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The Dauphiné was a region which became a prinipality and historic province of France. Its capital was Grenoble. It was in what is now south eastern France: to the south was Provence; to the north, the east bank of the Rhône divided it from the French possessions of Bresse ("Brêsse") and Bugey ("Bugê"); and, to the east, was the Alps and Savoy. This area more or less corresponds with the modern French departments of Isère, Drôme and Hautes-Alpes.
The principality included the counties of Viennois, Graisivaudan (or Grésivaudan), Valentinois, Diois, Embrunais, and Gapençais; the Baronnies of Tour-du-Pin, Méouillon, and Montauban; and the lordships of Briançon, Champsaur, Pont-en-Royans, and Montélimar.
The Dauphiné contained seven episcopates: Vienne, Valence, Die, Grenoble, Viviers, Gap, Embrun.
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- The name Dauphiné (EN:ˈdəʊfɪneɪ, FR: dofine) derives from the word for "dolphin", a creature which was depicted on the heraldic arms of the rulers of the province; between 1350 and 1830, the eldest son of the King of France (heir apparent to the French throne) was invested with the Principality of Dauphiné and took the nick-name of "Dauphin" (the dolphin). 
- ↑ "Dauphiné" in Angus Stevenson (ed.), Oxford Dictionary of English (3rd ed., Oxford University Press, 2010) Print ISBN-13: 9780199571123 via Oxford Reference Online (2012) eISBN: 9780191727665 accessed 15 Feb 2013.
- ↑ Eric F. Johnson, "Dauphiné" in Robert E. Bjork (ed.), The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages (Oxford University Press, 2010), Print ISBN-13: 9780198662624 accessed via Oxford Reference Online (2012) eISBN: 9780199574834 accessed 15 Feb 2013.
- ↑ Pierrette Paravy, "Dauphiné" in André Vauchez (ed.) Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages (2002, James Clarke &amp; Co) ISBN-13: 9780227679319 via Oxford Reference Online (2012) eISBN: 9780195188172 accessed 15 February 2013.
- ↑ "dauphin" in Elizabeth Knowles (ed.), The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (2nd ed., 2005, Oxford University Press) ISBN-13: 9780198609810, via Oxford Reference Online eISBN: 9780191727047 accessed 15 February 2013.