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Timeline of Important Events
1670 The Hudson’s Bay Company is founded.
1670 Hudson's Bay Company granted charter for “Rupert’s Land” – the entire drainage system of Hudson Bay: including northern Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, a large part of Saskatchewan, southern Alberta and some of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut.
1684 York Factory (trading post) established on southwest Hudson Bay.
1691 Henry Kelsey, a young employee of the Hudson's Bay Company, travels to the future Saskatchewan in search of First Nations trading partners.
1740s Guns and horses reach the plains of Saskatchewan.
1763 The Royal Proclamation of October 7 recognizes that the Indian Nations on land west of the established colonies should not be disturbed by settlement.
1774 The first trading post is established in Saskatchewan at Cumberland House, a central location for a transportation and supply post. Several waterways led north and northwest to the Churchill and Athabasca regions as well as eastward to Hudson Bay, and southwest to the Great Plains.
1776-77 Plains Cree suffer a smallpox epidemic.
1781 Chippewyan suffer a smallpox epidemic which almost destroyed them as a tribe.
1781-1782 Cree suffer a smallpox epidemic.
1820 Sir Peregrine Maitland advocates the concept of residential schools for Indian children.
1830 Assiniboine suffer extensive smallpox epidemic.
1840 The first school in Saskatchewan is established at Cumberland House.
1871 August 21,Signing of Treaty 2; it covers a small portion of southeastern Saskatchewan.
1867 Confederation of Canada
1870 North Western Territory and Rupert’s Land transferred from control of Hudson’s Bay Company to the Dominion of Canada.
1870s The bison are quickly disappearing from the plains due to massive slaughter for hides and to eliminate the subsistence for plains tribes, to force them onto reserves. Plains tribes were faced with extreme hardship and starvation. By 1880, the bison were gone.
1870 A large number of Metis leave Manitoba and settle in the provisional North West territory of Saskatchewan
1874 September 15, Treaty 4 is signed, covering Saskatchewan south of the South Saskatchewan River. The federal government agrees to provide schools on reserves.
1876 September 9, Treaty 6 is signed, covering a large part of Saskatchewan north of the South Saskatchewan River.
1880s Nearly 50% of the population on Reserves perish due to diseases such as tuberculosis, whooping cough, measles, and diphtheria.
1885 Metis uprising – North West Rebellion at Batoche
1899 June 21, Treat 8 is signed. Parts of northern Saskatchewan.
1906 August 28, Treaty 10 is signed. What is left of northern Saskatchewan.
Tribes and Bands (First Nations) of Saskatchewan
- A list of tribes and contact information in is found at Native American Nations
- A list of bands is found at First Nations Bands of Saskatchewan
- Map and contact information on First Nations bands, tribal councils, and other information in Saskatchewan. First Nations in Saskatchewan (pdf file)
- "Indian genealogy records : records of births, marriages and deaths of the members of the Indian bands of Wollaston Lake Post including Lac La Hache band and Brochet or Barren Lands band": by Maigret, Father: FHL 1013608
- Indian Registers, 1951-1984 , Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada, are maintained at the Library and Archives in Ottawa. Access to these records is restricted. Inquiries must be directed to the Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada regional offices.
Important Web Sites
" First Nations History - First Nations and MÃ©tis Relations - Government of Saskatchewan." First Nations and MÃ©tis Relations - Government of Saskatchewan. Government of Saskatchewan, n.d. Web. 8 Sept. 2012. <http://www.fnmr.gov.sk.ca/community/fn-history/> . Jenness, Diamond. The Indians of Canada. 6th ed. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1963. Print.
Malinowski, Sharon. The Gale encyclopedia of Native American tribes. Detroit: Gale, 1998. Print.
Swanton, John Reed. The Indian tribes of North America. Washington: U.S. G.P.O., 1952. Print.
"The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan | Details." The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan | Home. Canadian Plains Research Centre, University of Regina, n.d. Web. 8 Sept. 2012. <http://esask.uregina.ca/entry/education_in_saskatchewan_timeline.html>.
Waldman, Carl, and Molly Braun. Encyclopedia of Native American tribes. Third Edition ed. New York, N.Y.: Facts on File, 1988. Print.