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The Delaware Indians were originally known as the Lenape or Lenni Lenape Indians, the name they called themselves. The American colonists named them the Delaware Indians.
Clans: Tukwsi-t, the wolf; Pukuwanku, the turtle; and Pele, the turkey
Original homelands: New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware
The Delaware Nation is currently found primarily in western Oklahoma.
P.O. Box 825
Anadarko, OK 73005
31064 State Highway #281
Anadarko, OK 73005
- The Delaware Nation Official Website
The Tribal office of each tribe maintains many records of value to the American Indian researcher. Most of the tribes require enrollment in the tribe before they allow access to the records of its members.
The Delaware or Lenape were forced to cede lands and migrate many times, moving into Ohio, Kansas, Texas and Indian Territory
- 1600's: First contact was with the Dutch
- 1638: Swedish lived moved into the Delaware Bay area
- 1682: Treaty with William Penn.
- 1700's: Tribal members began to settle along the OhioRiver
- 1789: Some of the tribe removed to Missouri and later to Arkansas
- 1795 Treaty
- 1800: Many migrate to Indiana
- 1820: Some moved to Texas, became known as the Southern band
- 1824-51: The tribe was under the jurisdiction of the Fort Leavenworth Agency
- 1832 Treaty
- 1835: Many members resettled in Kansas
- 1851-55: The tribe was under the jurisdiction of the Kansas Agency while living in Kansas
- 1854 Treaty
- 1855-73: The tribe was under the jurisdiction of the Delaware Agency
- 1859: Delaware tribal members living in Texas removed to western Oklahoma
- 1866 Treaty
- 1867: Tribe began to settle west of the Mississippi River some removed to Canada
- 1867: Delaware tribal members living in Kansas move to eastern Oklahoma and purchase rights in the Cherokee Nation. In 1890 become Cherokee citizens.
- 1867-74: The tribe was under the jurisdiction of the Cherokee Agency
- 1875-80: The tribe was under the jurisdiction of the Union Agency
The Southern Band
In the 1820's some of the tribe moved ot Texas, becoming known as the Southern Band of Delaware Indians
The band was under the jurisdiction of the Caddo and Red River Agencies
1847-59: The band was under the jurisdiction of the Texas Agency
1859-78: The band was under the jurisdiction of the Wichita Agency
1878-80: the band was under the jurisdiction of the Kiowa Agency
The Southern Band was under the jurisdiction of the Southern and Central Superintendencies
Additional Reference to the History of the Tribe
Frederick Webb Hodge, in his Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, gave a more complete history of the Delaware tribe, with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods. Additional details are given in John Swanton's The Indian Tribes of North America.
Ohio History Central article on the Delaware Indians
The Delaware Tribe was under the following jurisdicdictions
Agencies are the field offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. They recorded most of the records pertaining to individual Indians.
Reservations are tracks of land established by treaty or law for the American Indians to occupy and use.
There are hundreds of Indian Reservations in the United States. Many are federally recognized and supervised. Some are state reservations, administered by the state office of Indian Affairs.
Superintendencies authorized by the the Bureau of Indian Affairs supervised the local agencies and subagencies.
Correspondence and Census
|Tribe||Agency||Location of Original Records||
M234 RG 75
M595 RG 75 Rolls 693
|Delaware||Anadarko Area Office, 1881-1962||Fort Worth||-||-||Rolls 218-23||-|
|Delaware, Kansas||Fort Leavenworth Agency, 1824-1962||Washington D.C.||Rolls 300-03||-||-||-|
|Delaware, Kansas||Kansas Agency, 1851-55||Washington D.C.||Rolls 364-70||-||-||-|
|Delaware, Kansas||Delaware Agency, 1855-73||Washington D.C.||Rolls 274-80||-||-||-|
|Delaware,Indian Terr.||Cherokee Agency, 1867-74||Washington D.C.||Rolls 101-12||-||-||-|
|Delaware, Indian Terr.||Union Agency, 1875-80||Washington D.C.||Rolls 865-77||-||-||-|
1862 Census of Delaware Indians FHL Film: 989204
Census rolls various years, Delaware Indians holding citizenship in the Cherokee Nation. FHL film: 989204
Indian Pioneer Papers
In 1936, the Oklahoma Historical Society and University of Oklahoma requested a writer's project grant from the Works Progress Administration (WPA) in which interviews would be conducted with early settlers in Oklahoma who had lived on Indian land. More than 100 writers conducted over 11,000 interviews and were asked to "call upon early settlers and (record) the story of the migration to Oklahoma and their early life here."  The University of Oklahoma Western History Collection has digitized the Indian Pioneer Papers which consists of approximately 80,000 indexed entries arranged alphabetically by personal name, place name, or subject.  An index to the Indian Pioneer Papers may also be found at OkGenWeb Oklahoma Genealogy. A separate index of Indians interviewed, including the Delaware, may be viewed at: “Indians in the Indian Pioneer Papers” Two surnames from the Delaware tribe found in the collection are: Ketchum and Zeigler (Ketchum).
Treaty an agreement made by negotiation between two or more nations,to resolve conflict, incourage peace, alliance , and commerce.
1682: Treaty with William Penn
Important Web Sites
- Constitution of the Delaware Nation of Oklahoma
- Brief history of the Delaware Indians in Ohio
- The Delaware Nation Official Website
- Official Website of the Delaware Tribe of Indians
- Delaware Tribe Web Site
- Delaware Tribe Wikipedia
- Lenape Wikipedia
Weslager, C.A., The Delaware Indians: A History, Rutgers University Press (1972), hardcover, 546 pages, WorldCat 282073
- Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
- Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 Available online.
- Klein, Barry T., ed. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat 317923332; FHL book 970.1 R259e.
- Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. WorldCat 37475188; FHL book 970.1 G131g.
- Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean
- Vol. 2 -- Great Basin, Southwest, Middle America
- Vol. 3 -- Arctic, Subarctic, Great Plains, Plateau
- Vol. 4 -- California, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Islands
- Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .
- Volume 1 -- Not yet published
- Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- WorldCat 234303751
- Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- WorldCat 255572371
- Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- WorldCat 19331914; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4.
- Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- WorldCat 299653808; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5.
- Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat 247493742; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6.
- Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- WorldCat 247493311
- Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 13240086; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8.
- Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- WorldCat 26140053; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9.
- Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- WorldCat 301504096; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10.
- Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- WorldCat 256516416; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11.
- Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- WorldCat 39401371; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12.
- Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- WorldCat 48209643
- Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- WorldCat 254277176
- Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 356517503; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15.
- Volume 16 -- Not yet published
- Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- WorldCat 43957746
- Volume 18 -- Not yet published
- Volume 19 -- Not yet published
- Volume 20 -- Not yet published
- Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.
- Waldman, Carl. Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. New York, New York: Facts on File, 2006. 3rd ed. WorldCat 14718193; FHL book 970.1 W146e 2006.