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To get started in [[American Indian Genealogy|American Indian Research]]<br>
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''[[United States|United States]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[American Indian Genealogy|American Indians]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Alabama]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Florida]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Georgia]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Louisiana]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Mississippi]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Tennessee]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Indians of Alabama|Indians of Alabama]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Indians of Florida|Indians of Florida]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Indians of Georgia|Indians of Georgia]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Indians of Louisiana|Indians of Louisiana]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Indians of Mississippi|Indians of Mississippi]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Indians of Tennessee|Indians of Tennessee]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]]'' '''Creek Indians'''
  
<br>
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[[Image:The Creek Indians Benjamin Hawkins.jpg|right|350px|The Creek Indians Benjamin Hawkins.jpg]]__TOC__
 
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[[Image:The Creek Indians Benjamin Hawkins.jpg|thumb|right|328px]]
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Creek Indians were also known as Muskogee.  
 
Creek Indians were also known as Muskogee.  
  
The Creek Indians are one of the [[Five Civilized Tribes|Five&nbsp;Civilized&nbsp;Tribes]].
+
The Creek Indians are one of the [[Five Civilized Tribes|Five Civilized Tribes]]: Creek, [[Cherokee Indians|Cherokee]], [[Chickasaw Indians|Chickasaw]], [[Choctaw Indians|Choctaw]], and [[Seminole Indians|Seminole]] <br>
  
'''Cultural area '''is the Southeast United States.&nbsp;
+
'''Cultural area '''is the Southeast United States.<br>
  
 
'''Linguistic group:''' Muskogean  
 
'''Linguistic group:''' Muskogean  
Line 15: Line 13:
 
'''Federal Status: '''Recognized  
 
'''Federal Status: '''Recognized  
  
'''Clans: '''Wind, Bird, Alligator, Bear  
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'''Clans: '''Wind, Bird, Alligator,and Bear  
  
'''Original homeland:''' along the banks of the Alabama, Coosa, Tallapoosa, Flint, Ocmulgee, and Chattahoochee Rivers, In the Georgia, Alabama, Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Tennessee  
+
'''Original homeland:''' along the banks of the Alabama, Coosa, Tallapoosa, Flint, Ocmulgee, and Chattahoochee Rivers, In the [[Indians of Georgia|Georgia]], [[Indians of Alabama|Alabama]], [[Indians of Florida|Florida]], [[Indians of Mississippi|Mississippi]], [[Indians of Louisiana|Louisiana]], and [[Indians of Tennessee|Tennessee]]
  
 
Creek Indians trace their ancestry through the female line. The children belong to the same clan as their mother. Clan members were closely related so they had to marry someone from a different clan than his or her own.  
 
Creek Indians trace their ancestry through the female line. The children belong to the same clan as their mother. Clan members were closely related so they had to marry someone from a different clan than his or her own.  
  
The Creek Nation is comprised of six political districts: 1. Coweta, 2. Deep Fork, 3. Eufaula, 4. Muscogee, 5. Okmulgee, 6. Wewoka;these districts functions like counties.  
+
The Creek Nation is comprised of '''six political districts''': 1. Coweta, 2. Deep Fork, 3. Eufaula, 4. Muscogee, 5. Okmulgee, 6. Wewoka; these districts function like counties.  
  
 
=== Tribal Headquarters  ===
 
=== Tribal Headquarters  ===
Line 27: Line 25:
 
Muscogee Nation of Oklahoma <br>P. O. Box 580 <br>Okmulgee, Oklahoma 74447 <br>Phone: 918-756-8700  
 
Muscogee Nation of Oklahoma <br>P. O. Box 580 <br>Okmulgee, Oklahoma 74447 <br>Phone: 918-756-8700  
  
Creek Nation: [http://www.genealogynation.com/creek www.genealogynation.com/creek]  
+
Muskogee (Creek) Nation: [http://www.muscogeenation-nsn.gov/ http://www.muscogeenation-nsn.gov/]<br>
  
 
=== History  ===
 
=== History  ===
Line 33: Line 31:
 
Their ancestral homeland was in Alabama and Georgia.  
 
Their ancestral homeland was in Alabama and Georgia.  
  
<br>
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=== Brief Timeline  ===
  
==== Brief Timeline  ====
+
*'''1540:''' First contact Spanish explorer [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hernando_de_Soto Hernando De Soto]
 
+
*'''1703-08:''' Creeks were allies of the English in the Apalachee Wars.  
*'''1540:''' First contact Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto  
+
*'''1775:''' Supported the British in the American [[Research U.S. Revolutionary War Ancestor|Revolutionary War]]
*'''1703-08:''' Creeks were allies of the English in the Apalachee wars.  
+
*'''November 25, 1785:''' Treaty at Hopewell, [[Indians of South Carolina|South Carolina]]
*'''1775:''' supported the British in the American Revolutionary War  
+
*'''1813-1814:''' Creek Wars, [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrew_Jackson General Andrew Jackson], in command of some of the forces  
*'''1813-1814:''' Creek Wars, General Andrew Jackson, in command of some of the forces  
+
*'''1796-1816:''' [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benjamin_Hawkins Benjamin Hawkins], was the federal agent to the Creeks  
*'''1796-1816:''' Benjamin Hawkins, was the federal agent to the Creeks  
+
*'''1816:''' after the death of Benjamin Hawkins, President James Madison appointed David B. Mitchell, a former governor of Georgia. He undermined the Creeks' sovereignty and initated acts to take all of their lands in Georgia.
+
*'''1836-1837:''' removed from Georgia and Alabama to eastern Oklahoma. Some were taken by a southern route to New Orleans and then by steamboats (''Monmouth'') up the Mississippi River to Arkansas. The ''Monmouth'' collided with the ''Trenton'' more than 300 Creeks drowned. During removal 3,500 died of the 15,000.
+
*'''November 25, 1785:''' Treaty at Hopewell, South Carolina
+
 
*'''June 29, 1796:''' Coleraine, Georgia  
 
*'''June 29, 1796:''' Coleraine, Georgia  
 +
*'''1805-1833:''' The state of Georgia holds eight lotteries to distribute land seized from the Creeks and Cherokees.
 +
*'''1816:''' After the death of Benjamin Hawkins, President James Madison appointed [http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/articles/government-politics/david-b-mitchell-1766-1837 David B. Mitchell], a former governor of Georgia. He undermined the Creeks' sovereignty and initiated acts to take all of their lands in Georgia.
 
*'''August 9, 1814:''' Fort Jackson, Alabama  
 
*'''August 9, 1814:''' Fort Jackson, Alabama  
*'''January 22, 1818:''' Creek agency on Flint river  
+
*'''January 22, 1818:''' [[Creek Indian Agency (Georgia)|Creek agency]] on Flint river  
*'''January 8, 1821 / February 12, 1825:''' Treaty of Indian Springs negotiated by Creek leader William McIntosh. He was later (1825) executed by the Creek Nation for the deed.  
+
*'''January 8, 1821 / February 12, 1825:''' Treaty of Indian Springs negotiated by Creek leader [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_McIntosh William McIntosh]. He was later (1825) executed by the Creek Nation for the deed.  
 
*'''January 24, 1826''': Washington D.C.; Creeks would sell their land. Ratified April 22, 1826  
 
*'''January 24, 1826''': Washington D.C.; Creeks would sell their land. Ratified April 22, 1826  
 
*'''March 24, 1832:''' Treaty that the United States would remove intruders.  
 
*'''March 24, 1832:''' Treaty that the United States would remove intruders.  
*'''1836-1837: '''removal  
+
*'''1836-1837:''' removed from Georgia and Alabama to eastern Oklahoma. Some were taken by a southern route to New Orleans and then by steamboats (''Monmouth'') up the Mississippi River to Arkansas. The ''Monmouth'' collided with the ''Trenton'' more than 300 Creeks drowned. During removal 3,500 died of the 15,000.
 
*'''November 23, 1838: '''Ft. Gibson  
 
*'''November 23, 1838: '''Ft. Gibson  
*'''1861-1865:''' the tribe was split; some allying with the Union others with the Confederate Army  
+
*Creek Nation formed into '''six districts''': Coweta District, Deep Fork District, Eufaula District, Muskogee District, Okmulgee District, and Wewoka District.
 +
*'''1861-1865:''' [[American Indians in the Civil War|United States Civil War]] the tribe was split; some allying with the Union others with the Confederate Army  
 
*'''1867:''' Tribe adopted a new constitution  
 
*'''1867:''' Tribe adopted a new constitution  
*'''1887:''' [[Dawes Commission Enrollment Records for Five U.S. Indian Tribes|Dawes Act]]
+
*'''1887:''' [[Dawes Commission Enrollment Records for Five U.S. Indian Tribes|Dawes Act]]  
 +
*'''1907:''' Oklahoma became the 46th State.
 +
*Creek Nation divided into '''eight counties''': Creek, Hughes, McIntosh, Muskogee, Okfuskee,Okmaulgee, Tulsa and Wagoner
 +
*'''1953:''' U.S. Congress began a new policy of termination for the Indian tribes. The policy ended the protected trust status of all Indian-owned lands. The BIA began a voluntary urban relocation program. American Indians could move from their rural tribes to a metropolitan area. Many Indians relocated to Chicago, Denver, Los Angeles, San Francisco, San Jose, St. Louis, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Dallas and Seattle. It is estimated that 750,000 Native American migrated to the cities between 1950-1980. <br>
 +
*'''1968:''' Indian Civil Rights Act restored the right to hold popular elections.
  
<br>
+
=== Additional References  ===
  
==== Additional References to the History of the Tribe ====
+
Frederick Webb Hodge, in his [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/creek-tribe.htm Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico], gave a more complete history of the Creek tribe, with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods. Additional details are given in John Swanton's [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/creek-confederacy.htm The Indian Tribes of North America.]
  
Frederick Webb Hodge, in his [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/creek/creekhist.htm Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico], gave a more complete history of the Creek tribe, with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods. Additional details are given in John Swanton's [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/alabama/index.htm#Creek_Confederacy The Indian Tribes of North America.]
+
[http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/a-migration-legend-of-the-creek-indians.htm A Migration Legend of the Creek Indians], by Albert Samuel Gatschet and Daniel Garrison Brinton. NY Kraus Reprint CO., 1969. {{FHL| 167879|item|disp=Book 970.3 C861g or fiche 6050043 }} (six fiche)
  
A Migration Legend of the Creek Indians. By Albert Samuel Gatschet and Daniel Garrison Brinton. NY Kraus Reprint CO., 1969. {{FHL| 167879|item|disp=Book 970.3 C861g or fiche 6050043 }}(six fiche)
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[http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/notes-on-the-creek-indians.htm Notes on the Creek Indians], by J. N. B. Hewitt, edited by John R. Swanton. Anthropological Papers, No. 10. Bulletin 123, BAE. Washington: Government Printing Office. 1939.<br>
  
Benjamin Hawkins. A Sketch of the Creek County, in the Years 1798-1799. Spartanburg, SC. Reprint Co., 1974. {{FHL|86195|item|disp= FHL Book 970.3 C861h or Film 962258 }}  
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A Sketch of the Creek County, in the Years 1798-1799, by Benjamin Hawkins. Spartanburg, SC. Reprint Co., 1974. {{FHL|86195|item|disp= FHL Book 970.3 C861h or Film 962258 }}  
  
==== Reservations  ====
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[http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/early-history-of-the-creek-indians-and-their-neighbors.htm Early History of the Creek Indians and Their Neighbors], by John Reed Swanton. US Government Printing Office. 1902.<br>
 +
 
 +
=== Reservations  ===
  
 
=== Records  ===
 
=== Records  ===
  
==== Census Records ====
+
The '''majority of records of individuals were those created by the agencies'''. Some records may be available to tribal members through the tribal headquarters.They were (and are) the local office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and were charged with maintaining records of the activities of those under their responsibility. Among these records are:<br>
 +
 
 +
*[[American Indian Allotment Records|Allotment records]]
 +
*[[American Indian Annuity Rolls|Annuity rolls]]
 +
*[[American Indian Census Rolls|Census records]]
 +
*[[American Indian Correspondence and Reports|Correspondence]]
 +
*[[American Indian Health Records|Health records]]
 +
*[[American Indian Correspondence and Reports|Reports]]
 +
*[[American Indian School Records|School census and records]]
 +
*[[American Indian Vital Records Supplements in Census Rolls|Vital records]]
 +
 
 +
Creek Indians. University of West Florida. Special Collections Department. (Census, Genealogy, and Land Tenure) {{FHL|634414|item|desp=FHL film 1870506}}
 +
 
 +
Creek Nation. Oklahoma Historical Society. Indian Archives Division. 52 films {{FHL|544270|item|desp=FHL film 1666121}}
 +
 
 +
==== Biographies  ====
 +
 
 +
The Southern Indians: a Biographical Guide to the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw and Creek Indians, 1700-1907 {{FHL|1222686|item|desp=FHL book 970.1 M366si}}
 +
 
 +
=== Census Records ===
 +
 
 +
Creek Census of 1832 (Upper Creeks) by Benjamin S. Parsons {{FHL|308278|item|desp= FHL book 970.3 C913pa or film 830418}}
 +
 
 +
Creek Census of 1832 (Lower Creeks) by Thomas J. Abbott. {{FHL|571201|desp=FHL book 970.3 C861a }}
 +
 
 +
1900 Creek Nation Census. by Carole Ellsworth and Sue Emler. {{FHL|622198|item|deps=FHL book 970.3 C861e or fiche 6101319}}
 +
 
 +
Census of Creeks taken by parson and Abbott in 1832, is indexed by "Index to Creek reserves" a listing originally prepared by Indian agents John J. Abert and James Bright to index land claims selected by Creeks under the provision of the 1832 Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek. <br>
 +
 
 +
<br>
  
{| border="1" cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1"
+
{| cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" border="1"
 
|-
 
|-
 
! scope="col" | Tribe / Agency  
 
! scope="col" | Tribe / Agency  
Line 79: Line 111:
 
Census  
 
Census  
  
Years
+
Years  
  
 
! scope="col" |  
 
! scope="col" |  
Line 86: Line 118:
 
M595 RG 75 Rolls 693  
 
M595 RG 75 Rolls 693  
  
Roll Numbers
+
Roll Numbers  
  
 
! scope="col" |  
 
! scope="col" |  
Line 93: Line 125:
 
Film  
 
Film  
  
Number
+
Number  
  
 
|-
 
|-
Line 99: Line 131:
 
| 1886-1892  
 
| 1886-1892  
 
| -  
 
| -  
| FHL Film:575779
+
| FHL Film:575,779
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Crow Creek  
 
| Crow Creek  
 
| 1883-1905  
 
| 1883-1905  
 
| -  
 
| -  
| FHL Film:575780
+
| FHL Film:575,780
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Crow Creek  
 
| Crow Creek  
 
| 1906-1920  
 
| 1906-1920  
 
| -  
 
| -  
| FHL Film:575781
+
| FHL Film:575,781
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Crow Creek  
 
| Crow Creek  
 
| 1921-1929  
 
| 1921-1929  
 
| -  
 
| -  
| FHL Film:575782
+
| FHL Film:575,782
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Crow Creek  
 
| Crow Creek  
 
| 1930-1933  
 
| 1930-1933  
 
| -  
 
| -  
| FHL Film:575783
+
| FHL Film:575,783
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Crow Creek  
 
| Crow Creek  
 
| 1934-1942  
 
| 1934-1942  
 
| -  
 
| -  
| FHL Film:575784
+
| FHL Film:575,784
 
|}
 
|}
  
==== Correspondence Records ====
+
==== Correspondence Records ====
  
{| border="1" cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1"
+
{| cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" border="1"
 
|-
 
|-
 
! scope="col" | Agency  
 
! scope="col" | Agency  
Line 138: Line 170:
 
Correspondence M234 RG 75 Rolls 962  
 
Correspondence M234 RG 75 Rolls 962  
  
Roll Number
+
Roll Number  
  
 
! scope="col" |  
 
! scope="col" |  
 
FHL  
 
FHL  
  
Film Number
+
Film Number  
  
 
|-
 
|-
Line 149: Line 181:
 
| Washington D.C.  
 
| Washington D.C.  
 
| -  
 
| -  
| -
+
| 1,660,949 - 978
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Union Indian Agency (Oklahoma)|Union Agency]], 1875-1914  
 
| [[Union Indian Agency (Oklahoma)|Union Agency]], 1875-1914  
 
| Washington D.C. and Fort Worth  
 
| Washington D.C. and Fort Worth  
 
| Rolls 865-77  
 
| Rolls 865-77  
| -
+
| 1,661,595 - 607
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Eufaula Indian Boarding School (Oklahoma)|Eufala Boarding School]], 1925-52  
+
| [[Eufaula Indian Boarding School (Oklahoma)|Eufaula Boarding School]], 1925-52  
 
| Fort Worth  
 
| Fort Worth  
 
| -  
 
| -  
Line 167: Line 199:
 
|}
 
|}
  
<br>
+
=== Enrollment Records  ===
 +
 
 +
*[[Dawes Commission Enrollment Records for Five U.S. Indian Tribes|Dawes Commission Enrollment Records]]
 +
*John B. Campbell’s provides an [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/campbells-abstract-of-creek-indian-census-cards.htm abstract of Creek Indian Census Cards] in his 1915 manuscript. This index has proven invaluable over time by providing a quick method to research family relationships within the Creek tribal rolls. <br>  
 +
*[http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~texlance/cases/index.htm?sourceid=00287279496378427167 Creek Enrollment Cases Index 1899-1907+ ]This database indexes the Creek Indian and Creek Freedman enrollment cases on microfilm M1301, rolls 402-414, that deal with persons applying for Creek Indian and Creek Freedman citizenship and Dawes enrollment. These are not the general Creek Dawes applications which are unfortunately lost and assume destroyed long ago.
  
==== Enrollment Records ====
+
==== History  ====
  
*[[Dawes Commission Enrollment Records for Five U.S. Indian Tribes|Dawes Commission Enrollment Records]]
+
Duke Indian Oral History Collection and Index. Duke University {{FHL|654561|item|desp=FHL film 1486555}}
  
==== Military ====
+
=== Military ===
  
 
*Some Creek Indians are listed as serving in the Second Creek War (1836) in the [[Indian Wars Compiled Service Records Index, 1815-1858|Indian Wars Compiled Service Records Index, 1815-1858]]. This index includes the soldier’s name, rank, and unit along with the name of the war or disturbance.
 
*Some Creek Indians are listed as serving in the Second Creek War (1836) in the [[Indian Wars Compiled Service Records Index, 1815-1858|Indian Wars Compiled Service Records Index, 1815-1858]]. This index includes the soldier’s name, rank, and unit along with the name of the war or disturbance.
  
==== Removal ====
+
*Creek Soldier Casualty Lists, Seminole War, 1836. By Larry S. Watson {{FHL|582019|item|desp=FHL book 970.3 C861wLs}}
  
The Second tribe of the Five Civilized tribes to be removed.&nbsp; Removal of the Creek Indians living in Alabama, Georgia and northern Florida began with the treaty of Cusseta in 1832.  
+
*Muster Lists of the Creek and Other Confederate Indians. by Sherman Lee Pompey {{FHL|86410|item|desp=FHL book 970.1 P772m or film 1750788 item 27}}
  
At the time of removal there was estimated 22,700 Creeks and 900&nbsp; Creek slaves were removed with 19,600 surviving the ordeal. Removal was supervised by the United States Army, the Creeks were divided into groups to be removed.
+
=== Removal ===
  
'''Dates of removal by groups:'''
+
The Indian Removal Act was signed May 26, 1830 by President Andrew Jackson. The Act initiated a policy of removal of American Indians tribes living east of the Mississippi River to land west of the river.
  
*1827 seven hundred and three Creeks and eighty six Slaves with Chief William McIntosh left and traveled by Keelboats, the Tennessee, Ohio, and Mississippi Rivers to Fort Gibson  
+
The Creeks were the second tribe of the Five Civilized Tribes to be removed.
*1828:&nbsp; 400  
+
 
 +
Before the trek began the Tribe was gathered into groups and supervised by the military in temporary forts (concentration camps) in Georgia.
 +
 
 +
Names and Claims of Creek Indians who moved at their own expense, 1830-1840. "Stidham Roll". by Larry S. Watson. {{FHL|62169|item|desp=FHL book 970.3 C861ws}}
 +
 
 +
{| width="249" cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" border="1" align="center"
 +
|-
 +
! scope="col" | Nation
 +
! scope="col" |
 +
Removal
 +
 
 +
Treaty
 +
 
 +
! scope="col" | Years of Emigration
 +
! scope="col" |
 +
Population
 +
 
 +
Before Removal
 +
 
 +
! scope="col" |
 +
Number
 +
 
 +
Emigrated
 +
 
 +
! scope="col" | Deaths
 +
! scope="col" |
 +
Number
 +
 
 +
stayed in Southeast
 +
 
 +
! scope="col" | Information of Interest
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
'''Creek'''
 +
 
 +
'''Chiefs: '''
 +
 
 +
Wm. McIntosh
 +
 
 +
Opthleyaholo
 +
 
 +
Tukabahchee
 +
 
 +
Tuskineah
 +
 
 +
|
 +
[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/vol2/treaties/cre0341.htm Treat of Cusseta] March 24,1832
 +
 
 +
'''Government Leaders:'''
 +
 
 +
Captain John Page
 +
 
 +
Lt. J. T. Sprague
 +
 
 +
Lt. Edward Deas
 +
 
 +
Benj. Marshall
 +
 
 +
Lt. R. B. Screven
 +
 
 +
Lt. T.P. Sloan
 +
 
 +
| 1834-1837
 +
| 22,700 +900 Black Slaves
 +
| 19,600
 +
| 3,500 (disease after removal)
 +
| 100s
 +
|
 +
Alabama Emigrating Co.
 +
 
 +
Jim Boy (Tustennuggee Emathla) regiment of Creek warriors helped US military in Seminole war
 +
 
 +
<br>
 +
 
 +
1,000 miles
 +
 
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
<br>
 +
 
 +
Removal was supervised by the United States Army, the Creeks were divided into groups to be removed. '''Dates of removal by groups:'''
 +
 
 +
*1827 seven hundred and three Creeks and eighty six Slaves with Chief William McIntosh left and traveled by Keel boats, the Tennessee, Ohio, and Mississippi Rivers to Fort Gibson  
 +
*1828: 400  
 
*June 1829: 1,200 steam boat Virginia ran aground on the Arkansas River  
 
*June 1829: 1,200 steam boat Virginia ran aground on the Arkansas River  
*Dec 1834 six hundred thirty- under Captain John Page, four hundred sixty nine arrived 28 Mar 1835, two men in the group: Sampson Grayon with 34 Slaves and Widow Stidham with 23 Slaves.  
+
*Dec 1834 six hundred thirty- under [http://ualr.edu/sequoyah/index.php/captain-john-page/ Captain John Page], four hundred sixty nine arrived 28 Mar 1835, two men in the group: Sampson Grayon with 34 Slaves and Widow Stidham with 23 Slaves.  
*10 July 1836: nine hundred of the Encah Emalhea Band - shipped in chains  
+
*10 July 1836: nine hundred of the Encah Emathla Band - shipped in chains  
*1 Aug 1836 left Alabama, 2,700 leader Opthleyaholo
+
*1 Aug 1836 left Alabama, 2,700 leader [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opothleyahola Opthleyahola]
*5 September 1836 1,984 Lt. J.T. Sprague (known&nbsp; as 5th group of Friendly Creek)  
+
*5 September 1836 1,984 [http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~texlance/emigrants/ Lt. J.T. Sprague] (known as 5th group of Friendly Creek)  
*1836: 2,700 arrived at Ft Gibson - (1st group friendly Creek)  
+
*1836: 2,700 arrived at Ft Gibson - (1st group Friendly Creek)  
*18 &amp; 22 Dec 1836;&nbsp; (2nd&nbsp; group Friendly Creek)  
+
*18 &amp; 22 Dec 1836; (2nd group Friendly Creek)  
*March 1837: 4,000 Lt. Edward Deas, arrived 2 Jun 1837 at Little rock Arkansas. with 500. 3,500 still at Mobile Point  
+
*March 1837: 4,000 [http://ualr.edu/sequoyah/index.php/lt-edward-deas-to-ca-harris-june-13-1838/ Lt. Edward Deas], arrived 2 Jun 1837 at Little Rock, Arkansas. with 500. 3,500 still at Mobile Point  
*29 Oct 1837 1,600 Lt. T.P. Sloan three steamboats: Monmoth 611- 311 drowned when it struck the steamboat Trenton
+
*29 Oct 1837 1,600 Lt. T.P. Sloan three steamboats: ''Monmoth'' 611- 311 drowned when it struck the steamboat ''Trenton''
  
==== Trade  ====
+
=== Trade  ===
  
 
Superintendent of Indian Trade. Letter Book of the Creek Trading House, 1785-1816. {{FHL|88843|item|disp= FHL Film: 1024433 }}  
 
Superintendent of Indian Trade. Letter Book of the Creek Trading House, 1785-1816. {{FHL|88843|item|disp= FHL Film: 1024433 }}  
  
'''Treaties''' The year link,the date of the treaty will connect to an online copy of the Treaty.  
+
Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Office of Indian Trade, Creek Factory Records, 1795-1821. 13 microfilm. {{FHL|362382|item|desp=FHL film 1650523}}
 +
 
 +
=== '''Treaties''' ===
 +
 
 +
The year link,the date of the treaty will connect to an online copy of the Treaty.  
  
 
*1785:  
 
*1785:  
Line 215: Line 338:
 
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cre0197.htm 1821]  
 
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cre0197.htm 1821]  
 
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cre0214.htm 1824] February 12, at Indian Spring  
 
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cre0214.htm 1824] February 12, at Indian Spring  
*1825: Population estimated at&nbsp; 20,000 for Creek Indians in Georgia and Alabama, reported ty T.C. McKenny - of the Indian Office  
+
*1825: Population estimated at 20,000 for Creek Indians in Georgia and Alabama, reported by T.C. McKenny - of the Indian Office  
 
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cre0214.htm 1825] June 29, at Broken Arrow - unratified  
 
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cre0214.htm 1825] June 29, at Broken Arrow - unratified  
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cre0264.htm 1826] January 24,&nbsp;at Washington  
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cre0264.htm 1826] January 24,at Washington  
 
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cre0284.htm 1827] November 15, at Creek Agency  
 
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cre0284.htm 1827] November 15, at Creek Agency  
 
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cre0341.htm 1832] March 24,at Washington  
 
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cre0341.htm 1832] March 24,at Washington  
Line 224: Line 347:
 
*March 28, 1833  
 
*March 28, 1833  
 
*June 18, 1833, Appalachicola Band  
 
*June 18, 1833, Appalachicola Band  
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/com0435.htm 1835]August 24,&nbsp; at Camp Holmes, with the Comanche  
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/com0435.htm 1835]August 24, at Camp Holmes, with the Comanche  
 
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cre0524.htm 1838] November 23, at Fort Gibson  
 
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cre0524.htm 1838] November 23, at Fort Gibson  
 
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cre0550.htm 1845] January 4,with the Seminole  
 
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/cre0550.htm 1845] January 4,with the Seminole  
Line 236: Line 359:
 
*1910: Population as reported from census 6,945
 
*1910: Population as reported from census 6,945
  
==== Vital Records ====
+
=== Vital Records ===
  
*Crow Creek Agency, M595, births and deaths 1924-1932, {{FHL|Film: 575783}}
+
*[[Crow Creek Indian Agency (South Dakota)|Crow Creek Agency]], M595, births and deaths 1924-1932, FHL|Film: 575,783
  
==== Indian Pioneer Papers ====
+
=== Indian Pioneer Papers ===
  
In 1936, the Oklahoma Historical Society and University of Oklahoma requested a writer's project grant from the Works Progress Administration (WPA) in which interviews would be conducted with early settlers in Oklahoma who had lived on Indian land. More than 100 writers conducted over 11,000 interviews and were asked to "call upon early settlers and (record) the story of the migration to Oklahoma and their early life here."&nbsp;<ref>Blackburn, Bob L. "Battle Cry for History: The First Century of the Oklahoma Historical Society." n.d. Oklahoma Historical Society. 5 Oct. 1998.</ref> The [http://digital.libraries.ou.edu/whc/pioneer/ University of Oklahoma Western History Collection] has digitized the Indian Pioneer Papers which consists of approximately 80,000 indexed entries arranged alphabetically by personal name, place name, or subject. <ref>The University of Oklahoma Western History Collections http://digital.libraries.ou.edu/whc/pioneer/</ref> An index to the Indian Pioneer Papers may also be found at [http://www.okgenweb.org/pioneer/ OkGenWeb Oklahoma Genealogy.] A separate index of Indians interviewed, including the Creek, may be viewed at: [http://goodoowah.50megs.com/indpio/ “Indians in the Indian Pioneer Papers”] Some of the surnames from the Creek tribe found in the collection are: Barnett, Beam (Stevens), Berryhill, Bond, Breeding, Canard, Coker, Fisher (Postoak), Jobe, Postoak, Sells (Jobe).  
+
In 1936, the Oklahoma Historical Society and University of Oklahoma requested a writer's project grant from the Works Progress Administration (WPA) in which interviews would be conducted with early settlers in Oklahoma who had lived on Indian land. More than 100 writers conducted over 11,000 interviews and were asked to "call upon early settlers and (record) the story of the migration to Oklahoma and their early life here."<ref>Blackburn, Bob L. "Battle Cry for History: The First Century of the Oklahoma Historical Society." n.d. Oklahoma Historical Society. 5 Oct. 1998.</ref> The [http://digital.libraries.ou.edu/whc/pioneer/ University of Oklahoma Western History Collection] has digitized the Indian Pioneer Papers which consists of approximately 80,000 indexed entries arranged alphabetically by personal name, place name, or subject. <ref>The University of Oklahoma Western History Collections http://digital.libraries.ou.edu/whc/pioneer/</ref> An index to the Indian Pioneer Papers may also be found at [http://www.okgenweb.org/pioneer/ OkGenWeb Oklahoma Genealogy.] A separate index of Indians interviewed, including the Creek, may be viewed at: [http://goodoowah.50megs.com/indpio/ “Indians in the Indian Pioneer Papers”] Some of the surnames from the Creek tribe found in the collection are: Barnett, Beam (Stevens), Berryhill, Bond, Breeding, Canard, Coker, Fisher (Postoak), Jobe, Postoak, Sells (Jobe). Family History Library microfiche number: 6,016,865(first microfiche number)<br>
  
=== Important Web Sites  ===
+
=== Web Sites  ===
  
 
*Muscogee (Creek) Indians [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muscogee_(Creek) Wikipedia]  
 
*Muscogee (Creek) Indians [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muscogee_(Creek) Wikipedia]  
Line 251: Line 374:
 
*Indian Research [http://researchindians.blogspot.com http://researchindians.blogspot.com]
 
*Indian Research [http://researchindians.blogspot.com http://researchindians.blogspot.com]
  
Access Genealogy [http://www.acessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/creek/index.htm http://www.acessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/creek/index.htm]  
+
Access Genealogy [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/creek-indian-research.htm http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/creek-indian-research.htm]  
  
=== References ===
+
=== Family History Library ===
  
{{reflist}}
+
The FamilySearch Catalog has over 500 titles of interest to the [https://familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titlehitlist&columns=*%2C0%2C0&keyword=Creek+Indians&prekeyword=Creek+Indians Creek Indians]
 
+
Hawkins, Benjamin. A Sketch of the Creek Country, in the years 1798 and 1799, and letters of Benjamin hawkins, Spartanburg,SC., Reprint Co., 1974. {{FHL|86195|item|disp=FHL Book 970.3 C861h or Film 962258}}
+
 
+
<references />
+
  
 
=== Bibliography  ===
 
=== Bibliography  ===
  
 +
*Anne E. Gometz, [http://www.rhus.com/Creeks.html A Creek Indian Bibliography] in ''Anne Gometz's Requisite Homepage'' (accessed 14 January 2014).
 
*[http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/075.html Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75], Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.  
 
*[http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/075.html Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75], Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.  
*Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/ Available online].  
+
*Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/handbook-of-american-indians-north-of-mexico.htm Available online].  
 
*Klein, Barry T., ed. ''Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian''. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/317923332?referer=list_view WorldCat 317923332]; {{FHL|1122745|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 R259e}}.  
 
*Klein, Barry T., ed. ''Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian''. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/317923332?referer=list_view WorldCat 317923332]; {{FHL|1122745|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 R259e}}.  
*Lennon, Rachal Mills. ''Tracing Ancestors Among the Five Civilized Tribes; Southeastern Indians Prior to Removal''. Baltimore, Md.: Genealogical Publishing Co., 2002. {{FHL|1038175|item|disp=FHL Book 970.1 L548t}}.<br>
+
*Lennon, Rachal Mills. ''Tracing Ancestors Among the Five Civilized Tribes; Southeastern Indians Prior to Removal''. Baltimore, Md.: Genealogical Publishing Co., 2002. {{FHL|1038175|item|disp=FHL Book 970.1 L548t}}.  
 
*Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. [http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=no:037475188 WorldCat 37475188]; {{FHL|831087|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 G131g}}.
 
*Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. [http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=no:037475188 WorldCat 37475188]; {{FHL|831087|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 G131g}}.
  
Line 274: Line 394:
 
:Vol. 4 -- California, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Islands
 
:Vol. 4 -- California, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Islands
  
*Sturtevant, William C. ''Handbook of North American Indians''. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– . <br>
+
*Sturtevant, William C. ''Handbook of North American Indians''. 20 Vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .
  
 
:Volume 1 -- Not yet published  
 
:Volume 1 -- Not yet published  
:Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/234303751&referer=brief_results WorldCat 234303751]<br>
+
:Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/234303751&referer=brief_results WorldCat 234303751]  
:Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/255572371&referer=brief_results WorldCat 255572371]<br>
+
:Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/255572371&referer=brief_results WorldCat 255572371]  
:Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/19331914&referer=brief_results WorldCat 19331914]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4}}.<br>
+
:Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/19331914&referer=brief_results WorldCat 19331914]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4}}.  
:Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/299653808&referer=brief_results WorldCat 299653808]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5}}.<br>
+
:Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/299653808&referer=brief_results WorldCat 299653808]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5}}.  
:Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/247493742&referer=brief_results WorldCat 247493742]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6}}.<br>
+
:Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/247493742&referer=brief_results WorldCat 247493742]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6}}.  
:Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/247493311&referer=brief_results WorldCat 247493311]<br>
+
:Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/247493311&referer=brief_results WorldCat 247493311]  
:Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/13240086&referer=brief_results WorldCat 13240086]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8}}.<br>
+
:Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/13240086&referer=brief_results WorldCat 13240086]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8}}.  
:Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/26140053&referer=brief_results WorldCat 26140053]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9}}.<br>
+
:Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/26140053&referer=brief_results WorldCat 26140053]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9}}.  
 
:Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/301504096&referer=brief_results WorldCat 301504096]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10}}.  
 
:Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/301504096&referer=brief_results WorldCat 301504096]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10}}.  
:Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/256516416&referer=brief_results WorldCat 256516416]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11}}.<br>
+
:Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/256516416&referer=brief_results WorldCat 256516416]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11}}.  
:Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/39401371&referer=brief_results WorldCat 39401371]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12}}.<br>
+
:Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/39401371&referer=brief_results WorldCat 39401371]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12}}.  
:Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/48209643&referer=brief_results WorldCat 48209643]<br>
+
:Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/48209643&referer=brief_results WorldCat 48209643]  
 
:Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/254277176&referer=brief_results WorldCat 254277176]  
 
:Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/254277176&referer=brief_results WorldCat 254277176]  
:Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/256517503&referer=brief_results WorldCat 356517503]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15}}.<br>
+
:Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/256517503&referer=brief_results WorldCat 356517503]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15}}.  
 
:Volume 16 -- Not yet published  
 
:Volume 16 -- Not yet published  
:Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/43957746&referer=brief_results WorldCat 43957746]<br>
+
:Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/43957746&referer=brief_results WorldCat 43957746]  
 
:Volume 18 -- Not yet published  
 
:Volume 18 -- Not yet published  
 
:Volume 19 -- Not yet published  
 
:Volume 19 -- Not yet published  
 
:Volume 20 -- Not yet published
 
:Volume 20 -- Not yet published
  
*Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/indianlocation.htm Available online].  
+
*Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/the-indian-tribes-of-north-america.htm Available online].  
 
*Waldman, Carl. ''Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes''. New York, New York: Facts on File, 2006. 3rd ed. [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/14718193?referer=list_view WorldCat 14718193]; {{FHL|1465222|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 W146e 2006}}.
 
*Waldman, Carl. ''Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes''. New York, New York: Facts on File, 2006. 3rd ed. [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/14718193?referer=list_view WorldCat 14718193]; {{FHL|1465222|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 W146e 2006}}.
  
[[Category:Alabama Indian Tribes]] [[Category:Georgia Indian Tribes]] [[Category:Florida Indian Tribes]] [[Category:Mississippi Indian Tribes]] [[Category:Louisiana Indian Tribes]] [[Category:Tennessee Indian Tribes]]
+
=== References  ===
 +
 
 +
{{reflist}}
 +
 
 +
Hawkins, Benjamin. A Sketch of the Creek Country, in the years 1798 and 1799, and letters of Benjamin Hawkins, Spartanburg,SC., Reprint Co., 1974. {{FHL|86195|item|disp=FHL Book 970.3 C861h or Film 962,258}}
 +
 
 +
{{American Indian}}
 +
 
 +
[[Category:Alabama_Indian_Tribes]] [[Category:Georgia_Indian_Tribes]] [[Category:Florida_Indian_Tribes]] [[Category:Mississippi_Indian_Tribes]] [[Category:Louisiana_Indian_Tribes]] [[Category:Tennessee_Indian_Tribes]]

Latest revision as of 14:49, 29 June 2015

United States Gotoarrow.png American Indians Gotoarrow.png Alabama Gotoarrow.png Florida Gotoarrow.png Georgia Gotoarrow.png Louisiana Gotoarrow.png Mississippi Gotoarrow.png Tennessee Gotoarrow.png Indians of Alabama Gotoarrow.png Indians of Florida Gotoarrow.png Indians of Georgia Gotoarrow.png Indians of Louisiana Gotoarrow.png Indians of Mississippi Gotoarrow.png Indians of Tennessee Gotoarrow.png Creek Indians

The Creek Indians Benjamin Hawkins.jpg

Contents


Creek Indians were also known as Muskogee.

The Creek Indians are one of the Five Civilized Tribes: Creek, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, and Seminole

Cultural area is the Southeast United States.

Linguistic group: Muskogean

Federal Status: Recognized

Clans: Wind, Bird, Alligator,and Bear

Original homeland: along the banks of the Alabama, Coosa, Tallapoosa, Flint, Ocmulgee, and Chattahoochee Rivers, In the Georgia, Alabama, Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Tennessee

Creek Indians trace their ancestry through the female line. The children belong to the same clan as their mother. Clan members were closely related so they had to marry someone from a different clan than his or her own.

The Creek Nation is comprised of six political districts: 1. Coweta, 2. Deep Fork, 3. Eufaula, 4. Muscogee, 5. Okmulgee, 6. Wewoka; these districts function like counties.

Tribal Headquarters

Muscogee Nation of Oklahoma
P. O. Box 580
Okmulgee, Oklahoma 74447
Phone: 918-756-8700

Muskogee (Creek) Nation: http://www.muscogeenation-nsn.gov/

History

Their ancestral homeland was in Alabama and Georgia.

Brief Timeline

  • 1540: First contact Spanish explorer Hernando De Soto
  • 1703-08: Creeks were allies of the English in the Apalachee Wars.
  • 1775: Supported the British in the American Revolutionary War
  • November 25, 1785: Treaty at Hopewell, South Carolina
  • 1813-1814: Creek Wars, General Andrew Jackson, in command of some of the forces
  • 1796-1816: Benjamin Hawkins, was the federal agent to the Creeks
  • June 29, 1796: Coleraine, Georgia
  • 1805-1833: The state of Georgia holds eight lotteries to distribute land seized from the Creeks and Cherokees.
  • 1816: After the death of Benjamin Hawkins, President James Madison appointed David B. Mitchell, a former governor of Georgia. He undermined the Creeks' sovereignty and initiated acts to take all of their lands in Georgia.
  • August 9, 1814: Fort Jackson, Alabama
  • January 22, 1818: Creek agency on Flint river
  • January 8, 1821 / February 12, 1825: Treaty of Indian Springs negotiated by Creek leader William McIntosh. He was later (1825) executed by the Creek Nation for the deed.
  • January 24, 1826: Washington D.C.; Creeks would sell their land. Ratified April 22, 1826
  • March 24, 1832: Treaty that the United States would remove intruders.
  • 1836-1837: removed from Georgia and Alabama to eastern Oklahoma. Some were taken by a southern route to New Orleans and then by steamboats (Monmouth) up the Mississippi River to Arkansas. The Monmouth collided with the Trenton more than 300 Creeks drowned. During removal 3,500 died of the 15,000.
  • November 23, 1838: Ft. Gibson
  • Creek Nation formed into six districts: Coweta District, Deep Fork District, Eufaula District, Muskogee District, Okmulgee District, and Wewoka District.
  • 1861-1865: United States Civil War the tribe was split; some allying with the Union others with the Confederate Army
  • 1867: Tribe adopted a new constitution
  • 1887: Dawes Act
  • 1907: Oklahoma became the 46th State.
  • Creek Nation divided into eight counties: Creek, Hughes, McIntosh, Muskogee, Okfuskee,Okmaulgee, Tulsa and Wagoner
  • 1953: U.S. Congress began a new policy of termination for the Indian tribes. The policy ended the protected trust status of all Indian-owned lands. The BIA began a voluntary urban relocation program. American Indians could move from their rural tribes to a metropolitan area. Many Indians relocated to Chicago, Denver, Los Angeles, San Francisco, San Jose, St. Louis, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Dallas and Seattle. It is estimated that 750,000 Native American migrated to the cities between 1950-1980.
  • 1968: Indian Civil Rights Act restored the right to hold popular elections.

Additional References

Frederick Webb Hodge, in his Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, gave a more complete history of the Creek tribe, with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods. Additional details are given in John Swanton's The Indian Tribes of North America.

A Migration Legend of the Creek Indians, by Albert Samuel Gatschet and Daniel Garrison Brinton. NY Kraus Reprint CO., 1969. Book 970.3 C861g or fiche 6050043 (six fiche)

Notes on the Creek Indians, by J. N. B. Hewitt, edited by John R. Swanton. Anthropological Papers, No. 10. Bulletin 123, BAE. Washington: Government Printing Office. 1939.

A Sketch of the Creek County, in the Years 1798-1799, by Benjamin Hawkins. Spartanburg, SC. Reprint Co., 1974. FHL Book 970.3 C861h or Film 962258

Early History of the Creek Indians and Their Neighbors, by John Reed Swanton. US Government Printing Office. 1902.

Reservations

Records

The majority of records of individuals were those created by the agencies. Some records may be available to tribal members through the tribal headquarters.They were (and are) the local office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and were charged with maintaining records of the activities of those under their responsibility. Among these records are:

Creek Indians. University of West Florida. Special Collections Department. (Census, Genealogy, and Land Tenure) FHL Collection

Creek Nation. Oklahoma Historical Society. Indian Archives Division. 52 films FHL Collection

Biographies

The Southern Indians: a Biographical Guide to the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw and Creek Indians, 1700-1907 FHL Collection

Census Records

Creek Census of 1832 (Upper Creeks) by Benjamin S. Parsons FHL Collection

Creek Census of 1832 (Lower Creeks) by Thomas J. Abbott. FHL 571201

1900 Creek Nation Census. by Carole Ellsworth and Sue Emler. FHL Collection

Census of Creeks taken by parson and Abbott in 1832, is indexed by "Index to Creek reserves" a listing originally prepared by Indian agents John J. Abert and James Bright to index land claims selected by Creeks under the provision of the 1832 Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek.


Tribe / Agency

Census

Years

Post - 1885 Census

M595 RG 75 Rolls 693

Roll Numbers

FHL

Film

Number

Crow Creek 1886-1892 - FHL Film:575,779
Crow Creek 1883-1905 - FHL Film:575,780
Crow Creek 1906-1920 - FHL Film:575,781
Crow Creek 1921-1929 - FHL Film:575,782
Crow Creek 1930-1933 - FHL Film:575,783
Crow Creek 1934-1942 - FHL Film:575,784

Correspondence Records

Agency location of Original Records

Pre-1880

Correspondence M234 RG 75 Rolls 962

Roll Number

FHL

Film Number

Creek Agency, 1824-1866 Washington D.C. - 1,660,949 - 978
Union Agency, 1875-1914 Washington D.C. and Fort Worth Rolls 865-77 1,661,595 - 607
Eufaula Boarding School, 1925-52 Fort Worth - -
Muskogee Area Office, 1890-1960 Fort Worth - -

Enrollment Records

  • Dawes Commission Enrollment Records
  • John B. Campbell’s provides an abstract of Creek Indian Census Cards in his 1915 manuscript. This index has proven invaluable over time by providing a quick method to research family relationships within the Creek tribal rolls.
  • Creek Enrollment Cases Index 1899-1907+ This database indexes the Creek Indian and Creek Freedman enrollment cases on microfilm M1301, rolls 402-414, that deal with persons applying for Creek Indian and Creek Freedman citizenship and Dawes enrollment. These are not the general Creek Dawes applications which are unfortunately lost and assume destroyed long ago.

History

Duke Indian Oral History Collection and Index. Duke University FHL Collection

Military

  • Creek Soldier Casualty Lists, Seminole War, 1836. By Larry S. Watson FHL Collection
  • Muster Lists of the Creek and Other Confederate Indians. by Sherman Lee Pompey FHL Collection

Removal

The Indian Removal Act was signed May 26, 1830 by President Andrew Jackson. The Act initiated a policy of removal of American Indians tribes living east of the Mississippi River to land west of the river.

The Creeks were the second tribe of the Five Civilized Tribes to be removed.

Before the trek began the Tribe was gathered into groups and supervised by the military in temporary forts (concentration camps) in Georgia.

Names and Claims of Creek Indians who moved at their own expense, 1830-1840. "Stidham Roll". by Larry S. Watson. FHL Collection

Nation

Removal

Treaty

Years of Emigration

Population

Before Removal

Number

Emigrated

Deaths

Number

stayed in Southeast

Information of Interest

Creek

Chiefs:

Wm. McIntosh

Opthleyaholo

Tukabahchee

Tuskineah

Treat of Cusseta March 24,1832

Government Leaders:

Captain John Page

Lt. J. T. Sprague

Lt. Edward Deas

Benj. Marshall

Lt. R. B. Screven

Lt. T.P. Sloan

1834-1837 22,700 +900 Black Slaves 19,600 3,500 (disease after removal) 100s

Alabama Emigrating Co.

Jim Boy (Tustennuggee Emathla) regiment of Creek warriors helped US military in Seminole war


1,000 miles


Removal was supervised by the United States Army, the Creeks were divided into groups to be removed. Dates of removal by groups:

  • 1827 seven hundred and three Creeks and eighty six Slaves with Chief William McIntosh left and traveled by Keel boats, the Tennessee, Ohio, and Mississippi Rivers to Fort Gibson
  • 1828: 400
  • June 1829: 1,200 steam boat Virginia ran aground on the Arkansas River
  • Dec 1834 six hundred thirty- under Captain John Page, four hundred sixty nine arrived 28 Mar 1835, two men in the group: Sampson Grayon with 34 Slaves and Widow Stidham with 23 Slaves.
  • 10 July 1836: nine hundred of the Encah Emathla Band - shipped in chains
  • 1 Aug 1836 left Alabama, 2,700 leader Opthleyahola
  • 5 September 1836 1,984 Lt. J.T. Sprague (known as 5th group of Friendly Creek)
  • 1836: 2,700 arrived at Ft Gibson - (1st group Friendly Creek)
  • 18 & 22 Dec 1836; (2nd group Friendly Creek)
  • March 1837: 4,000 Lt. Edward Deas, arrived 2 Jun 1837 at Little Rock, Arkansas. with 500. 3,500 still at Mobile Point
  • 29 Oct 1837 1,600 Lt. T.P. Sloan three steamboats: Monmoth 611- 311 drowned when it struck the steamboat Trenton

Trade

Superintendent of Indian Trade. Letter Book of the Creek Trading House, 1785-1816. FHL Film: 1024433

Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Office of Indian Trade, Creek Factory Records, 1795-1821. 13 microfilm. FHL Collection

Treaties

The year link,the date of the treaty will connect to an online copy of the Treaty.

  • 1785:
  • 1790 August 7, at New York
  • 1796 June 29, at Colerain
  • 1802 June 16, at Fort Wilkinson
  • October 27, 1805,
  • 1805 November 14, at Washington
  • 1814 August 9,
  • March 22, 1816, - Cherokee
  • 1818 October 19, with the Chickasaw, Flint River
  • 1821 January 8, at Indian Spring
  • 1821
  • 1824 February 12, at Indian Spring
  • 1825: Population estimated at 20,000 for Creek Indians in Georgia and Alabama, reported by T.C. McKenny - of the Indian Office
  • 1825 June 29, at Broken Arrow - unratified
  • 1826 January 24,at Washington
  • 1827 November 15, at Creek Agency
  • 1832 March 24,at Washington
  • May 9, 1832, Seminole
  • 1833 February 14, at Fort Gibson
  • March 28, 1833
  • June 18, 1833, Appalachicola Band
  • 1835August 24, at Camp Holmes, with the Comanche
  • 1838 November 23, at Fort Gibson
  • 1845 January 4,with the Seminole
  • April 1, 1850 - Wyandot
  • 1853: Population estimated at 25,000 by Commissioner of Indian Affairs at the request of the Department of Census
  • 1854 June 13,
  • 1856 August 7, at Washington
  • September 13, 1865, at Fort Smith - unratified
  • 1866 June 14, at Washington
  • 1867: Population estimated at 14,396 by Commissioner of Indian Affairs
  • 1910: Population as reported from census 6,945

Vital Records

Indian Pioneer Papers

In 1936, the Oklahoma Historical Society and University of Oklahoma requested a writer's project grant from the Works Progress Administration (WPA) in which interviews would be conducted with early settlers in Oklahoma who had lived on Indian land. More than 100 writers conducted over 11,000 interviews and were asked to "call upon early settlers and (record) the story of the migration to Oklahoma and their early life here."[1] The University of Oklahoma Western History Collection has digitized the Indian Pioneer Papers which consists of approximately 80,000 indexed entries arranged alphabetically by personal name, place name, or subject. [2] An index to the Indian Pioneer Papers may also be found at OkGenWeb Oklahoma Genealogy. A separate index of Indians interviewed, including the Creek, may be viewed at: “Indians in the Indian Pioneer Papers” Some of the surnames from the Creek tribe found in the collection are: Barnett, Beam (Stevens), Berryhill, Bond, Breeding, Canard, Coker, Fisher (Postoak), Jobe, Postoak, Sells (Jobe). Family History Library microfiche number: 6,016,865(first microfiche number)

Web Sites

Access Genealogy http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/creek-indian-research.htm

Family History Library

The FamilySearch Catalog has over 500 titles of interest to the Creek Indians

Bibliography

  • Anne E. Gometz, A Creek Indian Bibliography in Anne Gometz's Requisite Homepage (accessed 14 January 2014).
  • Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
  • Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 Available online.
  • Klein, Barry T., ed. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat 317923332; FHL book 970.1 R259e.
  • Lennon, Rachal Mills. Tracing Ancestors Among the Five Civilized Tribes; Southeastern Indians Prior to Removal. Baltimore, Md.: Genealogical Publishing Co., 2002. FHL Book 970.1 L548t.
  • Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. WorldCat 37475188; FHL book 970.1 G131g.
Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean
Vol. 2 -- Great Basin, Southwest, Middle America
Vol. 3 -- Arctic, Subarctic, Great Plains, Plateau
Vol. 4 -- California, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Islands
  • Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians. 20 Vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .
Volume 1 -- Not yet published
Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- WorldCat 234303751
Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- WorldCat 255572371
Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- WorldCat 19331914; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4.
Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- WorldCat 299653808; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5.
Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat 247493742; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6.
Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- WorldCat 247493311
Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 13240086; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8.
Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- WorldCat 26140053; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9.
Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- WorldCat 301504096; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10.
Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- WorldCat 256516416; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11.
Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- WorldCat 39401371; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12.
Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- WorldCat 48209643
Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- WorldCat 254277176
Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 356517503; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15.
Volume 16 -- Not yet published
Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- WorldCat 43957746
Volume 18 -- Not yet published
Volume 19 -- Not yet published
Volume 20 -- Not yet published

References

  1. Blackburn, Bob L. "Battle Cry for History: The First Century of the Oklahoma Historical Society." n.d. Oklahoma Historical Society. 5 Oct. 1998.
  2. The University of Oklahoma Western History Collections http://digital.libraries.ou.edu/whc/pioneer/

Hawkins, Benjamin. A Sketch of the Creek Country, in the years 1798 and 1799, and letters of Benjamin Hawkins, Spartanburg,SC., Reprint Co., 1974. FHL Book 970.3 C861h or Film 962,258


 

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