Delaware Indians

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[[Image:Delaware Indians sign Treaty of Penn with Benjamin West a painting.jpg|thumb|right]]  
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[[Image:Delaware Indians sign Treaty of Penn with Benjamin West a painting.jpg|thumb|right|300x260px|<center> Delaware Indians sign Treaty of Penn with Benjamin West a painting</center>]]  
  
 
To get started in [[American Indian Genealogy|American Indian Research]]  
 
To get started in [[American Indian Genealogy|American Indian Research]]  
  
<br>
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<br>  
  
 
The Delaware Indians were originally known as the Lenape or Lenni Lenape Indians, the name they called themselves. The American colonists named them the Delaware Indians.  
 
The Delaware Indians were originally known as the Lenape or Lenni Lenape Indians, the name they called themselves. The American colonists named them the Delaware Indians.  
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The Delaware Nation is currently found primarily in western Oklahoma.  
 
The Delaware Nation is currently found primarily in western Oklahoma.  
  
Delaware Nation<br>Address<br>P.O. Box 825<br>Anadarko, OK 73005<br>Location<br>31064 State Highway #281<br>Building 100<br>Anadarko, OK 73005<br>Phone: 405.247.2448<br>Fax: 405.247.9393<br>
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Delaware Nation<br>Address<br>P.O. Box 825<br>Anadarko, OK 73005<br>Location<br>31064 State Highway #281<br>Building 100<br>Anadarko, OK 73005<br>Phone: 405.247.2448<br>Fax: 405.247.9393<br>  
  
 
*[http://www.delawarenation.com/Home/tabid/37/Default.aspx The Delaware Nation] Official Website
 
*[http://www.delawarenation.com/Home/tabid/37/Default.aspx The Delaware Nation] Official Website
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The Tribal office of each tribe maintains many records of value to the American Indian researcher. Most of the tribes require enrollment in the tribe before they allow access to the records of its members.&nbsp;
  
 
=== History  ===
 
=== History  ===
  
The Delaware or Lenape were forced to cede lands and migrate many times.&nbsp; &nbsp;
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The Delaware or Lenape were forced to cede lands and migrate many times, moving into Ohio, Kansas, Texas and Indian Territory<br>
  
==== Brief Timeline  ====
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=== Brief Timeline  ===
  
 
*'''1600's:''' First contact was with the Dutch  
 
*'''1600's:''' First contact was with the Dutch  
*'''1638: '''Swedish lived&nbsp;moved into the Delaware Bay area  
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*'''1638: '''Swedish lived moved into the Delaware Bay area  
 
*'''1682:''' Treaty with William Penn.  
 
*'''1682:''' Treaty with William Penn.  
*'''1700's: '''Tribal members began to&nbsp;settle&nbsp;along the&nbsp;Ohio&nbsp;River&nbsp;
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*'''1700's: '''Tribal members began to settle along the OhioRiver
*'''1789:''' some removed to Missouri and later to Arkansas  
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*'''1789:''' Some of the tribe removed to Missouri and later to Arkansas  
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*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/del0064.htm 1795] Treaty
 
*'''1800: '''Many migrate to Indiana  
 
*'''1800: '''Many migrate to Indiana  
*'''1820:''' Some moved to Texas  
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*'''1820:''' Some moved to Texas, became known as the Southern band
*'''1835:''' Many members&nbsp;resettled&nbsp;in Kansas  
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*'''1824-51:''' The tribe was under the jurisdiction of the Fort Leavenworth Agency
*'''1859:''' Delaware tribal members living in Texas removed to western Oklahoma&nbsp;
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*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/del1048.htm 1832] Treaty
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*'''1835:''' Many members resettled in Kansas  
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*'''1851-55:''' The tribe was under the jurisdiction of the Kansas Agency while living in Kansas
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*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/del0803.htm 1854] Treaty
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*'''1855-73:''' The tribe was under the jurisdiction of the Delaware Agency
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*'''1859:''' Delaware tribal members living in Texas removed to western Oklahoma  
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*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/del0937.htm 1866] Treaty
 
*'''1867: '''Tribe began to settle west of the Mississippi River some removed to Canada  
 
*'''1867: '''Tribe began to settle west of the Mississippi River some removed to Canada  
*'''1867: '''Delaware tribal members living in Kansas move to eastern Oklahoma&nbsp;and purchase rights in the Cherokee Nation. In 1890 become Cherokee citizens&nbsp;
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*'''1867: '''Delaware tribal members living in Kansas move to eastern Oklahoma and purchase rights in the Cherokee Nation. In 1890 become Cherokee citizens.
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*'''1867-74:''' The tribe was under the jurisdiction of the Cherokee Agency
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*'''1875-80:''' The tribe was under the jurisdiction of the Union Agency
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'''The Southern Band'''
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In the 1820's some of the tribe moved ot Texas, becoming known as the Southern Band of Delaware Indians
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The band was under the jurisdiction of the Caddo and Red River Agencies
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'''1847-59: '''The band was under the jurisdiction of the Texas Agency
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'''1859-78:''' The band was under the jurisdiction of the Wichita Agency
  
==== Brief History  ====
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'''1878-80:''' the band was under the jurisdiction of the Kiowa Agency
  
==== Reservations  ====
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The Southern Band was under the jurisdiction of the Southern and Central Superintendencies
  
==== Additional Reference to the History of the Tribe  ====
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=== Additional Reference to the History of the Tribe  ===
  
 
Frederick Webb Hodge, in his [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/delaware/delawarehist.htm Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico], gave a more complete history of the Delaware tribe, with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods. Additional details are given in John Swanton's [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/newjersey/index.htm The Indian Tribes of North America].  
 
Frederick Webb Hodge, in his [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/delaware/delawarehist.htm Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico], gave a more complete history of the Delaware tribe, with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods. Additional details are given in John Swanton's [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/newjersey/index.htm The Indian Tribes of North America].  
  
 
Ohio History Central article on the [http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=584 Delaware Indians]  
 
Ohio History Central article on the [http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=584 Delaware Indians]  
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The Delaware Tribe was under the following jurisdicdictions
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=== Agencies  ===
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[[Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs|Agencies]] and subagencies were created as administrative offices of the [[Bureau of Indian Affairs|Bureau of Indian Affairs]] and its predecessors. Their purpose was (and is) to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.
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The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in Illinois has been compiled from Hill's ''Office of Indian Affairs...''<ref>Hill, Edward E. ''The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches'', Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library {{FHL|247426|title-id|disp=book 970.1 H551o}}.)</ref>, Hill's ''Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians''<ref>Hill, Edward E. (comp.). ''Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL {{FHL|207428|title-id|disp=book 970.1 H551g}}.)</ref>, and others.
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[[Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs|Agencies]] are the field offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. They recorded most of the records pertaining to individual Indians.
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[[Piqua Indian Agency (Ohio)|Piqua Agency]]
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[[Ohio Indian Agency|Ohio Agency]]
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[[Fort Leavenworth Indian Agency (Kansas)|Fort Leavenworth Agency]]
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[[Kansas Indian Agency (Kansas)|Kansas Agency]]
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[[Delaware Indian Agency (Kansas)|Delaware Agency]]
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[[Cherokee Indian Agency (Oklahoma)|Cherokee Agency]]
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[[Union Indian Agency (Oklahoma)|Union Agency]]
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[[Caddo Indian Agency (Louisiana)|Caddo Agency]]
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[[Red River Indian Agency (Louisiana)|Red River Agency]]
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[[Texas Indian Agency (Texas)|Texas Agency]]
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[[Wichita Indian Agency (Oklahoma)|Wichita Agency]]
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[[Kiowa Indian Agency (Oklahoma)|Kiowa Agency]]
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=== Reservations  ===
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Reservations are tracks of land established by treaty or law for the American Indians to occupy and use.
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From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.
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Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.
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The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.
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The following list of reservations has been compiled from the ''National Atlas of the United States of America''<ref>National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations [http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/images/pdf/fedlands/il.pdf Available online.]</ref>, the ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''<ref>Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.(Family History Library book {{FHL|433280|title-id|disp=973 E5}})</ref>, and other sources. There are no current federally-recognized reservations in Illinois.
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<br>There are hundreds of Indian Reservations in the United States. Many are federally recognized and supervised.&nbsp; Some are state reservations, administered by the state office of Indian Affairs.
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=== Superintendencies  ===
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[[Superintendencies - Bureau of Indian Affairs|Superintendencies]] authorized by the the Bureau of Indian Affairs&nbsp;supervised the local agencies and subagencies.&nbsp;
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[[Michigan Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Michigan Superintendency]]
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[[St. Louis Superintendency of Indian Affairs|St. Louis Superintendency]]
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[[Central Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Central Superintendency]]
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[[Southern Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Southern Superintendency]]
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<br>
  
 
=== Records  ===
 
=== Records  ===
  
==== Correspondence and Census  ====
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=== Correspondence and Census  ===
  
 
{| cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" border="1"
 
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Rolls 962  
 
Rolls 962  
  
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&nbsp;Roll Number  
  
 
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FHL  
 
FHL  
  
Film Number
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Film Number  
  
 
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&nbsp;M595&nbsp; RG 75 Rolls 693  
 
&nbsp;M595&nbsp; RG 75 Rolls 693  
  
Roll Number
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Roll Number  
  
 
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! scope="col" |  
 
FHL  
 
FHL  
  
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Film Number  
  
 
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<br>  
  
==== ====
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=== Census ===
  
1862 Census of Delaware Indians FHL Film: 989204  
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1862 Census of Delaware Indians {{FHL|Film: 989204 }}
  
Census rolls various years, Delaware Indians holding citizenship in the Cherokee Nation. FHL film: 989204
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Census rolls various years, Delaware Indians holding citizenship in the Cherokee Nation. {{FHL|Film: 989204 }}
  
==== '''Indian Pioneer Papers'''  ====
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1897-1898 Delaware Indian Census at Kiowa Ageency, Oklahoma Territory FHL film: 576900 Items 15 and Item 24
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1927 Census, Kiowa Agency, Oklahoma FHL Book&nbsp;Q&nbsp;970.466 B898c or Film 1697766 Item 12
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=== '''Indian Pioneer Papers'''  ===
  
 
In 1936, the Oklahoma Historical Society and University of Oklahoma requested a writer's project grant from the Works Progress Administration (WPA) in which interviews would be conducted with early settlers in Oklahoma who had lived on Indian land. More than 100 writers conducted over 11,000 interviews and were asked to "call upon early settlers and (record) the story of the migration to Oklahoma and their early life here."&nbsp;<ref>Blackburn, Bob L. "Battle Cry for History: The First Century of the Oklahoma Historical Society." n.d. Oklahoma Historical Society. 5 Oct. 1998.</ref> The [http://digital.libraries.ou.edu/whc/pioneer/ University of Oklahoma Western History Collection] has digitized the Indian Pioneer Papers which consists of approximately 80,000 indexed entries arranged alphabetically by personal name, place name, or subject. <ref>The University of Oklahoma Western History Collections http://digital.libraries.ou.edu/whc/pioneer/</ref> An index to the Indian Pioneer Papers may also be found at [http://www.okgenweb.org/pioneer/ OkGenWeb Oklahoma Genealogy.] A separate index of Indians interviewed, including the Delaware, may be viewed at: [http://goodoowah.50megs.com/indpio/ “Indians in the Indian Pioneer Papers”] Two surnames from the Delaware tribe found in the collection are: Ketchum and Zeigler (Ketchum).  
 
In 1936, the Oklahoma Historical Society and University of Oklahoma requested a writer's project grant from the Works Progress Administration (WPA) in which interviews would be conducted with early settlers in Oklahoma who had lived on Indian land. More than 100 writers conducted over 11,000 interviews and were asked to "call upon early settlers and (record) the story of the migration to Oklahoma and their early life here."&nbsp;<ref>Blackburn, Bob L. "Battle Cry for History: The First Century of the Oklahoma Historical Society." n.d. Oklahoma Historical Society. 5 Oct. 1998.</ref> The [http://digital.libraries.ou.edu/whc/pioneer/ University of Oklahoma Western History Collection] has digitized the Indian Pioneer Papers which consists of approximately 80,000 indexed entries arranged alphabetically by personal name, place name, or subject. <ref>The University of Oklahoma Western History Collections http://digital.libraries.ou.edu/whc/pioneer/</ref> An index to the Indian Pioneer Papers may also be found at [http://www.okgenweb.org/pioneer/ OkGenWeb Oklahoma Genealogy.] A separate index of Indians interviewed, including the Delaware, may be viewed at: [http://goodoowah.50megs.com/indpio/ “Indians in the Indian Pioneer Papers”] Two surnames from the Delaware tribe found in the collection are: Ketchum and Zeigler (Ketchum).  
  
===== References  =====
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==== References  ====
  
 
{{reflist}}  
 
{{reflist}}  
  
==== Treaties  ====
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=== Treaties  ===
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[[American Indian Treaties with the United States|Treaty]] an agreement made by negotiation between two or more nations,to resolve conflict, incourage peace, alliance , and commerce.
  
 
1682: Treaty with William Penn  
 
1682: Treaty with William Penn  
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=== References  ===
 
=== References  ===
  
<references />
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<references />  
  
 
=== Bibliography  ===
 
=== Bibliography  ===
  
==== Tribe  ====
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=== Tribe  ===
  
 
Weslager, C.A., ''The Delaware Indians: A History'', Rutgers University Press (1972), hardcover, 546 pages, {{OCLC|282073}}  
 
Weslager, C.A., ''The Delaware Indians: A History'', Rutgers University Press (1972), hardcover, 546 pages, {{OCLC|282073}}  
  
==== General  ====
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=== General  ===
  
 
*[http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/075.html Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75], Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.  
 
*[http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/075.html Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75], Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.  
 
*Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/ Available online].  
 
*Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/ Available online].  
*Klein, Barry T., ed. ''Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian''. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/317923332?referer=list_view WorldCat 317923332]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=1122745&disp=Reference+encyclopedia+of+the+American+I%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 R259e].  
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*Klein, Barry T., ed. ''Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian''. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/317923332?referer=list_view WorldCat 317923332]; {{FHL|1122745|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 R259e}}.  
*Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. [http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=no:037475188 WorldCat 37475188]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=831087&disp=The+Gale+encyclopedia+of+Native+American%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 G131g].
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*Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. [http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=no:037475188 WorldCat 37475188]; {{FHL|831087|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 G131g}}.
  
 
:Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean  
 
:Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean  
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:Volume 1 -- Not yet published  
 
:Volume 1 -- Not yet published  
:Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/234303751&referer=brief_results WorldCat 234303751]<br>
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:Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/234303751&referer=brief_results WorldCat 234303751]<br>  
:Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/255572371&referer=brief_results WorldCat 255572371]<br>
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:Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/255572371&referer=brief_results WorldCat 255572371]<br>  
:Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/19331914&referer=brief_results WorldCat 19331914]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4].<br>
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:Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/19331914&referer=brief_results WorldCat 19331914]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4}}.<br>  
:Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/299653808&referer=brief_results WorldCat 299653808]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5].<br>
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:Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/299653808&referer=brief_results WorldCat 299653808]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5}}.<br>  
:Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/247493742&referer=brief_results WorldCat 247493742]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6].<br>
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:Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/247493742&referer=brief_results WorldCat 247493742]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6}}.<br>  
:Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/247493311&referer=brief_results WorldCat 247493311]<br>
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:Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/247493311&referer=brief_results WorldCat 247493311]<br>  
:Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/13240086&referer=brief_results WorldCat 13240086]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8].<br>
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:Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/13240086&referer=brief_results WorldCat 13240086]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8}}.<br>  
:Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/26140053&referer=brief_results WorldCat 26140053]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9].<br>
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:Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/26140053&referer=brief_results WorldCat 26140053]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9}}.<br>  
:Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/301504096&referer=brief_results WorldCat 301504096]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10].  
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:Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/301504096&referer=brief_results WorldCat 301504096]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10}}.  
:Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/256516416&referer=brief_results WorldCat 256516416]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11].<br>
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:Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/256516416&referer=brief_results WorldCat 256516416]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11}}.<br>  
:Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/39401371&referer=brief_results WorldCat 39401371]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12].<br>
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:Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/39401371&referer=brief_results WorldCat 39401371]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12}}.<br>  
:Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/48209643&referer=brief_results WorldCat 48209643]<br>
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:Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/48209643&referer=brief_results WorldCat 48209643]<br>  
 
:Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/254277176&referer=brief_results WorldCat 254277176]  
 
:Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/254277176&referer=brief_results WorldCat 254277176]  
:Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/256517503&referer=brief_results WorldCat 356517503]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15].<br>
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:Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/256517503&referer=brief_results WorldCat 356517503]; {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15}}.<br>  
 
:Volume 16 -- Not yet published  
 
:Volume 16 -- Not yet published  
:Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/43957746&referer=brief_results WorldCat 43957746]<br>
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:Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/43957746&referer=brief_results WorldCat 43957746]<br>  
 
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:Volume 18 -- Not yet published  
 
:Volume 19 -- Not yet published  
 
:Volume 19 -- Not yet published  
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*Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/indianlocation.htm Available online].  
 
*Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/indianlocation.htm Available online].  
*Waldman, Carl. ''Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes''. New York, New York: Facts on File, 2006. 3rd ed. [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/14718193?referer=list_view WorldCat 14718193]; [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=1465222&disp=Encyclopedia+of+Native+American+tribes%20%20&columns=*,0,0 FHL book 970.1 W146e 2006].
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*Waldman, Carl. ''Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes''. New York, New York: Facts on File, 2006. 3rd ed. [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/14718193?referer=list_view WorldCat 14718193]; {{FHL|1465222|title-id|disp=FHL book 970.1 W146e 2006}}.
  
[[Category:Indian_Tribes_of_the_United_States]] [[Category:Indian_Tribes_of_North_America]]
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[[Category:New_Jersey_Indian_Tribes]] [[Category:New_York_Indian_Tribes]] [[Category:Pennsylvania_Indian_Tribes]] [[Category:Delaware_Indian_Tribes]]

Revision as of 19:52, 12 March 2013

Delaware Indians sign Treaty of Penn with Benjamin West a painting

To get started in American Indian Research


The Delaware Indians were originally known as the Lenape or Lenni Lenape Indians, the name they called themselves. The American colonists named them the Delaware Indians.

Clans: Tukwsi-t, the wolf; Pukuwanku, the turtle; and Pele, the turkey

Original homelands: New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware

Contents

Tribal Headquarters

The Delaware Nation is currently found primarily in western Oklahoma.

Delaware Nation
Address
P.O. Box 825
Anadarko, OK 73005
Location
31064 State Highway #281
Building 100
Anadarko, OK 73005
Phone: 405.247.2448
Fax: 405.247.9393

The Tribal office of each tribe maintains many records of value to the American Indian researcher. Most of the tribes require enrollment in the tribe before they allow access to the records of its members. 

History

The Delaware or Lenape were forced to cede lands and migrate many times, moving into Ohio, Kansas, Texas and Indian Territory

Brief Timeline

  • 1600's: First contact was with the Dutch
  • 1638: Swedish lived moved into the Delaware Bay area
  • 1682: Treaty with William Penn.
  • 1700's: Tribal members began to settle along the OhioRiver
  • 1789: Some of the tribe removed to Missouri and later to Arkansas
  • 1795 Treaty
  • 1800: Many migrate to Indiana
  • 1820: Some moved to Texas, became known as the Southern band
  • 1824-51: The tribe was under the jurisdiction of the Fort Leavenworth Agency
  • 1832 Treaty
  • 1835: Many members resettled in Kansas
  • 1851-55: The tribe was under the jurisdiction of the Kansas Agency while living in Kansas
  • 1854 Treaty
  • 1855-73: The tribe was under the jurisdiction of the Delaware Agency
  • 1859: Delaware tribal members living in Texas removed to western Oklahoma
  • 1866 Treaty
  • 1867: Tribe began to settle west of the Mississippi River some removed to Canada
  • 1867: Delaware tribal members living in Kansas move to eastern Oklahoma and purchase rights in the Cherokee Nation. In 1890 become Cherokee citizens.
  • 1867-74: The tribe was under the jurisdiction of the Cherokee Agency
  • 1875-80: The tribe was under the jurisdiction of the Union Agency

The Southern Band

In the 1820's some of the tribe moved ot Texas, becoming known as the Southern Band of Delaware Indians

The band was under the jurisdiction of the Caddo and Red River Agencies

1847-59: The band was under the jurisdiction of the Texas Agency

1859-78: The band was under the jurisdiction of the Wichita Agency

1878-80: the band was under the jurisdiction of the Kiowa Agency

The Southern Band was under the jurisdiction of the Southern and Central Superintendencies

Additional Reference to the History of the Tribe

Frederick Webb Hodge, in his Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, gave a more complete history of the Delaware tribe, with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods. Additional details are given in John Swanton's The Indian Tribes of North America.

Ohio History Central article on the Delaware Indians

The Delaware Tribe was under the following jurisdicdictions

Agencies

Agencies and subagencies were created as administrative offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and its predecessors. Their purpose was (and is) to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.

The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in Illinois has been compiled from Hill's Office of Indian Affairs...[1], Hill's Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians[2], and others.

Agencies are the field offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. They recorded most of the records pertaining to individual Indians.

Piqua Agency

Ohio Agency

Fort Leavenworth Agency

Kansas Agency

Delaware Agency

Cherokee Agency

Union Agency

Caddo Agency

Red River Agency

Texas Agency

Wichita Agency

Kiowa Agency

Reservations

Reservations are tracks of land established by treaty or law for the American Indians to occupy and use.

From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.

Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.

The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.

The following list of reservations has been compiled from the National Atlas of the United States of America[3], the Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America[4], and other sources. There are no current federally-recognized reservations in Illinois.


There are hundreds of Indian Reservations in the United States. Many are federally recognized and supervised.  Some are state reservations, administered by the state office of Indian Affairs.

Superintendencies

Superintendencies authorized by the the Bureau of Indian Affairs supervised the local agencies and subagencies. 

Michigan Superintendency

St. Louis Superintendency

Central Superintendency

Southern Superintendency


Records

Correspondence and Census

Tribe Agency Location of Original Records

Pre-1880 Correspondence

M234 RG 75

Rolls 962

 Roll Number

FHL

Film Number

Post-1885 Census

 M595  RG 75 Rolls 693

Roll Number

FHL

Film Number

Delaware Anadarko Area Office, 1881-1962 Fort Worth - - Rolls 218-23 -
Delaware, Kansas Fort Leavenworth Agency, 1824-1962 Washington D.C. Rolls 300-03 - - -
Delaware, Kansas Kansas Agency, 1851-55 Washington D.C. Rolls 364-70 - - -
Delaware, Kansas Delaware Agency, 1855-73 Washington D.C. Rolls 274-80 - - -
Delaware,Indian Terr. Cherokee Agency, 1867-74 Washington D.C. Rolls 101-12 - - -
Delaware, Indian Terr. Union Agency, 1875-80 Washington D.C. Rolls 865-77 - - -


Census

1862 Census of Delaware Indians FHL Film: 989204

Census rolls various years, Delaware Indians holding citizenship in the Cherokee Nation. FHL Film: 989204

1897-1898 Delaware Indian Census at Kiowa Ageency, Oklahoma Territory FHL film: 576900 Items 15 and Item 24

1927 Census, Kiowa Agency, Oklahoma FHL Book Q 970.466 B898c or Film 1697766 Item 12

Indian Pioneer Papers

In 1936, the Oklahoma Historical Society and University of Oklahoma requested a writer's project grant from the Works Progress Administration (WPA) in which interviews would be conducted with early settlers in Oklahoma who had lived on Indian land. More than 100 writers conducted over 11,000 interviews and were asked to "call upon early settlers and (record) the story of the migration to Oklahoma and their early life here." [5] The University of Oklahoma Western History Collection has digitized the Indian Pioneer Papers which consists of approximately 80,000 indexed entries arranged alphabetically by personal name, place name, or subject. [6] An index to the Indian Pioneer Papers may also be found at OkGenWeb Oklahoma Genealogy. A separate index of Indians interviewed, including the Delaware, may be viewed at: “Indians in the Indian Pioneer Papers” Two surnames from the Delaware tribe found in the collection are: Ketchum and Zeigler (Ketchum).

References

  1. Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches, Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library book 970.1 H551o.)
  2. Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL book 970.1 H551g.)
  3. National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations Available online.
  4. Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.(Family History Library book 973 E5)
  5. Blackburn, Bob L. "Battle Cry for History: The First Century of the Oklahoma Historical Society." n.d. Oklahoma Historical Society. 5 Oct. 1998.
  6. The University of Oklahoma Western History Collections http://digital.libraries.ou.edu/whc/pioneer/

Treaties

Treaty an agreement made by negotiation between two or more nations,to resolve conflict, incourage peace, alliance , and commerce.

1682: Treaty with William Penn

Important Web Sites

References


Bibliography

Tribe

Weslager, C.A., The Delaware Indians: A History, Rutgers University Press (1972), hardcover, 546 pages, WorldCat 282073

General

  • Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
  • Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 Available online.
  • Klein, Barry T., ed. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat 317923332; FHL book 970.1 R259e.
  • Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. WorldCat 37475188; FHL book 970.1 G131g.
Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean
Vol. 2 -- Great Basin, Southwest, Middle America
Vol. 3 -- Arctic, Subarctic, Great Plains, Plateau
Vol. 4 -- California, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Islands
  • Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .
Volume 1 -- Not yet published
Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- WorldCat 234303751
Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- WorldCat 255572371
Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- WorldCat 19331914; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4.
Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- WorldCat 299653808; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5.
Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat 247493742; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6.
Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- WorldCat 247493311
Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 13240086; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8.
Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- WorldCat 26140053; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9.
Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- WorldCat 301504096; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10.
Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- WorldCat 256516416; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11.
Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- WorldCat 39401371; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12.
Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- WorldCat 48209643
Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- WorldCat 254277176
Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 356517503; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15.
Volume 16 -- Not yet published
Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- WorldCat 43957746
Volume 18 -- Not yet published
Volume 19 -- Not yet published
Volume 20 -- Not yet published