Five Civilized Tribes

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(Difference between revisions)
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<h2> History  </h2>
+
== History  ==
<p>The Five Civilized Tribes consist of the <a href="Cherokee Indians">Cherokee,</a> <a href="Chickasaw Indians">Chickasaw</a>, <a href="Choctaw Indians">Choctaw</a>, <a href="Creek Indians">Creek</a>, and <a href="Seminole Indians">Seminole</a> Indian Tribes.  
+
 
</p><p>They became commonly referred to as the Five Civilized Tribes......  
+
The Five Civilized Tribes consist of the &lt;a href="Cherokee Indians"&gt;Cherokee,&lt;/a&gt; &lt;a href="Chickasaw Indians"&gt;Chickasaw&lt;/a&gt;, &lt;a href="Choctaw Indians"&gt;Choctaw&lt;/a&gt;, &lt;a href="Creek Indians"&gt;Creek&lt;/a&gt;, and &lt;a href="Seminole Indians"&gt;Seminole&lt;/a&gt; Indian Tribes.  
</p><p>These tribes had Freedmen who were former African American slaves of tribal members or descendants of former slaves living among them.  
+
 
</p>
+
They became commonly referred to as the Five Civilized Tribes......  
<h2> Records  </h2>
+
 
<h3> <b>Enrollment Records</b> </h3>
+
These tribes had Freedmen who were former African American slaves of tribal members or descendants of former slaves living among them.  
<p><b><a href="Dawes Commission Enrollment Records for Five U.S. Indian Tribes">Dawes Commission Enrollment Records</a>.</b>
+
 
</p><p>In 1893 Congress established a commission to exchange Indian tribal lands in the southeastern United States for new land allotments to individuals in Oklahoma. The <i>Commission to the Five Civilized Tribes </i>was called the <i><a href="Dawes Commission Enrollment Records for Five U.S. Indian Tribes">Dawes Commission</a></i> after its chairman, Senator Dawes. More than 250,000 people applied to this commission for enrollment and land. Just over 100,000 were approved.  
+
== Records  ==
</p><p>The Dawes Rolls are very important for Native American Research for anyone who has native american ancestors who were from the five civilized tribes. The Dawes Rolls were and still are used to determine if people were native american or not.  
+
 
</p><p>The following is a description of the Dawes Rolls from the website:  
+
=== '''Enrollment Records''' ===
</p><p><a href="http://www.archives.gov/genealogy/tutorial/dawes/"><b>http://www.archives.gov/genealogy/tutorial/dawes/</b></a>
+
 
</p>
+
'''&lt;a href="Dawes Commission Enrollment Records for Five U.S. Indian Tribes"&gt;Dawes Commission Enrollment Records&lt;/a&gt;.'''
 +
 
 +
In 1893 Congress established a commission to exchange Indian tribal lands in the southeastern United States for new land allotments to individuals in Oklahoma. The ''Commission to the Five Civilized Tribes ''was called the ''&lt;a href="Dawes Commission Enrollment Records for Five U.S. Indian Tribes"&gt;Dawes Commission&lt;/a&gt;'' after its chairman, Senator Dawes. More than 250,000 people applied to this commission for enrollment and land. Just over 100,000 were approved.  
 +
 
 +
The Dawes Rolls are very important for Native American Research for anyone who has native american ancestors who were from the five civilized tribes. The Dawes Rolls were and still are used to determine if people were native american or not.  
 +
 
 +
The following is a description of the Dawes Rolls from the website:  
 +
 
 +
&lt;a href="http://www.archives.gov/genealogy/tutorial/dawes/"&gt;'''http://www.archives.gov/genealogy/tutorial/dawes/'''&lt;/a&gt;
 
<div>The Dawes Rolls, also known as the "Final Rolls", are the lists of individuals who were accepted as eligible for tribal membership in the "Five Civilized Tribes": Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, and Seminoles. The Rolls contain more than 101,000 names from 1898-1914 (primarily from 1899-1906). They can be searched to discover the enrollee's name, sex, blood degree, and census card number. </div><div>
 
<div>The Dawes Rolls, also known as the "Final Rolls", are the lists of individuals who were accepted as eligible for tribal membership in the "Five Civilized Tribes": Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, and Seminoles. The Rolls contain more than 101,000 names from 1898-1914 (primarily from 1899-1906). They can be searched to discover the enrollee's name, sex, blood degree, and census card number. </div><div>
<p>The census card may provide additional genealogical information, and may also contain references to earlier rolls, such as the 1880 Cherokee census. A census card was generally accompanied by an "application jacket". The jackets then sometimes contain valuable supporting documentation, such as birth and death affidavits, marriage licenses, and correspondence. Today these five tribes continue to use the Dawes Rolls as the basis for determining tribal membership. They usually require applicants to provide proof of descent from a person who is listed on these rolls.
+
The census card may provide additional genealogical information, and may also contain references to earlier rolls, such as the 1880 Cherokee census. A census card was generally accompanied by an "application jacket". The jackets then sometimes contain valuable supporting documentation, such as birth and death affidavits, marriage licenses, and correspondence. Today these five tribes continue to use the Dawes Rolls as the basis for determining tribal membership. They usually require applicants to provide proof of descent from a person who is listed on these rolls.
</p>
+
 
</div><div>
 
</div><div>
<p>The following site will give you a step-by-step example of what you can find using the Dawes Rolls at the Family History Library. In this example, the name of the person is George Guess and he is from the Cherokee tribe.
+
The following site will give you a step-by-step example of what you can find using the Dawes Rolls at the Family History Library. In this example, the name of the person is George Guess and he is from the Cherokee tribe.
</p>
+
 
</div><div>
 
</div><div>
<p>To go to this site, click on <b><a href="http://dawesrolls.blogspot.com">Dawes Rolls</a></b>.
+
To go to this site, click on '''&lt;a href="http://dawesrolls.blogspot.com"&gt;Dawes Rolls&lt;/a&gt;'''.
</p>
+
 
</div><div>
 
</div><div>
<h4> <b>Content of the Records</b> </h4>
+
==== '''Content of the Records''' ====
 
</div><div>
 
</div><div>
<p><i><b>Enrollment Cards</b></i> (also called census cards) include residence, roll numbers, names of family members, relationships, ages, sex, degree of Indian, enrollment date, place and number, parents and their enrollment date or plane, spouses, divorces, children or grandchildren. This is one page of information.
+
'''''Enrollment Cards''''' (also called census cards) include residence, roll numbers, names of family members, relationships, ages, sex, degree of Indian, enrollment date, place and number, parents and their enrollment date or plane, spouses, divorces, children or grandchildren. This is one page of information.
</p>
+
 
</div><div>
 
</div><div>
<p><i><b>Applications for enrollment</b></i>include name, address, date of letter, file number, date received, subject, and action taken. Letters are with the applications. Applications are usually the most valuable. Sometimes they can contain a hundred pages.  
+
'''''Applications for enrollment'''''include name, address, date of letter, file number, date received, subject, and action taken. Letters are with the applications. Applications are usually the most valuable. Sometimes they can contain a hundred pages.  
</p><p><i><b>Letter Logs </b>include affidavits, vital records, letters, questionnaires, and decisions mentioning relatives, dates, and places.</i>
+
 
</p><p><a href="The U.S. Eastern Cherokee or Guion Miller Roll">Eastern Cherokee or Guion Miller Roll</a> This is a list of Eastern Cherokees who applied for money awarded in 1905 because of a law suit.  
+
'''''Letter Logs '''include affidavits, vital records, letters, questionnaires, and decisions mentioning relatives, dates, and places.''
</p>
+
 
<h3> Removal Records<br> </h3>
+
&lt;a href="The U.S. Eastern Cherokee or Guion Miller Roll"&gt;Eastern Cherokee or Guion Miller Roll&lt;/a&gt; This is a list of Eastern Cherokees who applied for money awarded in 1905 because of a law suit.  
<p>The Indian Removal Act was signed May 26, 1830 by President Andrew Jackson. The Act initiated a policy of removal of American Indians tribes living east of the Mississippi River to land west of the river.  
+
 
</p>
+
=== Removal Records<br> ===
<table border="1" cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" width="249" align="center">
+
 
 +
The Indian Removal Act was signed May 26, 1830 by President Andrew Jackson. The Act initiated a policy of removal of American Indians tribes living east of the Mississippi River to land west of the river.  
 +
 
 +
{| border="1" cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" width="249" align="center"
 +
|-
 +
! scope="col" | Nation
 +
! scope="col" |
 +
Removal
 +
 
 +
Treaty
 +
 
 +
! scope="col" | Years of Emigration
 +
! scope="col" |
 +
Population
 +
 
 +
Before Removal
 +
 
 +
! scope="col" |
 +
Number
 +
 
 +
Emigrated
 +
 
 +
! scope="col" | Deaths
 +
! scope="col" |
 +
Number
 +
 
 +
stayed in Sourtheast
 +
 
 +
! scope="col" | Information of Interest
 +
|-
 +
| Choctaw
 +
| &lt;a href="http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/vol2/treaties/cho0310.htm"&gt;Dancing Rabbit Creek&lt;/a&gt; September 27, 1830
 +
| 1831-1836
 +
|
 +
19,554 including and 6,000 Black Slaves
 +
 
 +
| 12,500
 +
| 2,000-4,000 (Cholera)
 +
| 7,000
 +
| When the tribe reached Little Rock the Choctaw chief stated to the ''Arkansas Gazette ''that the removal was a "trail of tears and death"<br>
 +
|-
 +
| Seminole
 +
| &lt;a href="http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/vol2/treaties/sem0344.htm"&gt;Payne's Landing&lt;/a&gt; May 9,1832
 +
| 1832-1842
 +
| 5,000 and Fugitive Slaves
 +
| 2,833
 +
| -
 +
| 250-500
 +
| Left Florida and crossed the Gulf of Mexico into New Orleans
 +
|-
 +
| Creek
 +
| &lt;a href="http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/vol2/treaties/cre0341.htm"&gt;Cusseta&lt;/a&gt; March 24,1832
 +
| 1834-1837
 +
| 22,700 +900 Black Slaves
 +
| 19,600
 +
| 3,500 (disease after removal)
 +
| 100s
 +
| -
 +
|-
 +
| Cherokee
 +
| &lt;a href="http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/vol2/treaties/che0439.htm"&gt;New Echota&lt;/a&gt; December 29,1835
 +
| 1836-1838
 +
| 21,500 + 2,000 Black Slaves
 +
| 20,000 + 2,000 Slaves
 +
| 2,000-8,000
 +
| 1,000
 +
|
 +
Jeremiah Evarts (Missionary)
 +
 
 +
''Cherokee Nation v. Georgia, 1831''
 +
 
 +
<br>''Worchester v. Georgia, 1832''
 +
 
 +
|-
 +
| Chickawaw
 +
| &lt;a href="http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/vol2/treaties/chi0356.htm"&gt;Pontotoc Creek&lt;/a&gt; October 20, 1832
 +
| 1837-1847
 +
| 4,914 +1,156 Black Slaves
 +
| 4,000
 +
| 500-800
 +
| 100s
 +
| Tribe requested financial compensation of $3 million for their land:
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
References (see also:&lt;a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_removal"&gt;&nbsp;chart&lt;/a&gt;)
 +
 
 +
1. Anderson, William L., ed. ''Cherokee Removal: Before and After''. Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press, 1991. ISBN 0-8203-1482-X.
 +
 
 +
2. Ehle, John. ''Trail of Tears: The Rise and Fall of the Cherokee Nation''. New York: Doubleday, 1988. ISBN 0-385-23953-X
 +
 
 +
3. Foreman, Grant. ''Indian Removal: the Emigration of&nbsp;the Five Civilized Tribes of Indians''. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1932, 11th printing 1989. ISBN 0-8061-1172-0
 +
 
 +
4.Prucha, Francis Paul. ''The Great Father: The United States Government and the American Indians''. Voulme I. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 1984. ISBN 0-8032-3668-9.
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
Trail of Tears Association nationaltota.org&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
Nation Parks Service (maps of trial) &nbsp;<br>
 +
 
  
<tr>
 
<th scope="col"> Nation
 
</th>
 
<th scope="col">
 
<p>Removal
 
</p><p>Treaty
 
</p>
 
</th>
 
<th scope="col"> Years of Emigration
 
</th>
 
<th scope="col">
 
<p>Population
 
</p><p>Before Removal
 
</p>
 
</th>
 
<th scope="col">
 
<p>Number
 
</p><p>Emigrated
 
</p>
 
</th>
 
<th scope="col"> Deaths
 
</th>
 
<th scope="col">
 
<p>Number
 
</p><p>stayed in Sourtheast
 
</p>
 
</th>
 
<th scope="col"> Information of Interest
 
</th></tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td> Choctaw
 
</td>
 
<td> <a href="http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/vol2/treaties/cho0310.htm">Dancing Rabbit Creek</a> September 27, 1830
 
</td>
 
<td> 1831-1836
 
</td>
 
<td>
 
<p>19,554 including and 6,000 Black Slaves
 
</p>
 
</td>
 
<td> 12,500
 
</td>
 
<td> 2,000-4,000 (Cholera)
 
</td>
 
<td> 7,000
 
</td>
 
<td> When the tribe reached Little Rock the Choctaw chief stated to the <i>Arkansas Gazette </i>that the removal was a "trail of tears and death"<br>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td> Seminole
 
</td>
 
<td> <a href="http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/vol2/treaties/sem0344.htm">Payne's Landing</a> May 9,1832
 
</td>
 
<td> 1832-1842
 
</td>
 
<td> 5,000 and Fugitive Slaves
 
</td>
 
<td> 2,833
 
</td>
 
<td> -
 
</td>
 
<td> 250-500
 
</td>
 
<td> Left Florida and crossed the Gulf of Mexico into New Orleans
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td> Creek
 
</td>
 
<td> <a href="http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/vol2/treaties/cre0341.htm">Cusseta</a> March 24,1832
 
</td>
 
<td> 1834-1837
 
</td>
 
<td> 22,700 +900 Black Slaves
 
</td>
 
<td> 19,600
 
</td>
 
<td> 3,500 (disease after removal)
 
</td>
 
<td> 100s
 
</td>
 
<td> -
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td> Cherokee
 
</td>
 
<td> <a href="http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/vol2/treaties/che0439.htm">New Echota</a> December 29,1835
 
</td>
 
<td> 1836-1838
 
</td>
 
<td> 21,500 + 2,000 Black Slaves
 
</td>
 
<td> 20,000 + 2,000 Slaves
 
</td>
 
<td> 2,000-8,000
 
</td>
 
<td> 1,000
 
</td>
 
<td>
 
<p>Jeremiah Evarts (Missionary)
 
</p><p><i>Cherokee Nation v. Georgia, 1831</i>
 
</p><p><br><i>Worchester v. Georgia, 1832</i>
 
</p>
 
</td></tr>
 
<tr>
 
<td> Chickawaw
 
</td>
 
<td> <a href="http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/vol2/treaties/chi0356.htm">Pontotoc Creek</a> October 20, 1832
 
</td>
 
<td> 1837-1847
 
</td>
 
<td> 4,914 +1,156 Black Slaves
 
</td>
 
<td> 4,000
 
</td>
 
<td> 500-800
 
</td>
 
<td> 100s
 
</td>
 
<td> Tribe requested financial compensation of $3 million for their land:
 
</td></tr></table>
 
<p>References (see also:<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_removal">&#160;chart</a>)
 
</p><p>1. Anderson, William L., ed. <i>Cherokee Removal: Before and After</i>. Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press, 1991. ISBN 0-8203-1482-X.
 
</p><p>2. Ehle, John. <i>Trail of Tears: The Rise and Fall of the Cherokee Nation</i>. New York: Doubleday, 1988. ISBN 0-385-23953-X
 
</p><p>3. Foreman, Grant. <i>Indian Removal: the Emigration of&#160;the Five Civilized Tribes of Indians</i>. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1932, 11th printing 1989. ISBN 0-8061-1172-0
 
</p><p>4.Prucha, Francis Paul. <i>The Great Father: The United States Government and the American Indians</i>. Voulme I. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 1984. ISBN 0-8032-3668-9.
 
</p><p>
 
Trail of Tears Association nationaltota.org
 
<br>
 
</p>
 
 
<div></div>
 
<div></div>
<h2> Web sites  </h2>
+
== Web sites  ==
<h2> References  </h2>
+
<h3> Bibliography  </h3>
+
<ul><li>Lennon, Rachal Mills. <i>Tracing Ancestors Among the Five Civilized Tribes; Southeastern Indians Prior to Removal</i>. Baltimore, Md.: Genealogical Publishing Co., 2002. <span class="fck_mw_template">{{FHL|1038175|item|disp=FHL Book 970.1 L548t}}</span>.<br>
+
</li></ul>
+
</div>
+
  
 +
== References  ==
  
<a _fcknotitle="true" href="Category:Indian_Tribes_of_the_United_States">Indian_Tribes_of_the_United_States</a>
+
=== Bibliography  ===
 +
 
 +
*Lennon, Rachal Mills. ''Tracing Ancestors Among the Five Civilized Tribes; Southeastern Indians Prior to Removal''. Baltimore, Md.: Genealogical Publishing Co., 2002. <IMG class=FCK__MWTemplate src="https://www.familysearch.org/learn/wiki/en/extensions/FCKeditor/fckeditor/editor/images/spacer.gif" width=1 height=1 _fckfakelement="true" _fckrealelement="0" _fck_mw_template="true">.<br>
 +
</div>
 +
<br>&lt;a _fcknotitle="true" href="Category:Indian_Tribes_of_the_United_States"&gt;Indian_Tribes_of_the_United_States&lt;/a&gt;

Revision as of 23:37, 31 August 2012

Contents

History

The Five Civilized Tribes consist of the <a href="Cherokee Indians">Cherokee,</a> <a href="Chickasaw Indians">Chickasaw</a>, <a href="Choctaw Indians">Choctaw</a>, <a href="Creek Indians">Creek</a>, and <a href="Seminole Indians">Seminole</a> Indian Tribes.

They became commonly referred to as the Five Civilized Tribes......

These tribes had Freedmen who were former African American slaves of tribal members or descendants of former slaves living among them.

Records

Enrollment Records

<a href="Dawes Commission Enrollment Records for Five U.S. Indian Tribes">Dawes Commission Enrollment Records</a>.

In 1893 Congress established a commission to exchange Indian tribal lands in the southeastern United States for new land allotments to individuals in Oklahoma. The Commission to the Five Civilized Tribes was called the <a href="Dawes Commission Enrollment Records for Five U.S. Indian Tribes">Dawes Commission</a> after its chairman, Senator Dawes. More than 250,000 people applied to this commission for enrollment and land. Just over 100,000 were approved.

The Dawes Rolls are very important for Native American Research for anyone who has native american ancestors who were from the five civilized tribes. The Dawes Rolls were and still are used to determine if people were native american or not.

The following is a description of the Dawes Rolls from the website:

<a href="http://www.archives.gov/genealogy/tutorial/dawes/">http://www.archives.gov/genealogy/tutorial/dawes/</a>

The Dawes Rolls, also known as the "Final Rolls", are the lists of individuals who were accepted as eligible for tribal membership in the "Five Civilized Tribes": Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, and Seminoles. The Rolls contain more than 101,000 names from 1898-1914 (primarily from 1899-1906). They can be searched to discover the enrollee's name, sex, blood degree, and census card number.

The census card may provide additional genealogical information, and may also contain references to earlier rolls, such as the 1880 Cherokee census. A census card was generally accompanied by an "application jacket". The jackets then sometimes contain valuable supporting documentation, such as birth and death affidavits, marriage licenses, and correspondence. Today these five tribes continue to use the Dawes Rolls as the basis for determining tribal membership. They usually require applicants to provide proof of descent from a person who is listed on these rolls.

The following site will give you a step-by-step example of what you can find using the Dawes Rolls at the Family History Library. In this example, the name of the person is George Guess and he is from the Cherokee tribe.

To go to this site, click on <a href="http://dawesrolls.blogspot.com">Dawes Rolls</a>.

Content of the Records

Enrollment Cards (also called census cards) include residence, roll numbers, names of family members, relationships, ages, sex, degree of Indian, enrollment date, place and number, parents and their enrollment date or plane, spouses, divorces, children or grandchildren. This is one page of information.

Applications for enrollmentinclude name, address, date of letter, file number, date received, subject, and action taken. Letters are with the applications. Applications are usually the most valuable. Sometimes they can contain a hundred pages.

Letter Logs include affidavits, vital records, letters, questionnaires, and decisions mentioning relatives, dates, and places.

<a href="The U.S. Eastern Cherokee or Guion Miller Roll">Eastern Cherokee or Guion Miller Roll</a> This is a list of Eastern Cherokees who applied for money awarded in 1905 because of a law suit.

Removal Records

The Indian Removal Act was signed May 26, 1830 by President Andrew Jackson. The Act initiated a policy of removal of American Indians tribes living east of the Mississippi River to land west of the river.

Nation

Removal

Treaty

Years of Emigration

Population

Before Removal

Number

Emigrated

Deaths

Number

stayed in Sourtheast

Information of Interest
Choctaw <a href="http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/vol2/treaties/cho0310.htm">Dancing Rabbit Creek</a> September 27, 1830 1831-1836

19,554 including and 6,000 Black Slaves

12,500 2,000-4,000 (Cholera) 7,000 When the tribe reached Little Rock the Choctaw chief stated to the Arkansas Gazette that the removal was a "trail of tears and death"
Seminole <a href="http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/vol2/treaties/sem0344.htm">Payne's Landing</a> May 9,1832 1832-1842 5,000 and Fugitive Slaves 2,833 - 250-500 Left Florida and crossed the Gulf of Mexico into New Orleans
Creek <a href="http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/vol2/treaties/cre0341.htm">Cusseta</a> March 24,1832 1834-1837 22,700 +900 Black Slaves 19,600 3,500 (disease after removal) 100s -
Cherokee <a href="http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/vol2/treaties/che0439.htm">New Echota</a> December 29,1835 1836-1838 21,500 + 2,000 Black Slaves 20,000 + 2,000 Slaves 2,000-8,000 1,000

Jeremiah Evarts (Missionary)

Cherokee Nation v. Georgia, 1831


Worchester v. Georgia, 1832

Chickawaw <a href="http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/vol2/treaties/chi0356.htm">Pontotoc Creek</a> October 20, 1832 1837-1847 4,914 +1,156 Black Slaves 4,000 500-800 100s Tribe requested financial compensation of $3 million for their land:

References (see also:<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_removal"> chart</a>)

1. Anderson, William L., ed. Cherokee Removal: Before and After. Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press, 1991. ISBN 0-8203-1482-X.

2. Ehle, John. Trail of Tears: The Rise and Fall of the Cherokee Nation. New York: Doubleday, 1988. ISBN 0-385-23953-X

3. Foreman, Grant. Indian Removal: the Emigration of the Five Civilized Tribes of Indians. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1932, 11th printing 1989. ISBN 0-8061-1172-0

4.Prucha, Francis Paul. The Great Father: The United States Government and the American Indians. Voulme I. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 1984. ISBN 0-8032-3668-9.


Trail of Tears Association nationaltota.org 

Nation Parks Service (maps of trial)  


Web sites

References

Bibliography


<a _fcknotitle="true" href="Category:Indian_Tribes_of_the_United_States">Indian_Tribes_of_the_United_States</a>