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Creek Indians were also known as Muskogee.
The Creek Indians are one of the Five Civilized Tribes.
Cultural area is the Southeast United States.
Linguistic group: Muskogean
Federal Status: Recognized
Clans: Wind, Bird, Alligator, Bear
Original homeland: along the banks of the Alabama, Coosa, Tallapoosa, Flint, Ocmulgee, and Chattahoochee Rivers, In the Gerogia, Alabama, Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Tennessee
Creek Indians trace their ancestry through the female line. The children belong to the same clan as their mother. Clan members were closely related so they had to marry someone from a different clan than his or her own.
The Creek Nation is comprised of six political districts: 1. Coweta, 2. Deep Fork, 3. Eufaula, 4. Muscogee, 5. Okmulgee, 6. Wewoka; these districts functions like counties.
Their ancestral homeland was in Alabama and Georgia.
- 1540: First contact Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto
- 1703-08: Creeks were allies of the English in the Apalachee wars.
- 1775: supported the British in the American Revolutionary War
- 1813-1814: Creek Wars, General Andrew Jackson, in command of some of the forces
- 1796-1816: Benjamin Hawkins, was the federal agent to the Creeks
- 1816: after the death of Benjamin Hawkins, President James Madison appointed David B. Mitchell, a former governor of Georgia. He undermined the Creeks' sovereignty and initated acts to take all of their lands in Georgia.
- 1836-1837: removed from Georgia and Alabama to eastern Oklahoma. Some were taken by a southern route to New Orleans and then by steamboats (Monmouth) up the Mississippi River to Arkansas. The Monmouth collided with the Trenton more than 300 Creeks drowned. During removal 3,500 died of the 15,000.
- November 25, 1785: Treaty at Hopewell, South Carolina
- June 29, 1796: Coleraine, Georgia
- August 9, 1814: Fort Jackson, Alabama
- January 22, 1818: Creek agency on Flint river
- January 8, 1821 / February 12, 1825: Treaty of Indian Springs negotiated by Creek leader William McIntosh. He was later (1825) executed by the Creek Nation for the deed.
- January 24, 1826: Washington D.C.;Creeks would sell their land. Ratified April 22, 1826
- March 24, 1832: Treaty that the United States would remove intruders.
- 1836-1837: removal
- November 23, 1838: Ft. Gibson
- 1861-1865: the tribe was split; some allying with the Union others with the Confederate Army
- 1867: Tribe adopted a new constitution
- 1887: Dawes Act
Additional References to the History of the Tribe
Frederick Webb Hodge, in his Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, gave a more complete history of the Creek tribe, with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods. Additional details are given in John Swanton's The Indian Tribes of North America.
|Tribe / Agency||
Post - 1885 Census
M595 RG 75 Rolls 693
|Agency||location of Original Records||
Correspondence M234 RG 75 Rolls 962
|Creek Agency, 1824-1866||Washington D.C.||-||-|
|Union Agency, 1875-1914||Washington D.C. and Fort Worth||Rolls 865-77||-|
|Eufala Boarding School, 1925-52||Fort Worth||-||-|
|Muskogee Area Office, 1890-1960||Fort Worth||-||-|
- 1790 August 7, at New York
- 1796 June 29, at Colerain
- 1802 June 16, at Fort Wilkinson
- October 27, 1805,
- 1805 November 14, at Washington
- 1814 August 9,
- March 22, 1816, - Cherokee
- 1818 October 19, with the Chickasaw, Flint River
- 1821 January 8, at Indian Spring
- 1824 February 12, at Indian Spring
- 1825 June 29, at Broken Arrow - unratified
- 1826 January 24, at Washington
- 1827 November 15, at Creek Agency
- 1832 March 24, at Washington
- May 9, 1832, Seminole
- 1833 February 14, at Fort Gibson
- March 28, 1833
- June 18, 1833, Appalachicola Band
- 1835 August 24, at Camp Holmes, with the Comanche
- 1838 November 23, at Fort Gibson
- 1845 January 4,with the Seminole
- April 1, 1850 - Wyandot
- 1854 June 13,
- 1856 August 7, at Washington
- September 13, 1865, at Fort Smith - unratified
- 1866 June 14, at Washington
- Crow Creek Agency, M595, births and deaths 1924-1932, FHL Film: 575783
Important Web Sites
- Muscogee (Creek) Indians Wikipedia
- Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
- Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 Available online.
- Klein, Barry T., ed. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat 317923332; FHL book 970.1 R259e.
- Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. WorldCat 37475188; FHL book 970.1 G131g.
- Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean
- Vol. 2 -- Great Basin, Southwest, Middle America
- Vol. 3 -- Arctic, Subarctic, Great Plains, Plateau
- Vol. 4 -- California, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Islands
- Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .
- Volume 1 -- Not yet published
- Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- WorldCat 234303751
- Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- WorldCat 255572371
- Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- WorldCat 19331914; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4.
- Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- WorldCat 299653808; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5.
- Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat 247493742; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6.
- Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- WorldCat 247493311
- Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 13240086; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8.
- Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- WorldCat 26140053; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9.
- Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- WorldCat 301504096; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10.
- Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- WorldCat 256516416; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11.
- Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- WorldCat 39401371; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12.
- Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- WorldCat 48209643
- Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- WorldCat 254277176
- Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 356517503; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15.
- Volume 16 -- Not yet published
- Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- WorldCat 43957746
- Volume 18 -- Not yet published
- Volume 19 -- Not yet published
- Volume 20 -- Not yet published
- Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.
- Waldman, Carl. Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. New York, New York: Facts on File, 2006. 3rd ed. WorldCat 14718193; FHL book 970.1 W146e 2006.
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