German Language and Languages

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Most materials used in German research are written in German. However, you do not need to speak or read German to do research in German records. You will need to know some key words and phrases to understand the records.
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Back to [[Germany|Germany Page]]►
  
Because of Germany's history, you may also find several other languages in German records. Latin was frequently used in Roman Catholic church records. French was often used in Elsaß-Lothringen and during the French domination of the area west of the Rhein river (1806-1815). Danish was used in much of Schleswig-Holsteinuntil Preußen annexed that area in 1864.  
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<br>Most materials used in German research are written in German. However, you do not need to speak or read German to do research in German records. You will need to know some key words and phrases to understand the records.
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Because of Germany's history, you may also find several other languages in German records. Latin was frequently used in Roman Catholic church records. French was often used in Elsaß-Lothringen and during the French domination of the area west of the Rhein river (1806-1815). Danish was used in much of Schleswig-Holstein until Preußen annexed that area in 1864.  
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Click here for information on the [https://www.familysearch.org/learn/wiki/en/Low_German_Language_in_German_Research Low German language] or here&nbsp;for [[Languages in the Lower Rhine Area of Germany|languages in the Lower Rhine area]] or here for [[Spellings Variants in the Northern Rheinland|spelling variation in the northern Rhine]] area.&nbsp;
  
 
German grammar may affect the way names appear in genealogical records, so your ancestor's name in German may vary from record to record. For help in understanding name variations, see the “Names, Personal” section.  
 
German grammar may affect the way names appear in genealogical records, so your ancestor's name in German may vary from record to record. For help in understanding name variations, see the “Names, Personal” section.  
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Click here for information on how [[The Dialect Basis of Spelling Variation in German Surnames|dialects affect German names]].
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Click here for information on [[Spelling Variations in German Documents|spelling variations in German documents]].
  
 
=== Language Aids  ===
 
=== Language Aids  ===
  
<br>The Family History Library has genealogical word lists for [https://wiki.familysearch.org/en/German_Word_List German], [https://wiki.familysearch.org/en/Latin_Genealogical_Word_List Latin], [https://wiki.familysearch.org/en/France_Language_and_Languages French], [https://wiki.familysearch.org/en/Danish_Word_List Danish], and [https://wiki.familysearch.org/en/Poland_Language_and_Languages Polish]. The German Genealogical Word List includes symbols commonly used in German genealogical sources. For more information about reading German writing, see the “Handwriting” section.  
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<br>FamilySearch Wiki has genealogical word lists for: [[Danish Word List]] [[French Wordlist|French Word List]] [[German Word List]] [[Poland Genealogical Word List|Polish Genealogical Word List]] [[Portuguese Genealogical Word List]]
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The German Word List includes symbols commonly used in German genealogical sources. For more information about reading German writing, see [[Germany Handwriting]].  
  
 
The following books and English-German dictionaries can help in your research. You can find these and similar materials at many research libraries.  
 
The following books and English-German dictionaries can help in your research. You can find these and similar materials at many research libraries.  
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''[http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=259067&disp=Langenscheidt%27s+German%2DEnglish%2C+En%20%20&columns=*,0,0 Langenscheidts German-English, English-German Dictionary = Langenscheidts Deutsch-Englisches, Englisch-Deutches Wörterbuch]''. New York, NY, USA: Pocket Books, 1952, 1993. (FHL book 433.21 L262g.)  
 
''[http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=259067&disp=Langenscheidt%27s+German%2DEnglish%2C+En%20%20&columns=*,0,0 Langenscheidts German-English, English-German Dictionary = Langenscheidts Deutsch-Englisches, Englisch-Deutches Wörterbuch]''. New York, NY, USA: Pocket Books, 1952, 1993. (FHL book 433.21 L262g.)  
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Grimm's Dictionary online can be found at this link [http://germazope.uni-trier.de/Projects/WBB/woerterbuecher/dwb/wbgui?lemid=GA00001 Dictionary of German historical words].
  
 
Other language aids, including dictionaries of various dialects and time periods, are listed in the Place Search of the Family History Library Catalog under:  
 
Other language aids, including dictionaries of various dialects and time periods, are listed in the Place Search of the Family History Library Catalog under:  
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Also check the Subject Search of the catalog under:  
 
Also check the Subject Search of the catalog under:  
  
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:[http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=subjecthitlist&columns=*%2C0%2C0&subject=German+Language&presubject=German+Language GERMAN LANGUAGE - DICTIONARIES]
 
:[http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=subjecthitlist&columns=*%2C0%2C0&subject=German+Language&presubject=German+Language GERMAN LANGUAGE - DICTIONARIES]
[[Category:Germany]] [[Category:Language_and_Languages]]
 
  
== General Word List  ==
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<br>Other language aids for parish Latin can be found at these links:
  
== ab from, since <br>Abend evening <br>abends in the evening <br>aber but <br>abgestorben deceased <br>absterben to die, to die off <br>acht eight <br>achte eighth <br>achtundzwanzigste twenty-eighth <br>achtzehn eighteen <br>achtzehnhundert eighteen hundred <br>achtzehnte eighteenth <br>achtzig eighty <br>achtzigste eightieth <br>Ackermann farmer <br>Adel gentry, nobleman <br>a.D. = außer Dienst formerly employed, retired <br>adoptiert adopted <br>Ahnen ancestors <br>Ahnentafel pedigree chart <br>Akten documents <br>alle all <br>allhier in this place <br>alt old <br>Altbürger full citizen <br>Alter age <br>Altersschwäche weakness of old age <br>ältest eldest <br>alt-katholisch old Catholic <br>Amman bailiff, magistrate <br>Amt office, district <br>Anbauer peasant <br>andere other, next <br>Angeber informant <br>angeblich alleged, assumed <br>Anmerkungen remarks <br>Anspänner farmer <br>apostolisch Apostolic <br>April April <br>Arbeiter laborer, worker <br>Archiv archive <br>arm poor <br>Armut poverty <br>Arzt physician <br>auch also, too <br>auf on, upon, at <br>aufbieten post banns <br>Aufenthaltserlaubnis residence permit <br>Aufenthaltsort residence <br>Aufgebot publication of banns <br>August August <br>aus from, out of <br>außen outside <br>äußere outside, outward, external <br>außerehelich illegitimate <br>Auswanderer emigrant <br>Auswanderung emigration <br>Auszehrung consumption or emaciation (especially from TB) <br>Auszug extract
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[http://www.krumhermersdorf.de/literatur/latein.htm#Auswahl http://www.krumhermersdorf.de/literatur/latein.htm#Auswahl]&nbsp;
  
Bäcker baker <br>Bad spa, resort <br>Badeort spa, health resort <br>Band volume <br>Baptist Baptist <br>Baron baron <br>Bauer farmer, peasant <br>Bayern Bavaria <br>Bd. = Band volume <br>Beamter official, registrar <br>Beck(er) baker <br>beerdigt buried <br>Beerdigung burial, interment <br>beglaubigt certified, attested <br>begraben buried <br>Begräbnis burial <br>Beichte confession <br>beide both <br>Beilage supplement <br>Bekannte(r) acquaintance <br>Bekehrung conversion <br>Belege proof, documentation <br>Bemerkungen remarks <br>Berg hill, mountain <br>Bergmann miner <br>Beruf occupation, profession <br>Beschreibung description <br>Besitzer possessor, proprietor, owner <br>bestätigt confirmed, verified <br>bestattet buried <br>bettlägerig bedridden <br>Bettler beggar <br>Bevölkerungsregister population register <br>bevorstehend previously mentioned <br>Bezirk district <br>Biographie biography <br>Bischof bishop <br>Bistum diocese <br>Blattern smallpox <br>blutend bleeding <br>Blütenmonat May <br>Blutsverwandschaft blood relationship <br>Böhmen Bohemia <br>Bootsmann bargeman, boatman <br>Böttcher cooper, barrel maker <br>Brauer brewer <br>Bräune diptheria <br>Braut bride <br>Bräutigam bridegroom <br>Brücke bridge <br>Bruder brother <br>Bub boy <br>Buch book <br>Büdner cottager <br>Burg castle, fortress <br>Bürger burgher, citizen, citizens <br>Bürgerbuch citizen register <br>Bürgermeister mayor <br>Büttner cooper, barrel maker&nbsp;<br>ca. = circa about <br>Chirurg surgeon <br>Christmonat December <br>Colonist settler, tenant farmer <br>copulieren to marry&nbsp;<br>. = der, dem, des, die, das the <br>Dachdecker roofer <br>dänisch Danish <br>das the <br>daselbst residing in this place <br>Datum date <br>Dekanat deanery <br>dem, den the <br>der the, of the <br>derselbe the same <br>des of the <br>deutsch German <br>Deutschland Germany <br>Dezember December <br>die the <br>Diener servant <br>Dienst service, employment <br>Dienstag Tuesday <br>Dienstmagd servant girl <br>dieser this, these <br>Domäne domain <br>Donnerstag Thursday <br>Dorf village <br>dort there <br>drei three <br>dreißig thirty <br>dreißigste thirtieth <br>dreiundzwanzigste twenty-third <br>dreizehn thirteen <br>dreizehnte thirteenth <br>dritte third <br>Duplikat duplicate record <br>durch through <br>Durchfall diarrhea
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[http://www.e-latein.de/ http://www.e-latein.de/]
  
ebenda at the same place <br>Ehe marriage <br>Ehebrecher adulterer <br>Ehebruch adultery <br>Ehefrau wife, housewife <br>Ehehindernis hinderance to marriage <br>ehel. = ehelich legitimate <br>eheleiblich legitimate <br>Eheleute married couple <br>ehelich legitimate <br>ehemals formerly <br>Ehemann husband <br>Ehescheidung divorce <br>Eheschließung marriage <br>Ehestand married state <br>Eheverkündigungen marriage banns <br>Eheversprechen, Eheverspruch betrothal, engagement <br>Eidam (Eidmann) son-in-law <br>Eigentümer proprietor <br>ein, eine a, one, an <br>Einbürgerung naturalization <br>Einlieger landless farm laborer <br>eins one <br>Einsender informant, declarant <br>eintausendachthundert eighteen hundred <br>eintausendfünfhundert fifteen hundred <br>eintausendneunhundert nineteen hundred <br>eintausendsechshundert sixteen hundred <br>eintausendsiebenhundert seventeen hundred <br>einunddreissig thirty-one <br>einunddreissigste thirty-first <br>einundzwanzigste twenty-first <br>Einwanderer immigrant <br>Einwanderung immigration <br>Einwilligung permission <br>Einwohner inhabitant <br>einzige only <br>Eiterbeule abscess <br>elf eleven <br>elfte eleventh <br>Eltern parents <br>Enkel grandson <br>Enkelin granddaughter <br>Enkelkind grandchild <br>eod(em) the same <br>Epilepsie epilepsy <br>er he <br>Erbschaft inheritance <br>erhalten received, receive <br>erklärt declared <br>Erlassung dispensation, permission <br>Ermächtigung authorization <br>Ernting August <br>errechnet approximated, calculated <br>erschien appeared <br>erste first <br>erstgeboren firstborn <br>ertrank, ertrunken drowned <br>erzeugt begat <br>es it <br>evangelisch evangelical <br>Fabrikant manufacturer <br>Familie family <br>Familienbuch family register <br>Familienforschung genealogical research <br>Familienregister family register <br>Färber dyer <br>Faßbinder cooper, barrel maker <br>Fäule cancer <br>Februar February <br>Fehlgeburt miscarriage <br>Festtag feast day, festival day, holy day <br>Festung fortress <br>Fieber fever <br>Findling foundling <br>Firmung confirmation <br>Fischer fisher <br>Fl. = Florin standard monetary unit <br>Flecken hamlet, also measles or spots <br>Fleckfieber spotted fever, typhus <br>Fleischer butcher <br>Fleischhauer butcher <br>Flüchtling refugee, deserter <br>Fluß river <br>folgende following, next <br>Forst forest <br>Förster forester <br>Fraisen convulsions, epilepsy, seizures, spasms <br>Frankreich France <br>Frau Mrs., wife, woman <br>Fräulein Miss, unmarried woman <br>Freibauer farmer who owns his own land <br>Freiherr baron <br>Freitag Friday <br>fremd foreign, strange <br>Freund friend <br>Friedhof cemetery <br>früh early (a.m.) <br>früher former, formerly <br>fünf five <br>fünfte fifth <br>fünfundzwanzigste twenty-fifth <br>fünfzehn fifteen <br>fünfzehnhundert fifteen hundred <br>fünfzehnte fifteenth <br>fünfzig fifty <br>fünfzigste fiftieth <br>für for <br>Fürst count <br>Fürstentum principality&nbsp;<br>Gärtner gardener <br>Gastwirt innkeeper <br>Gatte husband <br>Gattin wife <br>geb. = geboren born, maiden name <br>geben, gab given, gave <br>Gebiet region, area, zone <br>geboren born, maiden name <br>Gebühren fees <br>Geburt birth <br>Geburtsort place of birth <br>Geburtsschein birth certificate <br>Geburtsurkunde birth certificate <br>gegen against, towards <br>geheiratet married <br>gehört belongs (to) <br>Geistliche(r) clergyman <br>Gelbsucht jaundice <br>Geld money <br>Gemahl(in) spouse, husband, wife <br>Gemeinde community, municipality, parish, town <br>Gemeindemann village official, village resident <br>Gemeindsmann citizen with full rights <br>gemelli twins <br>genannt named, alias, called <br>Genealogie genealogy <br>Gerber tanner <br>Gericht court <br>Gerichtsmann juryman <br>Gerichtsschreiber court clerk <br>Gerichtsverwandter member of the judicial court <br>gesagt said, stated <br>Geschichte history <br>geschieden divorced <br>Geschlecht gender, sex, lineage <br>Geschlechterbücher lineage books <br>Geschlechtsname surname <br>Geschwister siblings, brothers and sisters <br>Geschwulst swelling, tumor <br>Geselle journeyman <br>Gesellschaft society, group <br>Gesetz law <br>gesetzlich legal <br>gest. = gestorben died <br>gestern yesterday <br>gestorben died <br>get. = getauft baptized, christened <br>Getaufte person who was baptized <br>getr. = getraut married <br>Getraute married couple <br>Gevatter godfather <br>Gewerbe trade, occupation <br>Gicht gout, arthritis <br>Gilde guild <br>Glaube belief, faith <br>Glauben religious affiliation <br>gleich same, alike, similar, right away <br>Graf count (nobleman), earl <br>Grafschaft county <br>Grenze border <br>groß big, great, large <br>Großeltern grandparents <br>großjährig of age <br>Großmutter grandmother <br>Großneffe great-nephew <br>Großnichte great-niece <br>Großvater grandfather <br>Grundbuch land register <br>Gulden standard monetary unit, florin <br>Gut property, estate <br>gut good&nbsp;<br>haben to have <br>halb half <br>halb drei half three = 2:30 (time) <br>halb eins half one = 12:30 (time) <br>halb zwei half two = 1:30 (time) <br>Händler trader, merchant, peddler <br>Hartung January <br>Haupt- chief, main <br>Haus house <br>Hausfrau housewife <br>Häusler cottager <br>Hausmädchen housemaid <br>Hebamme midwife <br>Heilquelle spa, bath <br>Heimat home, native place, homeland <br>Heimatschein domicile certificate <br>Heimatsort place of birth, home town <br>Heirat marriage <br>heiraten to marry <br>Heiratsantrag marriage intentions <br>Heiratsbelege marriage supplements <br>Heiratskontrakt marriage contracts <br>Heiratsprotokolle marriage records <br>Heiratsschein marriage certificate <br>heißt is named <br>Hektar hectare (10,000 square meters or 2.47 U.S. acres) <br>Heraldik heraldry <br>Herkunftsort place of origin <br>Herr Mister, Lord, lord <br>Herrschaft estate, dominion <br>Herzog duke <br>Herzogtum duchy <br>Hessische Hessian <br>Heuerling dayworker, hireling <br>Heuert, Heumonat July <br>heute today <br>hier here <br>hiesiger Ort this place <br>Hinterbliebene survivors <br>hinterlassen surviving, left behind <br>Hirt herdsman <br>hitziges Fieber burning fever, high fever <br>hoch high <br>Hochzeit wedding <br>Hof courtyard, farm, yard, estate <br>Hofprediger chaplain <br>Holländer Dutchman, dairykeeper <br>Hornung February <br>Hüfner farmer <br>Hufschmied blacksmith <br>Hügel hill <br>hundert hundred <br>Hurenkind illegitimate child <br>Husten cough <br>ihr their, her <br>im in the <br>immer always <br>in in <br>Inhalt content <br>innerhalb inside of <br>Innung guild <br>Instmann tenant farmer <br>ist is
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[http://www.krumhermersdorf.de/literatur/latein.htm http://www.krumhermersdorf.de/literatur/latein.htm]
  
Jäger hunter <br>Jahr year <br>Jahrestag anniversary <br>Jahreszeit season <br>Jahrhundert century <br>jährlich annual, yearly <br>Jahrzehnt decade <br>Jänner January <br>Januar January <br>jeder (jede, jedes) each, every <br>Jgfr. = Jungfrau, Jungfer maiden, virgin, unmarried woman <br>jüdisch Jewish <br>Jugend youth, adolescence <br>Juli July <br>Julmonat December <br>jung young <br>Junge boy, a youth <br>Junggeselle bachelor <br>Jüngling bachelor, young man <br>Juni June&nbsp;<br>Kantor choirmaster, organist <br>Karte map <br>Kartei card index <br>Käthner cottager <br>katholisch Catholic <br>kaufen to buy <br>Kaufmann merchant <br>kein no, none <br>Keuchhusten whooping cough <br>Kiefer cooper, barrel maker <br>Kind baby, child <br>Kindbettfieber childbed fever <br>Kinder children <br>Kirche church <br>Kirchenältester churchwarden, church elder, vestryman <br>Kirchenbuch parish register <br>Kirchengemeinde parish <br>Kirchenpfleger churchwarden <br>Kirchenrodel parish register <br>Kirchensprengel parish <br>Kirchenvorsteher churchwarden <br>kirchlich pertaining to church <br>Kirchrat member of a church council <br>Kirchspiel parish <br>K.K. = kaiserlich königlich royal imperial <br>klein little, small <br>Knabe boy <br>Knecht servant, farmhand <br>Kommunikant communicant <br>Kommunion communion <br>Konfirmation confirmation <br>König king <br>königlich royal <br>Königreich kingdom <br>Kopulation marriage <br>kopulieren to marry <br>Kossät, Kossath cottager <br>Kötter (Kötner) small farmer, cottager <br>Krämer grocer, small retailer <br>Krämpfe cramps, convulsions <br>Krankheit disease, sickness <br>Krebs cancer <br>Kreis county, district <br>Krieg war <br>Küfer cooper, barrel maker <br>Kuhhirte cowherd <br>Kupferschmied coppersmith <br>Kurort spa, bath <br>Kusine female cousin <br>Küster sexton&nbsp;<br>Land land, country <br>Landarbeiter farmhand <br>Landkarte map <br>Landwirt farmer <br>lassen to let, leave, allow <br>lebendig living <br>ledig single, unmarried <br>legitimiert made legitimate, legitimized <br>Lehrer teacher <br>Lehrling apprentice <br>Leiche corpse, body <br>Leichenpredigt funeral sermon <br>Leinenweber linen weaver <br>Lenz spring (season) <br>letzte Ölung last rites, extreme unction <br>letzte Salbung last rites, extreme unction <br>Letzter latter, last <br>letzter Wille last will <br>links left <br>Lungenentzündung pneumonia <br>Lungenschwindsucht consumption, tuberculosis <br>lutherisch Lutheran&nbsp;<br>Mädchen, Mädel girl <br>Magd maiden, maid, servant girl <br>Mägdlein girl <br>Mai May <br>Maler painter <br>Mann husband, man <br>männlich male <br>Markt market <br>März March <br>Masern measles <br>Matrikel register <br>Maurer mason, bricklayer <br>Meister master <br>Mennoniten Mennonites <br>Metzger butcher <br>Militär military <br>minderjährig underaged, minor <br>mit with, via, by <br>Mitglied member <br>Mittag midday <br>mittags at noon <br>Mitternacht midnight <br>Mittwoch Wednesday <br>Monat month <br>Montag Monday <br>Morgen morning, tomorrow <br>Morgen (morgen) measure of land, 0.6 to 0.9 acres <br>morgens in the morning <br>Mühle mill <br>mündlich verbal, verbally <br>Mutter mother&nbsp;<br>nach to, after, according to <br>Nachbar neighbor <br>Nachbarschaft neighborhood <br>nachgelassen surviving <br>Nachlaß estate, inheritance <br>Nachmittag afternoon <br>nachmittags in the afternoon <br>nächst(e) next <br>Nacht night <br>Näherin seamstress <br>Name name <br>nat. = natus, nata born <br>neben next to <br>Nebenfrau concubine <br>Neffe nephew <br>Nervenfieber nervous fever, typhus <br>neu new <br>neun nine <br>neunte ninth <br>neunundzwanzigte twenty-ninth <br>neunzehn nineteen <br>neunzehnhundert nineteen hundred <br>neunzehnte nineteenth <br>neunzig ninety <br>neunzigste ninetieth <br>nicht not <br>Nichte niece <br>nichts nothing <br>nie never <br>nieder lower <br>Niederländisch Dutch <br>N.N. = nomen nescio name not known <br>noch still <br>noch lebende still living, surviving <br>noch nicht not yet <br>Nord north <br>Notizen notices, miscellaneous records <br>Nottaufe emergency baptism <br>November November <br>Nummer number <br>nur only&nbsp;<br>ober upper, over <br>ober- chief, head <br>oder or <br>öffentlich bekanntmachen publish, make known publicly <br>oft often <br>Oheim uncle <br>ohne without <br>Oktober October <br>Onkel uncle <br>Ort place, town <br>Ortslexikon gazetteer <br>Osten east <br>Osteren April <br>Ostermonat April <br>Ostern Easter <br>Österreich Austria <br>österreichisch Austrian&nbsp;<br>Pächter leaseholder <br>Pate godfather <br>Paten godparents <br>Pest plague <br>Pfalz Palatinate <br>Pfarramt parish office <br>Pfarrbuch parish register <br>Pfarrei parish <br>Pfarrer parish minister, pastor <br>Pflegekind foster child <br>Pflegesohn foster son <br>Pflegetochter foster daughter <br>Platz place (location) <br>Pocken pox, smallpox <br>Polen Poland <br>polnisch Polish <br>preußisch Prussian <br>Priester priest <br>Prinz prince <br>Prinzessin princess <br>protestantisch Protestant <br>Provinz province <br>provinzial provincial&nbsp;<br>Rathaus city hall, town hall <br>Ratsherr alderman <br>Ratsmann councilman, town councilor <br>Rechnung account, bill <br>rechtgläubig orthodox <br>reformiert reformed <br>Regierungsbezirk administrative area <br>Register register <br>Reich empire, kingdom <br>relicta widow <br>relictus widower <br>Religion religion <br>ren. = renatus, renata baptized, christened <br>Rentner retired person <br>Rheuma rheumatism <br>Richter judge <br>Rodel register <br>römisch katholisch Roman Catholic <br>rot red <br>Rotgerber tanner <br>Ruhestand retirement <br>Ruhr dysentery <br>russisch Russian <br>Rußland Russia&nbsp;<br>S. = Seite page <br>s. = siehe see the following reference <br>Sachsen Saxony <br>Salbung anointing <br>Samstag Saturday <br>Satertag Saturday <br>Sattler saddler, leather worker <br>Schäfer shepherd <br>Scharlachfieber scarlet fever <br>Scheiding September <br>Scheidung divorce <br>Schein certificate <br>Schenkungen donations <br>Schlaganfall stroke, seizure <br>Schlagfluß stroke <br>Schloß castle <br>Schlosser locksmith <br>Schmied smith <br>Schneider tailor <br>Schreiber scribe, clerk <br>Schreiner cabinetmaker, joiner <br>Schuhmacher shoemaker, cobbler <br>Schule school <br>Schullehrer schoolteacher <br>Schultheiß (Schulze) village mayor, head of town council <br>Schuster shoemaker, cobbler <br>Schwäche weakness <br>Schwager brother-in-law <br>Schwägerin sister-in-law <br>schwanger pregnant <br>schwarz black <br>Schweiz Switzerland <br>Schweizer Swiss; also a dairyman <br>Schwester sister <br>Schwiegermutter mother-in-law <br>Schwiegersohn son-in-law <br>Schwiegertochter daughter-in-law <br>Schwiegervater father-in-law <br>Schwindsucht consumption <br>S.d. = Sohn des, der son of <br>sechs six <br>sechste sixth <br>sechsundzwanzig twenty-six <br>sechsundzwanzigste twenty-sixth <br>sechzehnhundert sixteen hundred <br>sechzehn sixteen <br>sechzehnte sixteenth <br>sechzig sixty <br>sechzigste sixtieth <br>See lake <br>Seelen souls <br>Seelenregister church membership list <br>Seemann sailor <br>Seifensieder soap maker <br>Seiler rope maker <br>sein to be; his <br>seit since <br>Seite page <br>selige (the) late, blessed <br>September September <br>sich himself, herself, itself <br>sie she, they <br>Sie you <br>sieben seven <br>siebente seventh <br>siebenundzwanzigste twenty-seventh <br>siebte seventh <br>siebzehn seventeen <br>siebzehnhundert seventeen hundred <br>siebzehnte seventeenth <br>siebzig seventy <br>siebzigste seventieth <br>Sieder soap maker <br>siehe see <br>Sigrist sexton <br>sind are <br>so as, so, thus, such <br>Sohn son <br>Söhnlein (Söhnchen) young son <br>Soldat soldier <br>sollen should <br>Sonnabend Saturday <br>Sonntag Sunday <br>spät late (p.m.) <br>spur. = spurius, spuria illegitimate <br>Staat state <br>Staatsangehörigkeit citizenship, nationality <br>Staatsarchiv state archives <br>Stadt city <br>Stammbaum family tree, pedigree <br>Stand occupation, status, condition <br>Standesamt civil registrar’s office <br>starb died <br>stellen place, put, impose <br>Stellmacher wheelwright <br>Sterbefälle deaths <br>sterben to die <br>Steuer tax <br>Stickfluß asthma <br>Stiefbruder half brother, stepbrother <br>Stiefkind stepchild <br>Stiefmutter stepmother <br>Stiefschwester half sister, stepsister <br>Stiefvater stepfather <br>Stillgeburt stillbirth <br>Straße street <br>Stunde hour <br>Sucht sickness, mania, rage <br>Süden south <br>S.v. = Sohn von son of&nbsp;<br>T.d. = Tochter des, der daughter of <br>T.v. = Tochter von daughter of <br>Tabelle index, table <br>Tag day <br>Tagelöhner day laborer <br>Tagner day laborer <br>Tal valley <br>Tante aunt <br>Taufe baptism <br>taufen to baptize <br>Taufpaten godparents <br>Taufschein baptismal certificate <br>tausend thousand <br>Testament will <br>Tischler cabinetmaker, furniture maker <br>Tochter daughter <br>Töchterchen young daughter <br>Töchterlein young daughter <br>Tochtermann son-in-law <br>Tod death <br>Todesart manner of death <br>Töpfer potter <br>tot dead <br>Totengräber grave digger <br>totgeboren stillborn <br>Trauung marriage <br>Trennung separation, divorce <br>tschechisch Czech <br>Tschechoslowakai Czechoslovakia <br>Tuberkulose tuberculosis <br>Tuchmacher cloth maker, draper <br>Tumor tumor&nbsp;<br>über about, concerning, over <br>u.d. = und des, und der and of <br>Uhr o’clock, clock, watch <br>um at, about, around, concerning <br>unbekannt unknown <br>und and <br>und der and of <br>und des and of <br>unehelich illegitimate <br>ungarisch Hungarian <br>Ungarn Hungary <br>ungefähr about, circa, approximately <br>uns us <br>unter under, lower <br>Unterrichter judge <br>Unterschrieben signed <br>Unterschrift signature <br>Unterzeichnete the undersigned <br>unverheiratet unmarried <br>Urenkelkind great-grandchild <br>Urgroßmutter great-grandmother <br>Urgroßvater great-grandfather <br>Urkunde record, document <br>Ururgroßmutter great-great-grandmother <br>Ururgroßvater great-great-grandfather <br>ux. = uxor wife&nbsp;<br>Vater father <br>verehelicht married <br>Verehelichung marriage <br>vergangen past <br>vergraben buried <br>verh. = verheiratet married <br>Verkäufer seller, vendor <br>verl. = verlobt engaged <br>verlebte deceased <br>verloben, sich to become engaged <br>Verlobte fiancée <br>Verlobter fiancé <br>Verlobung betrothal, engagement <br>Vermieter landlord, lessor <br>Vermögen estate, assets <br>Verpächter landlord, lessor <br>verrichtet performed <br>verschiedene various <br>Verstopfung constipation <br>verstorben deceased, defunct <br>Verstorbene the deceased <br>Verwaltung administration <br>Verwandten relatives <br>Verwandtschaft relationship <br>verwitwet widowed <br>Verzeichnis register, list, index <br>Vetter male cousin <br>vid. = viduus, vidua widower, widow <br>vielleicht perhaps, maybe <br>vier four <br>vierte fourth <br>vierundzwanzigste twenty-fourth <br>vierzehn fourteen <br>vierzehnte fourteenth <br>vierzig forty <br>vierzigste fortieth <br>Vo(i)gt steward, overseer <br>Volkszählung census <br>volljährig of age, of legal age <br>vollzogen performed <br>von of, from, by <br>vor before; ago <br>vorherig previous, preceding <br>vorheriger Tag the previous day <br>vorläufig for the time being <br>vormals formerly <br>Vormittags in the morning <br>Vormund guardian <br>Vorname given name <br>Vorstadt suburbs, outskirts of town&nbsp;<br>Wagner cartwright <br>Waise orphan <br>Wald forest, woods <br>wann when <br>Wappen coat of arms <br>Wappenkunde heraldry <br>war was <br>waren were <br>warum why <br>was what <br>Wassersucht dropsy, edema <br>Weber weaver <br>Weduwe widow <br>wegen because of <br>Wehmutter midwife <br>Weib wife, woman <br>weiblich female <br>weiland deceased <br>Weiland the deceased <br>Weiler hamlet <br>weiß white <br>Weißgerber tanner <br>welche which <br>wer who <br>werden to become <br>West west <br>weyland deceased <br>wie how <br>Windpocken chicken pox <br>Wintermonat November <br>Wirt(h) innkeeper <br>Wittib widow <br>Wittiber widower <br>Witwe widow <br>Witwer widower <br>wo where <br>Woche week <br>Wochenbett childbed <br>woher from where <br>wohnen to live, residing <br>Wohnort place of residence <br>Wohnplatz place of residence <br>Wohnung domicile, residence <br>wollen to want <br>Wonnemonat May <br>Wörterbuch dictionary <br>wurde geboren was born <br>wurde getauft was baptized <br>würdig worthy <br>Wwe. = Witwe widow <br>Wwer. = Witwer widower&nbsp;<br>Xber (Xbris) December&nbsp;
+
[http://www.albertmartin.de/latein/ http://www.albertmartin.de/latein/]
  
zählen to count <br>Zahnkrämpfe teething <br>Zahnung teething <br>zehn ten <br>Zehnt(en)buch tithing book <br>zehnte tenth <br>Zehnten tithes <br>zehrendes Fieber consumptive fever <br>Zehrung consumption <br>Zeit time <br>Zeuge witness <br>Ziegler brick maker <br>Zimmermann carpenter <br>Zivilstandsamt civil registrar’s office <br>Zöllner publican, tax collector <br>zu Hause at home <br>Zukunft future <br>Zuname surname, last name <br>zusammen together <br>zwanzig twenty <br>zwanzigste twentieth <br>zwei two <br>zweihundert two hundred <br>zweitausend two thousand <br>zweite second <br>zweiundzwanzigste twenty-second <br>Zwilling(e) twin, twins <br>zwischen between <br>zwölf twelve <br>Zwölfer member of a council <br>zwölfte twelfth&nbsp;<br>
+
[http://lateinisch.bildung-infos.info/latedeus.htm http://lateinisch.bildung-infos.info/latedeus.htm]
 +
 
 +
[http://www.muehle-com.de/HP-Tools/html/latein.html http://www.muehle-com.de/HP-Tools/html/latein.html]
 +
 
 +
[http://lateinwiki.org/Hauptseite http://lateinwiki.org/Hauptseite]<br>[http://www.albertmartin.de/latein/?q=bapti&con=0 http://www.albertmartin.de/latein/?q=bapti&amp;con=0]
  
 
== NUMBERS  ==
 
== NUMBERS  ==
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Cardinal Ordinal <br>0 null <br>1 eins 1st erste <br>2 zwei 2nd zweite, zweyte <br>3 drei 3rd dritte <br>4 vier 4th vierte <br>5 fünf 5th fünfte <br>6 sechs 6th sechste <br>7 sieben 7th siebte, siebente <br>8 acht 8th achte <br>9 neun 9th neunte <br>10 zehn 10th zehnte <br>11 elf 11th elfte <br>12 zwölf 12th zwölfte <br>13 dreizehn 13th dreizehnte <br>14 vierzehn 14th vierzehnte <br>15 fünfzehn 15th fünfzehnte <br>16 sechzehn 16th sechzehnte <br>17 siebzehn 17th siebzehnte <br>18 achtzehn 18th achtzehnte <br>19 neunzehn 19th neunzehnte <br>20 zwanzig 20th zwanzigste <br>21 einundzwanzig 21st einundzwanzigste <br>22 zweiundzwanzig 22nd zweiundzwanzigste <br>23 dreiundzwanzig 23rd dreiundzwanzigste <br>24 vierundzwanzig 24th vierundzwanzigste <br>25 fünfundzwanzig 25th fünfundzwanzigste <br>26 sechsundzwanzig 26th sechsundzwanzigste <br>27 siebenundzwanzig 27th siebenundzwanzigste <br>28 achtundzwanzig 28th achtundzwanzigste <br>29 neunundzwanzig 29th neunundzwanzigste <br>30 dreißig 30th dreißigste <br>31 einunddreißig 31st einunddreißigste <br>40 vierzig 40th vierzigste <br>50 fünfzig 50th fünfzigste <br>60 sechzig 60th sechzigste <br>70 siebzig 70th siebzigste <br>80 achtzig 80th achtzigste <br>90 neunzig 90th neunzigste <br>100 hundert 100th hunderste <br>200 zweihundert 200th zwei hunderste <br>1000 tausend 1000th tausendste  
 
Cardinal Ordinal <br>0 null <br>1 eins 1st erste <br>2 zwei 2nd zweite, zweyte <br>3 drei 3rd dritte <br>4 vier 4th vierte <br>5 fünf 5th fünfte <br>6 sechs 6th sechste <br>7 sieben 7th siebte, siebente <br>8 acht 8th achte <br>9 neun 9th neunte <br>10 zehn 10th zehnte <br>11 elf 11th elfte <br>12 zwölf 12th zwölfte <br>13 dreizehn 13th dreizehnte <br>14 vierzehn 14th vierzehnte <br>15 fünfzehn 15th fünfzehnte <br>16 sechzehn 16th sechzehnte <br>17 siebzehn 17th siebzehnte <br>18 achtzehn 18th achtzehnte <br>19 neunzehn 19th neunzehnte <br>20 zwanzig 20th zwanzigste <br>21 einundzwanzig 21st einundzwanzigste <br>22 zweiundzwanzig 22nd zweiundzwanzigste <br>23 dreiundzwanzig 23rd dreiundzwanzigste <br>24 vierundzwanzig 24th vierundzwanzigste <br>25 fünfundzwanzig 25th fünfundzwanzigste <br>26 sechsundzwanzig 26th sechsundzwanzigste <br>27 siebenundzwanzig 27th siebenundzwanzigste <br>28 achtundzwanzig 28th achtundzwanzigste <br>29 neunundzwanzig 29th neunundzwanzigste <br>30 dreißig 30th dreißigste <br>31 einunddreißig 31st einunddreißigste <br>40 vierzig 40th vierzigste <br>50 fünfzig 50th fünfzigste <br>60 sechzig 60th sechzigste <br>70 siebzig 70th siebzigste <br>80 achtzig 80th achtzigste <br>90 neunzig 90th neunzigste <br>100 hundert 100th hunderste <br>200 zweihundert 200th zwei hunderste <br>1000 tausend 1000th tausendste  
  
== DATES AND TIME ==
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<br>  
 
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== <br> ==
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 +
== Dates and Time<br>  ==
  
 
In German records, dates are often written out. For example:  
 
In German records, dates are often written out. For example:  
Line 62: Line 78:
  
 
<br>English German <br>January Januar, Jänner, Hartung, Jenner <br>February Februar, Hornung <br>March März, Frühlingsmonat <br>April April, Ostermonat, Osteren <br>May Mai, Wonnemonat, Blütemonat <br>June Juni, Brachmonat <br>July Juli, Heuert, Heumonat, Heuet <br>August August, Erntemonat, Hitzmonat <br>September September, Fruchtmonat, Herbstmonat, Herpsten, 7ber, 7bris <br>October Oktober, Weinmonat, 8ber, 8bris <br>November November, Wintermonat, 9ber, 9bris <br>December Dezember, Christmonat, 10ber, 10bris, Xber, Xbris  
 
<br>English German <br>January Januar, Jänner, Hartung, Jenner <br>February Februar, Hornung <br>March März, Frühlingsmonat <br>April April, Ostermonat, Osteren <br>May Mai, Wonnemonat, Blütemonat <br>June Juni, Brachmonat <br>July Juli, Heuert, Heumonat, Heuet <br>August August, Erntemonat, Hitzmonat <br>September September, Fruchtmonat, Herbstmonat, Herpsten, 7ber, 7bris <br>October Oktober, Weinmonat, 8ber, 8bris <br>November November, Wintermonat, 9ber, 9bris <br>December Dezember, Christmonat, 10ber, 10bris, Xber, Xbris  
 +
 +
Click here for an extensive list of [[Month Names in German|month names in German]].
  
 
<br>Days of the Week  
 
<br>Days of the Week  
  
<br>English German <br>Sunday Sonntag <br>Monday Montag <br>Tuesday Dienstag <br>Wednesday Mittwoch <br>Thursday Donnerstag <br>Friday Freitag <br>Saturday Samstag, Sonnabend  
+
<br>English&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;German <br>Sunday&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Sonntag <br>Monday&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Montag <br>Tuesday&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Dienstag <br>Wednesday Mittwoch <br>Thursday&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Donnerstag <br>Friday&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Freitag, Freytag&nbsp;<br>Saturday&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Samstag, Sonnabend  
 +
 
 +
Click here for an article on [[Week Day Symbols|special symbols used for week days]].
  
 
<br>Times of the Day  
 
<br>Times of the Day  
Line 75: Line 95:
 
<br>Return to top of page  
 
<br>Return to top of page  
  
<br>SYMBOLS
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<br>SYMBOLS  
  
<br>--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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<br>--------------------------------------------------------------------------------  
  
 
<br>The following symbols are commonly used in German genealogical sources.  
 
<br>The following symbols are commonly used in German genealogical sources.  
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Symbol Meaning <br>born <br>baptized, christened <br>married <br>died <br>buried <br>born illegitimately <br>common law marriage, illegitimate <br>divorced <br>killed in action <br>died of battle wounds <br>stillborn  
 
Symbol Meaning <br>born <br>baptized, christened <br>married <br>died <br>buried <br>born illegitimately <br>common law marriage, illegitimate <br>divorced <br>killed in action <br>died of battle wounds <br>stillborn  
  
<br>Paper publication: Third edition 1997. English approval: 4/97. <br>
+
<br>Paper publication: Third edition 1997. English approval: 4/97. <br>  
  
<br>
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<br>  
  
 
  ==
 
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[[Category:Germany]] [[Category:Language_and_Languages]]

Revision as of 14:33, 30 April 2013

Back to Germany Page


Most materials used in German research are written in German. However, you do not need to speak or read German to do research in German records. You will need to know some key words and phrases to understand the records.

Because of Germany's history, you may also find several other languages in German records. Latin was frequently used in Roman Catholic church records. French was often used in Elsaß-Lothringen and during the French domination of the area west of the Rhein river (1806-1815). Danish was used in much of Schleswig-Holstein until Preußen annexed that area in 1864.

Click here for information on the Low German language or here for languages in the Lower Rhine area or here for spelling variation in the northern Rhine area. 

German grammar may affect the way names appear in genealogical records, so your ancestor's name in German may vary from record to record. For help in understanding name variations, see the “Names, Personal” section.

Click here for information on how dialects affect German names.

Click here for information on spelling variations in German documents.

Language Aids


FamilySearch Wiki has genealogical word lists for: Danish Word List French Word List German Word List Polish Genealogical Word List Portuguese Genealogical Word List

The German Word List includes symbols commonly used in German genealogical sources. For more information about reading German writing, see Germany Handwriting.

The following books and English-German dictionaries can help in your research. You can find these and similar materials at many research libraries.

Thode, Ernest. German-English Genealogical Dictionary. Baltimore, Maryland, USA: Genealogical Publishing Company, 1992. (FHL book 433.21 T352g 1992.)

Langenscheidts German-English, English-German Dictionary = Langenscheidts Deutsch-Englisches, Englisch-Deutches Wörterbuch. New York, NY, USA: Pocket Books, 1952, 1993. (FHL book 433.21 L262g.)

Grimm's Dictionary online can be found at this link Dictionary of German historical words.

Other language aids, including dictionaries of various dialects and time periods, are listed in the Place Search of the Family History Library Catalog under:

GERMANY - LANGUAGE AND LANGUAGES
GERMANY - LANGUAGE AND LANGUAGES - DICTIONARIES

Also check the Subject Search of the catalog under:



GERMAN LANGUAGE - DICTIONARIES


Other language aids for parish Latin can be found at these links:

http://www.krumhermersdorf.de/literatur/latein.htm#Auswahl 

http://www.e-latein.de/

http://www.krumhermersdorf.de/literatur/latein.htm

http://www.albertmartin.de/latein/

http://lateinisch.bildung-infos.info/latedeus.htm

http://www.muehle-com.de/HP-Tools/html/latein.html

http://lateinwiki.org/Hauptseite
http://www.albertmartin.de/latein/?q=bapti&con=0

NUMBERS


In some genealogical records, numbers are spelled out. This is especially true of dates. The following list gives the cardinal (1, 2, 3) and the ordinal (1st, 2nd, 3rd) versions of each number. Days of the month are written in ordinal form. Ordinal forms may have other endings, for example: erste, ersten.

Cardinal Ordinal
0 null
1 eins 1st erste
2 zwei 2nd zweite, zweyte
3 drei 3rd dritte
4 vier 4th vierte
5 fünf 5th fünfte
6 sechs 6th sechste
7 sieben 7th siebte, siebente
8 acht 8th achte
9 neun 9th neunte
10 zehn 10th zehnte
11 elf 11th elfte
12 zwölf 12th zwölfte
13 dreizehn 13th dreizehnte
14 vierzehn 14th vierzehnte
15 fünfzehn 15th fünfzehnte
16 sechzehn 16th sechzehnte
17 siebzehn 17th siebzehnte
18 achtzehn 18th achtzehnte
19 neunzehn 19th neunzehnte
20 zwanzig 20th zwanzigste
21 einundzwanzig 21st einundzwanzigste
22 zweiundzwanzig 22nd zweiundzwanzigste
23 dreiundzwanzig 23rd dreiundzwanzigste
24 vierundzwanzig 24th vierundzwanzigste
25 fünfundzwanzig 25th fünfundzwanzigste
26 sechsundzwanzig 26th sechsundzwanzigste
27 siebenundzwanzig 27th siebenundzwanzigste
28 achtundzwanzig 28th achtundzwanzigste
29 neunundzwanzig 29th neunundzwanzigste
30 dreißig 30th dreißigste
31 einunddreißig 31st einunddreißigste
40 vierzig 40th vierzigste
50 fünfzig 50th fünfzigste
60 sechzig 60th sechzigste
70 siebzig 70th siebzigste
80 achtzig 80th achtzigste
90 neunzig 90th neunzigste
100 hundert 100th hunderste
200 zweihundert 200th zwei hunderste
1000 tausend 1000th tausendste


Dates and Time

In German records, dates are often written out. For example:

Freitag den vierzehnten Februar achtzehnhundert sechs und dreißig [Friday, the 14th of February, eighteen hundred six and thirty (1836)].

To understand German dates, use the following lists as well as the preceding “Numbers” section.

Months


English German
January Januar, Jänner, Hartung, Jenner
February Februar, Hornung
March März, Frühlingsmonat
April April, Ostermonat, Osteren
May Mai, Wonnemonat, Blütemonat
June Juni, Brachmonat
July Juli, Heuert, Heumonat, Heuet
August August, Erntemonat, Hitzmonat
September September, Fruchtmonat, Herbstmonat, Herpsten, 7ber, 7bris
October Oktober, Weinmonat, 8ber, 8bris
November November, Wintermonat, 9ber, 9bris
December Dezember, Christmonat, 10ber, 10bris, Xber, Xbris

Click here for an extensive list of month names in German.


Days of the Week


English        German
Sunday        Sonntag
Monday       Montag
Tuesday      Dienstag
Wednesday Mittwoch
Thursday    Donnerstag
Friday         Freitag, Freytag 
Saturday     Samstag, Sonnabend

Click here for an article on special symbols used for week days.


Times of the Day


German birth and death records often indicated the exact time of day when the birth or death occurred. This is usually written out.

German English
ein Uhr one (o’clock)
zwei Uhr two (o’clock)
drei Uhr three (o’clock)
halb eins half one = 12:30
halb zwei half two = 1:30
halbe Stunde half hour
Stunde hour
früh early (a.m.)
spät late (p.m.)
morgens in the morning
vormittags in the forenoon
mittags at noon
nachmittags in the afternoon
abends in the evening
mitternachts at midnight


Return to top of page


SYMBOLS


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


The following symbols are commonly used in German genealogical sources.

Symbol Meaning
born
baptized, christened
married
died
buried
born illegitimately
common law marriage, illegitimate
divorced
killed in action
died of battle wounds
stillborn


Paper publication: Third edition 1997. English approval: 4/97.


==