Finnish Genealogical Word List

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This list contains Finnish words with their English translations. The words included here are those that you are likely to find in genealogical sources. If the word you are looking for is not on this list, please consult a Finnish-English dictionary (see the "Additional Resources" section below).
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This list contains Finnish words with their English translations. The words included here are those that you are likely to find in genealogical sources. If the word you are looking for is not on this list, please consult a Finnish-English dictionary (see the "Additional Resources" section below).  
  
Finnish is related to Estonian and distantly related to Hungarian. It is not related to other European languages. The official languages of Finland are Finnish and Swedish. Until the end of the 1800s, records were kept in Swedish. For help reading those records, see the Swedish Genealogical Word List(31028). Some Latin phrases also appear in older Finnish parish registers. For help, use the Latin Genealogical Word List (34077).
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Finnish is related to Estonian and distantly related to Hungarian. It is not related to other European languages. The official languages of Finland are Finnish and Swedish. Until the end of the 1800s, records were kept in Swedish. For help reading those records, see the Swedish Genealogical Word List(31028). Some Latin phrases also appear in older Finnish parish registers. For help, use the Latin Genealogical Word List (34077).  
  
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=== LANGUAGE CHARACTERISTICS  ===
  
LANGUAGE CHARACTERISTICS
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<br>Variant Forms of Words
  
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In Finnish, as in English, the forms of some words will vary according to how they are used in a sentence. Who—whose—whom or marry—marries—married are examples of words in English with variant forms.
  
Variant Forms of Words
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As you read Finnish records, be aware that the endings of most words vary with usage. One word in Finnish often translates into English as two or more words. For example, talo (house) changes to talossa (in the house).
  
In Finnish, as in English, the forms of some words will vary according to how they are used in a sentence. Who—whose—whom or marry—marries—married are examples of words in English with variant forms.
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Plurals. Finnish indicates the plural of a word in two ways:  
 
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As you read Finnish records, be aware that the endings of most words vary with usage. One word in Finnish often translates into English as two or more words. For example, talo (house) changes to talossa (in the house).
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Plurals. Finnish indicates the plural of a word in two ways:
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     * The letter t is added to nouns that have no other endings. For example, talo (house) becomes talot(houses).
 
     * The letter t is added to nouns that have no other endings. For example, talo (house) becomes talot(houses).
 
     * The letter i is added if the noun has another ending. For example, talossa (in the house) becomes taloissa (in the houses).
 
     * The letter i is added if the noun has another ending. For example, talossa (in the house) becomes taloissa (in the houses).
  
Possessives. In addition to or instead of using words like my and theirs, Finnish adds endings to words to show possession. If a word already has another ending on it, the possessive ending appears at the end of the word. For example, see how possessives change the words talo (house) and talossa (in the house):
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Possessives. In addition to or instead of using words like my and theirs, Finnish adds endings to words to show possession. If a word already has another ending on it, the possessive ending appears at the end of the word. For example, see how possessives change the words talo (house) and talossa (in the house):  
  
 
     his house hänen talonsa
 
     his house hänen talonsa
 
     in his house hänen talossansa
 
     in his house hänen talossansa
  
See Table 1 for a more complete description of possessives.
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See Table 1 for a more complete description of possessives.  
  
Prepositions and postpositions. In English, words like in, on, with, before, and after are prepositions. They come before a noun. For example, in the house.
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Prepositions and postpositions. In English, words like in, on, with, before, and after are prepositions. They come before a noun. For example, in the house.  
  
Depending on the various grammar rules, Finnish prepositions may appear in one of three ways:
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Depending on the various grammar rules, Finnish prepositions may appear in one of three ways:  
  
 
     * They may come before the noun. For example, ennen sotaa (before the war).
 
     * They may come before the noun. For example, ennen sotaa (before the war).
 
     * They may come after the noun. (In this case, it is called a postposition.) For example, sodan jälkeen(after the war).
 
     * They may come after the noun. (In this case, it is called a postposition.) For example, sodan jälkeen(after the war).
    * They may be added to the noun. For example Helsinki becomes Helsinkiin (into Helsinki). Table 2, on the next page, contains other examples.
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  * They may be added to the noun. For example Helsinki becomes Helsinkiin (into Helsinki). Table 2, on the next page, contains other examples.
  
Word endings. Endings are also added to words for other grammatical purposes. See Tables 1 and 3 for other examples.
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Word endings. Endings are also added to words for other grammatical purposes. See Tables 1 and 3 for other examples.  
  
Table 1. Possessive Endings
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Table 1. Possessive Endings  
  
Possessive and Ending Meaning Examples: talo (house), talossa (in the house) Translation
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Possessive and Ending Meaning Examples: talo (house), talossa (in the house) Translation minun, -ni my talo&nbsp;» minun talonitalo&nbsp;» minun talossani house&nbsp;» my househouse&nbsp;» in my house sinun-, si your (singular) talo&nbsp;» sinun talositalo&nbsp;» sinun talossasi house&nbsp;» your househouse&nbsp;» in your house hänen, -nsa, -nsä or double vowel + n his, her talo&nbsp;» hänen talonsatalo&nbsp;» hänen talossansatalo&nbsp;» hänen talossaan house&nbsp;» his (her) househouse&nbsp;» in his (her) househouse&nbsp;» in his (her) house meidän -mme our talo&nbsp;» meidän talommetalo&nbsp;» meidän talossamme house&nbsp;» our househouse&nbsp;» in our house teidän, -nne your (plural) talo&nbsp;» teidän talonnetalo&nbsp;» teidän talossanne house&nbsp;» your househouse&nbsp;» in your house heidn, -nsa, -nsä or double vowel + n their talo&nbsp;» heidän talonsatalo&nbsp;» heidän talossansatalo&nbsp;» heidän talossaan house&nbsp;» their househouse&nbsp;» in their househouse&nbsp;» in their house  
minun, -ni my talo » minun talonitalo » minun talossani house » my househouse » in my house
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sinun-, si your (singular) talo » sinun talositalo » sinun talossasi house » your househouse » in your house
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hänen, -nsa, -nsä or double vowel + n his, her talo » hänen talonsatalo » hänen talossansatalo » hänen talossaan house » his (her) househouse » in his (her) househouse » in his (her) house
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meidän -mme our talo » meidän talommetalo » meidän talossamme house » our househouse » in our house
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teidän, -nne your (plural) talo » teidän talonnetalo » teidän talossanne house » your househouse » in your house
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heidn, -nsa, -nsä or double vowel + n their talo » heidän talonsatalo » heidän talossansatalo » heidän talossaan house » their househouse » in their househouse » in their house
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Table 2. Prepositional Endings on Nouns
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Table 2. Prepositional Endings on Nouns  
  
Ending Basic Meaning Example Translation
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Ending Basic Meaning Example Translation -a, -ä, -ta, -t of, some suku&nbsp;» sukua family&nbsp;» of a family -in by means of, with oma käsi&nbsp;» omin ksin one’s own hands&nbsp;» with one’s own hands -ine + a possessive ending (see Table 1) together with lapsi&nbsp;» lapsinensa or lapsineen child&nbsp;» together with his (her or their) children -ksi changed into, become vaimo&nbsp;» otti vaimoksi wife&nbsp;» took for a wife or became a wife -lla, -llä at, by, in Tampere&nbsp;» Tampereella Tampere&nbsp;» in (at) Tampere -lle to Tampere&nbsp;» Tampereelle Tampere&nbsp;» to Tampere -lta, -ltä from Tampere&nbsp;» Tampereelta Tampere&nbsp;» from Tampere -n of talo&nbsp;» talon väki house&nbsp;» people of the house -na, -nä as lapsi&nbsp;» lapsena child&nbsp;» as a child -ssa, -ssä in Helsinki&nbsp;» Helsingissä Helsinki&nbsp;» in Helsinki double vowel + n into Helsinki&nbsp;» Helsinkiin Helsinki&nbsp;» into Helsinki -sta, -stä from Helsinki&nbsp;» Helsingistä Helsinki&nbsp;» from Helsinki  
-a, -ä, -ta, -t of, some suku » sukua family » of a family
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-in by means of, with oma käsi » omin ksin one’s own hands » with one’s own hands
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-ine + a possessive ending (see Table 1) together with lapsi » lapsinensa or lapsineen child » together with his (her or their) children
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-ksi changed into, become vaimo » otti vaimoksi wife » took for a wife or became a wife
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-lla, -llä at, by, in Tampere » Tampereella Tampere » in (at) Tampere
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-lle to Tampere » Tampereelle Tampere » to Tampere
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-lta, -ltä from Tampere » Tampereelta Tampere » from Tampere
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-n of talo » talon väki house » people of the house
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-na, -nä as lapsi » lapsena child » as a child
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-ssa, -ssä in Helsinki » Helsingissä Helsinki » in Helsinki
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double vowel + n into Helsinki » Helsinkiin Helsinki » into Helsinki
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-sta, -stä from Helsinki » Helsingistä Helsinki » from Helsinki
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Table 3. Other Word Endings
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Table 3. Other Word Endings  
  
Ending Basic Meaning Example Translation
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Ending Basic Meaning Example Translation -t forms a plural talo&nbsp;» talot house&nbsp;» houses -ko, -k indicates a question Helsingissä&nbsp;» Helsingissäkö in Helsinki&nbsp;» in Helsinki? -ton without, -less, un- lapsi&nbsp;» lapseton child&nbsp;» childless -tta, -ttä (on verbs) without nähdä&nbsp;» näkemätt to see&nbsp;» without seeing -n, -t shows a direct object talo&nbsp;» näen talon talo&nbsp;» näen talot house&nbsp;» I see the house house&nbsp;» I see the houses  
-t forms a plural talo » talot house » houses
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-ko, -k indicates a question Helsingissä » Helsingissäkö in Helsinki » in Helsinki?
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-ton without, -less, un- lapsi » lapseton child » childless
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-tta, -ttä (on verbs) without nähdä » näkemätt to see » without seeing
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-n, -t shows a direct object talo » näen talon
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talo » näen talot house » I see the house
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house » I see the houses
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Ending: -lla, -ll followed by a form of the verb olla (to be): on, ei ole, oli, ei ollut, on ollut, or ei ole ollut
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Ending: -lla, -ll followed by a form of the verb olla (to be): on, ei ole, oli, ei ollut, on ollut, or ei ole ollut Basic Meaning: shows possession or ownership (to have)  
Basic Meaning: shows possession or ownership (to have)
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Example Translation
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Example Translation Anna&nbsp;» Annalla on Anna&nbsp;» Anna has Anna Toivonen&nbsp;» Anna Toivosella oli Anna Toivonen&nbsp;» Anna Toivonen had minä&nbsp;» munulla on ollut I&nbsp;» I have had sinä&nbsp;» sunulla oli you (singular)&nbsp;» you had hän&nbsp;» hänell oli he/she&nbsp;» he/she had me&nbsp;» meillä ei ole ollut we&nbsp;» we have not had te&nbsp;» teillä on you (plural)&nbsp;» you have he&nbsp;» heillä ei ole they&nbsp;» they do not have  
Anna » Annalla on Anna » Anna has
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Anna Toivonen » Anna Toivosella oli Anna Toivonen » Anna Toivonen had
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minä » munulla on ollut I » I have had
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sinä » sunulla oli you (singular) » you had
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hän » hänell oli he/she » he/she had
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me » meillä ei ole ollut we » we have not had
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te » teillä on you (plural) » you have
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he » heillä ei ole they » they do not have
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<br>Spelling Changes
  
Spelling Changes
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When an ending is added to a word, the consonants within that word may also change. Consider the following examples:  
 
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When an ending is added to a word, the consonants within that word may also change. Consider the following examples:
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     Letters that Change Examples
 
     Letters that Change Examples
 
     ht to hd lahti to lahden
 
     ht to hd lahti to lahden
    k to (nothing) Ilmajoki to Ilmajoen
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  k to (nothing) Ilmajoki to Ilmajoen
    kk to k kirkko to kirkon
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  kk to k kirkko to kirkon
    lt to ll ilta to illan
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  lt to ll ilta to illan
    mp to mm lampi to lammen
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  mp to mm lampi to lammen
    n to s Heinonen to Heinosen
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  n to s Heinonen to Heinosen
    nk to ng Helsinki to Helsingin
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  nk to ng Helsinki to Helsingin
    nt to nn isnt to isnnn
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  nt to nn isnt to isnnn
    p to v orpo to orvon
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  p to v orpo to orvon
    pp to p pappi to papin
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  pp to p pappi to papin
    rk to r Turku to Turun
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  rk to r Turku to Turun
    rt to rr virta to virran
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  rt to rr virta to virran
    s to d or t uusi to uuden, uuteen
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  s to d or t uusi to uuden, uuteen
    tt to t tytt to tytn
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  tt to t tytt to tytn
    uku to uvu suku to suvun
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  uku to uvu suku to suvun
    vowel+t to vowel+d iti to idin
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  vowel+t to vowel+d iti to idin
  
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<br>Alphabetical Order
  
Alphabetical Order
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Written Finnish uses three letters in addition to the twenty-six letters used in the English alphabet: ä, ö, and for Swedish names, å. Finnish dictionaries and indexes, this word list, and the Locality Search of the Family History Library CatalogLook this term up in the glossary. all use the following alphabetical order:  
 
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Written Finnish uses three letters in addition to the twenty-six letters used in the English alphabet: ä, ö, and for Swedish names, å. Finnish dictionaries and indexes, this word list, and the Locality Search of the Family History Library CatalogLook this term up in the glossary. all use the following alphabetical order:
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     a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z å ä ö
 
     a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z å ä ö
 +
  
 
The letters v and w are frequently alphabetized as the same letter.  
 
The letters v and w are frequently alphabetized as the same letter.  
  
Finnish
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Finnish Genealogical Word List  
Genealogical Word List
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+
  
Table of Contents
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<br>Table of Contents Language Characteristics Additional Resources Key Words General Word List  
Language Characteristics
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Additional Resources
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Key Words
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General Word List
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Ä
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Numbers
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Dates
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ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
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Ä Numbers Dates
  
This word list includes only the words most commonly found in genealogical sources. For more help, use a Finnish-English dictionary. Several such dictionaries are available at the Family History LibraryLook this term up in the glossary. in the Scandinavia collection. Their call numbers begin with 494.541321. The following dictionary is also available on microfilmLook this term up in the glossary. for use in Family History CentersLook this term up in the glossary.:
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ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
  
Alanne, V. S. Suomalais-englantilainen suursanakirja [Great Finnish-English Dictionary]. 3rd ed. Porvoo: Werner Söderström Osakeyhtiö, 1968. (FHL film 1224706 item 3.)
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This word list includes only the words most commonly found in genealogical sources. For more help, use a Finnish-English dictionary. Several such dictionaries are available at the Family History LibraryLook this term up in the glossary. in the Scandinavia collection. Their call numbers begin with 494.541321. The following dictionary is also available on microfilmLook this term up in the glossary. for use in Family History CentersLook this term up in the glossary.:
  
Additional dictionaries are listed in the Subject Search of the Family History Library Catalog under FINNISH LANGUAGE - DICTIONARIES or in the Locality Search under FINLAND - LANGUAGE AND LANGUAGES - DICTIONARIES.
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Alanne, V. S. Suomalais-englantilainen suursanakirja [Great Finnish-English Dictionary]. 3rd ed. Porvoo: Werner Söderström Osakeyhtiö, 1968. (FHL film 1224706 item 3.)
  
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Additional dictionaries are listed in the Subject Search of the Family History Library Catalog under FINNISH LANGUAGE - DICTIONARIES or in the Locality Search under FINLAND - LANGUAGE AND LANGUAGES - DICTIONARIES.
  
Return to top of page
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<br>Return to top of page  
  
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<br>KEY WORDS
  
KEY WORDS
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To find and use specific types of Finnish records, you will need to know some key words in Finnish. This section gives key genealogical terms in English and the Finnish words with the same or similar meanings.
  
To find and use specific types of Finnish records, you will need to know some key words in Finnish. This section gives key genealogical terms in English and the Finnish words with the same or similar meanings.
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For example, in the first column you will find the English word marriages. In the second column you will find Finnish words with meanings such as marry, marriage, wedding, wedlock, unite, legitimate, joined,and other words used in Finnish records to indicate marriage.  
 
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For example, in the first column you will find the English word marriages. In the second column you will find Finnish words with meanings such as marry, marriage, wedding, wedlock, unite, legitimate, joined,and other words used in Finnish records to indicate marriage.
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     English Finnish
 
     English Finnish
 
     banns kuulutetut
 
     banns kuulutetut
    baptism kastetut, kaste-, ristimä-
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  baptism kastetut, kaste-, ristimä-
    births syntyneet, synty-
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  births syntyneet, synty-
    burials haudatut, hauta-, hauda-
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  burials haudatut, hauta-, hauda-
    child lapsi
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  child lapsi
    christenings (See baptism.)
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  christenings (See baptism.)
    confirmations rippilapset, ripille päässeet
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  confirmations rippilapset, ripille päässeet
    deaths kuolleet, kuoli-
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  deaths kuolleet, kuoli-
    father isä
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  father isä
    husband mies, aviomies
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  husband mies, aviomies
    marriages vihityt, vihki-, naim-, avio-
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  marriages vihityt, vihki-, naim-, avio-
    month kuukausi, kuu
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  month kuukausi, kuu
    mother äiti
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  mother äiti
    name (given name) nimi, etunimi, kastenimi, ristimänimi
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  name (given name) nimi, etunimi, kastenimi, ristimänimi
    name (surname) (suku)nimi
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  name (surname) (suku)nimi
    parents vanhemmat
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  parents vanhemmat
    parishs eurakunta, kunta
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  parishs eurakunta, kunta
    wife vaimo, aviovaimo
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  wife vaimo, aviovaimo
    year vuosi, vuoden, vuonna
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  year vuosi, vuoden, vuonna
 
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Finnish
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Genealogical Word List
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Table of Contents
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<br>Finnish Genealogical Word List  
Language Characteristics
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Additional Resources
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Key Words
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General Word List
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Ä
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Numbers
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Dates
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GENERAL WORD LIST
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<br>Table of Contents Language Characteristics Additional Resources Key Words General Word List
  
This general word list includes words commonly seen in genealogical sources. Numbers, months, and days of the week are listed both here and in separate sections that follow this list.
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Ä Numbers Dates
  
In this list, optional versions of Finnish words or variable endings are given in parentheses. Parentheses in the English column clarify the meaning.
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GENERAL WORD LIST
  
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This general word list includes words commonly seen in genealogical sources. Numbers, months, and days of the week are listed both here and in separate sections that follow this list.
  
Return to top of page
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In this list, optional versions of Finnish words or variable endings are given in parentheses. Parentheses in the English column clarify the meaning.
  
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<br>Return to top of page
  
A
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<br>A  
  
 
     aamu morning
 
     aamu morning
 
     aamulla in the morning
 
     aamulla in the morning
    aamupäivä forenoon
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  aamupäivä forenoon
    aateli(nen) noble
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  aateli(nen) noble
    aatelisto nobility
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  aatelisto nobility
    aatto eve
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  aatto eve
    aika time, date
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  aika time, date
    aikainen early, (a.m.)
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  aikainen early, (a.m.)
    aikaisempi earlier
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  aikaisempi earlier
    aikakauskirja periodical
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  aikakauskirja periodical
    aikanaan in due time
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  aikanaan in due time
    aina always
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  aina always
    ainoa only
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  ainoa only
    aivokuume encephalitis, inflammation of the brain
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  aivokuume encephalitis, inflammation of the brain
    aivotärähdys concussion
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  aivotärähdys concussion
    ajaja coachman
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  ajaja coachman
    ajomies coachman
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  ajomies coachman
    ala, ali low(er), under
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  ala, ali low(er), under
    alaikäinen minor, underaged
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  alaikäinen minor, underaged
    alla under
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  alla under
    allekirjoittanut undersigned
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  allekirjoittanut undersigned
    alue region, district
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  alue region, district
    alus ship
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  alus ship
    ammatti profession, occupation
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  ammatti profession, occupation
    annettu given
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  annettu given
    anoppi mother-in-law
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  anoppi mother-in-law
    appi father-in-law
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  appi father-in-law
    appivanhemmat parents-in-law
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  appivanhemmat parents-in-law
    apteekkari pharmacist, druggist
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  apteekkari pharmacist, druggist
    arkisto archive
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  arkisto archive
    arkistoluettelo archive list
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  arkistoluettelo archive list
    arvo title, rank, status
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  arvo title, rank, status
    asema station, class, standing
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  asema station, class, standing
    asevelvollinen conscript soldier
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  asevelvollinen conscript soldier
    asiakirja document, record
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  asiakirja document, record
    asua live, reside
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  asua live, reside
    asuinpaikka place of residence
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  asuinpaikka place of residence
    asukas inhabitant, resident, lodger
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  asukas inhabitant, resident, lodger
    asunto residence
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  asunto residence
    asutuksen yleisluettelo general register of inhabitants
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  asutuksen yleisluettelo general register of inhabitants
    a.u. illegitimate
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  a.u. illegitimate
    aukko gap (missing records)
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  aukko gap (missing records)
    autio uninhabited
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  autio uninhabited
    avioero divorce
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  avioero divorce
    avioliiton ulkopuolella illegitimate, out of wedlock
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  avioliiton ulkopuolella illegitimate, out of wedlock
    avioliitto marriage
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  avioliitto marriage
    avioliittoasiakirjat marriage documents
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  avioliittoasiakirjat marriage documents
    aviomies husband
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  aviomies husband
    avionrikkoja adulterer
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  avionrikkoja adulterer
    aviopari married couple
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  aviopari married couple
    aviopuoliso spouse
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  aviopuoliso spouse
    avioton unmarried, illegitimate
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  avioton unmarried, illegitimate
    aviovaimo wife
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  aviovaimo wife

Revision as of 18:50, 19 August 2009

This list contains Finnish words with their English translations. The words included here are those that you are likely to find in genealogical sources. If the word you are looking for is not on this list, please consult a Finnish-English dictionary (see the "Additional Resources" section below).

Finnish is related to Estonian and distantly related to Hungarian. It is not related to other European languages. The official languages of Finland are Finnish and Swedish. Until the end of the 1800s, records were kept in Swedish. For help reading those records, see the Swedish Genealogical Word List(31028). Some Latin phrases also appear in older Finnish parish registers. For help, use the Latin Genealogical Word List (34077).

LANGUAGE CHARACTERISTICS  


Variant Forms of Words

In Finnish, as in English, the forms of some words will vary according to how they are used in a sentence. Who—whose—whom or marry—marries—married are examples of words in English with variant forms.

As you read Finnish records, be aware that the endings of most words vary with usage. One word in Finnish often translates into English as two or more words. For example, talo (house) changes to talossa (in the house).

Plurals. Finnish indicates the plural of a word in two ways:

   * The letter t is added to nouns that have no other endings. For example, talo (house) becomes talot(houses).
   * The letter i is added if the noun has another ending. For example, talossa (in the house) becomes taloissa (in the houses).

Possessives. In addition to or instead of using words like my and theirs, Finnish adds endings to words to show possession. If a word already has another ending on it, the possessive ending appears at the end of the word. For example, see how possessives change the words talo (house) and talossa (in the house):

   his house 	hänen talonsa
   in his house 	hänen talossansa

See Table 1 for a more complete description of possessives.

Prepositions and postpositions. In English, words like in, on, with, before, and after are prepositions. They come before a noun. For example, in the house.

Depending on the various grammar rules, Finnish prepositions may appear in one of three ways:

   * They may come before the noun. For example, ennen sotaa (before the war).
   * They may come after the noun. (In this case, it is called a postposition.) For example, sodan jälkeen(after the war).
  * They may be added to the noun. For example Helsinki becomes Helsinkiin (into Helsinki). Table 2, on the next page, contains other examples.

Word endings. Endings are also added to words for other grammatical purposes. See Tables 1 and 3 for other examples.

Table 1. Possessive Endings

Possessive and Ending Meaning Examples: talo (house), talossa (in the house) Translation minun, -ni my talo » minun talonitalo » minun talossani house » my househouse » in my house sinun-, si your (singular) talo » sinun talositalo » sinun talossasi house » your househouse » in your house hänen, -nsa, -nsä or double vowel + n his, her talo » hänen talonsatalo » hänen talossansatalo » hänen talossaan house » his (her) househouse » in his (her) househouse » in his (her) house meidän -mme our talo » meidän talommetalo » meidän talossamme house » our househouse » in our house teidän, -nne your (plural) talo » teidän talonnetalo » teidän talossanne house » your househouse » in your house heidn, -nsa, -nsä or double vowel + n their talo » heidän talonsatalo » heidän talossansatalo » heidän talossaan house » their househouse » in their househouse » in their house

Table 2. Prepositional Endings on Nouns

Ending Basic Meaning Example Translation -a, -ä, -ta, -t of, some suku » sukua family » of a family -in by means of, with oma käsi » omin ksin one’s own hands » with one’s own hands -ine + a possessive ending (see Table 1) together with lapsi » lapsinensa or lapsineen child » together with his (her or their) children -ksi changed into, become vaimo » otti vaimoksi wife » took for a wife or became a wife -lla, -llä at, by, in Tampere » Tampereella Tampere » in (at) Tampere -lle to Tampere » Tampereelle Tampere » to Tampere -lta, -ltä from Tampere » Tampereelta Tampere » from Tampere -n of talo » talon väki house » people of the house -na, -nä as lapsi » lapsena child » as a child -ssa, -ssä in Helsinki » Helsingissä Helsinki » in Helsinki double vowel + n into Helsinki » Helsinkiin Helsinki » into Helsinki -sta, -stä from Helsinki » Helsingistä Helsinki » from Helsinki

Table 3. Other Word Endings

Ending Basic Meaning Example Translation -t forms a plural talo » talot house » houses -ko, -k indicates a question Helsingissä » Helsingissäkö in Helsinki » in Helsinki? -ton without, -less, un- lapsi » lapseton child » childless -tta, -ttä (on verbs) without nähdä » näkemätt to see » without seeing -n, -t shows a direct object talo » näen talon talo » näen talot house » I see the house house » I see the houses

Ending: -lla, -ll followed by a form of the verb olla (to be): on, ei ole, oli, ei ollut, on ollut, or ei ole ollut Basic Meaning: shows possession or ownership (to have)

Example Translation Anna » Annalla on Anna » Anna has Anna Toivonen » Anna Toivosella oli Anna Toivonen » Anna Toivonen had minä » munulla on ollut I » I have had sinä » sunulla oli you (singular) » you had hän » hänell oli he/she » he/she had me » meillä ei ole ollut we » we have not had te » teillä on you (plural) » you have he » heillä ei ole they » they do not have


Spelling Changes

When an ending is added to a word, the consonants within that word may also change. Consider the following examples:

   Letters that Change 	Examples
   ht 	to hd 	lahti 	to lahden
  k 	to (nothing) 	Ilmajoki 	to Ilmajoen
  kk 	to k 	kirkko 	to kirkon
  lt 	to ll 	ilta 	to illan
  mp 	to mm 	lampi 	to lammen
  n 	to s 	Heinonen 	to Heinosen
  nk 	to ng 	Helsinki 	to Helsingin
  nt 	to nn 	isnt 	to isnnn
  p 	to v 	orpo 	to orvon
  pp 	to p 	pappi 	to papin
  rk 	to r 	Turku 	to Turun
  rt 	to rr 	virta 	to virran
  s 	to d or t 	uusi 	to uuden, uuteen
  tt 	to t 	tytt 	to tytn
  uku 	to uvu 	suku 	to suvun
  vowel+t 	to vowel+d 	iti 	to idin


Alphabetical Order

Written Finnish uses three letters in addition to the twenty-six letters used in the English alphabet: ä, ö, and for Swedish names, å. Finnish dictionaries and indexes, this word list, and the Locality Search of the Family History Library CatalogLook this term up in the glossary. all use the following alphabetical order:

   a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z å ä ö

The letters v and w are frequently alphabetized as the same letter.

Finnish Genealogical Word List


Table of Contents Language Characteristics Additional Resources Key Words General Word List

Ä Numbers Dates

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

This word list includes only the words most commonly found in genealogical sources. For more help, use a Finnish-English dictionary. Several such dictionaries are available at the Family History LibraryLook this term up in the glossary. in the Scandinavia collection. Their call numbers begin with 494.541321. The following dictionary is also available on microfilmLook this term up in the glossary. for use in Family History CentersLook this term up in the glossary.:

Alanne, V. S. Suomalais-englantilainen suursanakirja [Great Finnish-English Dictionary]. 3rd ed. Porvoo: Werner Söderström Osakeyhtiö, 1968. (FHL film 1224706 item 3.)

Additional dictionaries are listed in the Subject Search of the Family History Library Catalog under FINNISH LANGUAGE - DICTIONARIES or in the Locality Search under FINLAND - LANGUAGE AND LANGUAGES - DICTIONARIES.


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KEY WORDS

To find and use specific types of Finnish records, you will need to know some key words in Finnish. This section gives key genealogical terms in English and the Finnish words with the same or similar meanings.

For example, in the first column you will find the English word marriages. In the second column you will find Finnish words with meanings such as marry, marriage, wedding, wedlock, unite, legitimate, joined,and other words used in Finnish records to indicate marriage.

   English 	Finnish
   banns 	kuulutetut
  baptism 	kastetut, kaste-, ristimä-
  births 	syntyneet, synty-
  burials 	haudatut, hauta-, hauda-
  child 	lapsi
  christenings 	(See baptism.)
  confirmations 	rippilapset, ripille päässeet
  deaths 	kuolleet, kuoli-
  father 	isä
  husband 	mies, aviomies
  marriages 	vihityt, vihki-, naim-, avio-
  month 	kuukausi, kuu
  mother 	äiti
  name (given name) 	nimi, etunimi, kastenimi, ristimänimi
  name (surname) 	(suku)nimi
  parents 	vanhemmat
  parishs 	eurakunta, kunta
  wife 	vaimo, aviovaimo
  year 	vuosi, vuoden, vuonna


Finnish Genealogical Word List


Table of Contents Language Characteristics Additional Resources Key Words General Word List

Ä Numbers Dates

GENERAL WORD LIST

This general word list includes words commonly seen in genealogical sources. Numbers, months, and days of the week are listed both here and in separate sections that follow this list.

In this list, optional versions of Finnish words or variable endings are given in parentheses. Parentheses in the English column clarify the meaning.


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A

   aamu 	morning
   aamulla 	in the morning
  aamupäivä 	forenoon
  aateli(nen) 	noble
  aatelisto 	nobility
  aatto 	eve
  aika 	time, date
  aikainen 	early, (a.m.)
  aikaisempi 	earlier
  aikakauskirja 	periodical
  aikanaan 	in due time
  aina 	always
  ainoa 	only
  aivokuume 	encephalitis, inflammation of the brain
  aivotärähdys 	concussion
  ajaja 	coachman
  ajomies 	coachman
  ala, ali 	low(er), under
  alaikäinen 	minor, underaged
  alla 	under
  allekirjoittanut 	undersigned
  alue 	region, district
  alus 	ship
  ammatti 	profession, occupation
  annettu 	given
  anoppi 	mother-in-law
  appi 	father-in-law
  appivanhemmat 	parents-in-law
  apteekkari 	pharmacist, druggist
  arkisto 	archive
  arkistoluettelo 	archive list
  arvo 	title, rank, status
  asema 	station, class, standing
  asevelvollinen 	conscript soldier
  asiakirja 	document, record
  asua 	live, reside
  asuinpaikka 	place of residence
  asukas 	inhabitant, resident, lodger
  asunto 	residence
  asutuksen yleisluettelo 	general register of inhabitants
  a.u. 	illegitimate
  aukko 	gap (missing records)
  autio 	uninhabited
  avioero 	divorce
  avioliiton ulkopuolella 	illegitimate, out of wedlock
  avioliitto 	marriage
  avioliittoasiakirjat 	marriage documents
  aviomies 	husband
  avionrikkoja 	adulterer
  aviopari 	married couple
  aviopuoliso 	spouse
  avioton 	unmarried, illegitimate
  aviovaimo 	wife