]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6].<br>
+
:Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/247493742&referer=brief_results WorldCat 247493742]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6}}.  
:Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/247493311&referer=brief_results WorldCat 247493311]<br>
+
:Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/247493311&referer=brief_results WorldCat 247493311]  
:Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/13240086&referer=brief_results WorldCat 13240086]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8].<br>
+
:Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/13240086&referer=brief_results WorldCat 13240086]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8}}.  
:Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/26140053&referer=brief_results WorldCat 26140053]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9].<br>
+
:Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/26140053&referer=brief_results WorldCat 26140053]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9}}.  
:Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/301504096&referer=brief_results WorldCat 301504096]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10].  
+
:Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/301504096&referer=brief_results WorldCat 301504096]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10}}.  
:Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/256516416&referer=brief_results WorldCat 256516416]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11].<br>
+
:Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/256516416&referer=brief_results WorldCat 256516416]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11}}.  
:Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/39401371&referer=brief_results WorldCat 39401371]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12].<br>
+
:Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/39401371&referer=brief_results WorldCat 39401371]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12}}.  
:Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/48209643&referer=brief_results WorldCat 48209643]<br>
+
:Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/48209643&referer=brief_results WorldCat 48209643]  
 
:Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/254277176&referer=brief_results WorldCat 254277176]  
 
:Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/254277176&referer=brief_results WorldCat 254277176]  
:Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/256517503&referer=brief_results WorldCat 356517503]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15].<br>
+
:Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/256517503&referer=brief_results WorldCat 356517503]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15}}.  
 
:Volume 16 -- Not yet published  
 
:Volume 16 -- Not yet published  
:Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/43957746&referer=brief_results WorldCat 43957746]<br>
+
:Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/43957746&referer=brief_results WorldCat 43957746]  
 
:Volume 18 -- Not yet published  
 
:Volume 18 -- Not yet published  
 
:Volume 19 -- Not yet published  
 
:Volume 19 -- Not yet published  
Line 252: Line 292:
  
 
*Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/indianlocation.htm Available online].  
 
*Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/indianlocation.htm Available online].  
*Waldman, Carl. ''Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes''. New York, New York: Facts on File, 2006. 3rd ed. [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/14718193?referer=list_view WorldCat 14718193]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=1465222&disp=Encyclopedia+of+Native+American+tribes%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 W146e 2006].
+
*Waldman, Carl. ''Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes''. New York, New York: Facts on File, 2006. 3rd ed. [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/14718193?referer=list_view WorldCat 14718193]; {{FHL|1465222|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 W146e 2006}}.
  
[[Category:Indian_Tribes_of_the_United_States]] [[Category:Indian_Tribes_of_North_America]]
+
[[Category:Alabama_Indian_Tribes]] [[Category:Georgia_Indian_Tribes]] [[Category:Florida_Indian_Tribes]] [[Category:Mississippi_Indian_Tribes]] [[Category:Louisiana_Indian_Tribes]] [[Category:Tennessee_Indian_Tribes]]

Revision as of 18:12, 14 February 2013

To get started in American Indian Research

The Creek Indians Benjamin Hawkins.jpg

Creek Indians were also known as Muskogee.

The Creek Indians are one of the Five Civilized Tribes.

Cultural area is the Southeast United States.

Linguistic group: Muskogean

Federal Status: Recognized

Clans: Wind, Bird, Alligator, Bear

Original homeland: along the banks of the Alabama, Coosa, Tallapoosa, Flint, Ocmulgee, and Chattahoochee Rivers, In the Georgia, Alabama, Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Tennessee

Creek Indians trace their ancestry through the female line. The children belong to the same clan as their mother. Clan members were closely related so they had to marry someone from a different clan than his or her own.

The Creek Nation is comprised of six political districts: 1. Coweta, 2. Deep Fork, 3. Eufaula, 4. Muscogee, 5. Okmulgee, 6. Wewoka;these districts functions like counties.

Contents

Tribal Headquarters

Muscogee Nation of Oklahoma
P. O. Box 580
Okmulgee, Oklahoma 74447
Phone: 918-756-8700

Creek Nation: www.genealogynation.com/creek

History

Their ancestral homeland was in Alabama and Georgia.

Brief Timeline

  • 1540: First contact Spanish explorer Hernando De Soto
  • 1703-08: Creeks were allies of the English in the Apalachee wars.
  • 1775: supported the British in the American Revolutionary War
  • 1813-1814: Creek Wars, General Andrew Jackson, in command of some of the forces
  • 1796-1816: Benjamin Hawkins, was the federal agent to the Creeks
  • 1816: after the death of Benjamin Hawkins, President James Madison appointed David B. Mitchell, a former governor of Georgia. He undermined the Creeks' sovereignty and initiated acts to take all of their lands in Georgia.
  • 1836-1837: removed from Georgia and Alabama to eastern Oklahoma. Some were taken by a southern route to New Orleans and then by steamboats (Monmouth) up the Mississippi River to Arkansas. The Monmouth collided with the Trenton more than 300 Creeks drowned. During removal 3,500 died of the 15,000.
  • November 25, 1785: Treaty at Hopewell, South Carolina
  • June 29, 1796: Coleraine, Georgia
  • August 9, 1814: Fort Jackson, Alabama
  • January 22, 1818: Creek agency on Flint river
  • January 8, 1821 / February 12, 1825: Treaty of Indian Springs negotiated by Creek leader William McIntosh. He was later (1825) executed by the Creek Nation for the deed.
  • January 24, 1826: Washington D.C.; Creeks would sell their land. Ratified April 22, 1826
  • March 24, 1832: Treaty that the United States would remove intruders.
  • 1836-1837: removal
  • November 23, 1838: Ft. Gibson
  • 1861-1865: the tribe was split; some allying with the Union others with the Confederate Army
  • 1867: Tribe adopted a new constitution
  • 1887: Dawes Act

Additional References to the History of the Tribe

Frederick Webb Hodge, in his Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, gave a more complete history of the Creek tribe, with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods. Additional details are given in John Swanton's The Indian Tribes of North America.

A Migration Legend of the Creek Indians. By Albert Samuel Gatschet and Daniel Garrison Brinton. NY Kraus Reprint CO., 1969. Book 970.3 C861g or fiche 6050043(six fiche)

Benjamin Hawkins. A Sketch of the Creek County, in the Years 1798-1799. Spartanburg, SC. Reprint Co., 1974. FHL Book 970.3 C861h or Film 962258

Reservations

Records

Census Records

Tribe / Agency

Census

Years

Post - 1885 Census

M595 RG 75 Rolls 693

Roll Numbers

FHL

Film

Number

Crow Creek 1886-1892 - FHL Film:575779
Crow Creek 1883-1905 - FHL Film:575780
Crow Creek 1906-1920 - FHL Film:575781
Crow Creek 1921-1929 - FHL Film:575782
Crow Creek 1930-1933 - FHL Film:575783
Crow Creek 1934-1942 - FHL Film:575784

Correspondence Records

Agency location of Original Records

Pre-1880

Correspondence M234 RG 75 Rolls 962

Roll Number

FHL

Film Number

Creek Agency, 1824-1866 Washington D.C. - -
Union Agency, 1875-1914 Washington D.C. and Fort Worth Rolls 865-77 -
Eufala Boarding School, 1925-52 Fort Worth - -
Muskogee Area Office, 1890-1960 Fort Worth - -


Enrollment Records

Military

Removal

The Second tribe of the Five Civilized tribes to be removed.Removal of the Creek Indians living in Alabama, Georgia and northern Florida began with the treaty of Cusseta in 1832.

At the time of removal there was estimated 22,700 Creeks and 900 Creek slaves were removed with 19,600 surviving the ordeal. Removal was supervised by the United States Army, the Creeks were divided into groups to be removed.

Dates of removal by groups:

  • 1827 seven hundred and three Creeks and eighty six Slaves with Chief William McIntosh left and traveled by Keel boats, the Tennessee, Ohio, and Mississippi Rivers to Fort Gibson
  • 1828: 400
  • June 1829: 1,200 steam boat Virginia ran aground on the Arkansas River
  • Dec 1834 six hundred thirty- under Captain John Page, four hundred sixty nine arrived 28 Mar 1835, two men in the group: Sampson Grayon with 34 Slaves and Widow Stidham with 23 Slaves.
  • 10 July 1836: nine hundred of the Encah Emalhea Band - shipped in chains
  • 1 Aug 1836 left Alabama, 2,700 leader Opthleyaholo
  • 5 September 1836 1,984 Lt. J.T. Sprague (known  as 5th group of Friendly Creek)
  • 1836: 2,700 arrived at Ft Gibson - (1st group friendly Creek)
  • 18 & 22 Dec 1836; (2nd group Friendly Creek)
  • March 1837: 4,000 Lt. Edward Deas, arrived 2 Jun 1837 at Little rock Arkansas. with 500. 3,500 still at Mobile Point
  • 29 Oct 1837 1,600 Lt. T.P. Sloan three steamboats: Monmoth 611- 311 drowned when it struck the steamboat Trenton

Trade

Superintendent of Indian Trade. Letter Book of the Creek Trading House, 1785-1816. FHL Film: 1024433

Treaties The year link,the date of the treaty will connect to an online copy of the Treaty.

  • 1785:
  • 1790 August 7, at New York
  • 1796 June 29, at Colerain
  • 1802 June 16, at Fort Wilkinson
  • October 27, 1805,
  • 1805 November 14, at Washington
  • 1814 August 9,
  • March 22, 1816, - Cherokee
  • 1818 October 19, with the Chickasaw, Flint River
  • 1821 January 8, at Indian Spring
  • 1821
  • 1824 February 12, at Indian Spring
  • 1825: Population estimated at 20,000 for Creek Indians in Georgia and Alabama, reported by T.C. McKenny - of the Indian Office
  • 1825 June 29, at Broken Arrow - unratified
  • 1826 January 24,at Washington
  • 1827 November 15, at Creek Agency
  • 1832 March 24,at Washington
  • May 9, 1832, Seminole
  • 1833 February 14, at Fort Gibson
  • March 28, 1833
  • June 18, 1833, Appalachicola Band
  • 1835August 24, at Camp Holmes, with the Comanche
  • 1838 November 23, at Fort Gibson
  • 1845 January 4,with the Seminole
  • April 1, 1850 - Wyandot
  • 1853: Population estimated at 25,000 by Commissioner of Indian Affairs at the request of the Department of Census
  • 1854 June 13,
  • 1856 August 7, at Washington
  • September 13, 1865, at Fort Smith - unratified
  • 1866 June 14, at Washington
  • 1867: Population estimated at 14,396 by Commissioner of Indian Affairs
  • 1910: Population as reported from census 6,945

Vital Records

Indian Pioneer Papers

In 1936, the Oklahoma Historical Society and University of Oklahoma requested a writer's project grant from the Works Progress Administration (WPA) in which interviews would be conducted with early settlers in Oklahoma who had lived on Indian land. More than 100 writers conducted over 11,000 interviews and were asked to "call upon early settlers and (record) the story of the migration to Oklahoma and their early life here."[1] The University of Oklahoma Western History Collection has digitized the Indian Pioneer Papers which consists of approximately 80,000 indexed entries arranged alphabetically by personal name, place name, or subject. [2] An index to the Indian Pioneer Papers may also be found at OkGenWeb Oklahoma Genealogy. A separate index of Indians interviewed, including the Creek, may be viewed at: “Indians in the Indian Pioneer Papers” Some of the surnames from the Creek tribe found in the collection are: Barnett, Beam (Stevens), Berryhill, Bond, Breeding, Canard, Coker, Fisher (Postoak), Jobe, Postoak, Sells (Jobe).

Important Web Sites

Access Genealogy http://www.acessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/creek/index.htm

References

  1. Blackburn, Bob L. "Battle Cry for History: The First Century of the Oklahoma Historical Society." n.d. Oklahoma Historical Society. 5 Oct. 1998.
  2. The University of Oklahoma Western History Collections http://digital.libraries.ou.edu/whc/pioneer/

Hawkins, Benjamin. A Sketch of the Creek Country, in the years 1798 and 1799, and letters of Benjamin Hawkins, Spartanburg,SC., Reprint Co., 1974. FHL Book 970.3 C861h or Film 962258


Bibliography

  • Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
  • Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 Available online.
  • Klein, Barry T., ed. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat 317923332; FHL book 970.1 R259e.
  • Lennon, Rachal Mills. Tracing Ancestors Among the Five Civilized Tribes; Southeastern Indians Prior to Removal. Baltimore, Md.: Genealogical Publishing Co., 2002. FHL Book 970.1 L548t.
  • Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. WorldCat 37475188; FHL book 970.1 G131g.
Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean
Vol. 2 -- Great Basin, Southwest, Middle America
Vol. 3 -- Arctic, Subarctic, Great Plains, Plateau
Vol. 4 -- California, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Islands
  • Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .
Volume 1 -- Not yet published
Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- WorldCat 234303751
Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- WorldCat 255572371
Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- WorldCat 19331914; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4.
Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- WorldCat 299653808; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5.
Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat 247493742; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6.
Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- WorldCat 247493311
Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 13240086; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8.
Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- WorldCat 26140053; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9.
Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- WorldCat 301504096; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10.
Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- WorldCat 256516416; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11.
Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- WorldCat 39401371; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12.
Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- WorldCat 48209643
Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- WorldCat 254277176
Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 356517503; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15.
Volume 16 -- Not yet published
Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- WorldCat 43957746
Volume 18 -- Not yet published
Volume 19 -- Not yet published
Volume 20 -- Not yet published