Help:Special characters

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Symbols and other special characters not available on your keyboard can be inserted through a special sequence of characters. Those sequences are called {{Wpd|List of HTML entities|HTML entities}}. For example, the following sequence (entity) '''&amp;rarr;''' when inserted will be shown as <ins>right arrow</ins> HTML symbol &rarr; and '''&amp;mdash;''' when inserted will be shown as an <ins>em dash</ins> HTML symbol &mdash; .
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Symbols and other special characters not available on your keyboard can be inserted through a special sequence of characters. These sequences are called {{Wpd|List of HTML entities|HTML entities}}. For example, the following sequence (entity) '''&amp;rarr;''' when inserted will be shown as <ins>right arrow</ins> HTML symbol &rarr; and '''&amp;mdash;''' when inserted will be shown as an <ins>em dash</ins> HTML symbol &mdash; .
  
 
{{Tip|Hover over any character below to find out the symbol that produces it. Some symbols not available in the current font will appear as empty squares.}}
 
{{Tip|Hover over any character below to find out the symbol that produces it. Some symbols not available in the current font will appear as empty squares.}}
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*More [[Help:Wiki markup|Wiki markup]]
 
*More [[Help:Wiki markup|Wiki markup]]
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[[Category:Help]]

Revision as of 22:42, 29 July 2012

Symbols and other special characters not available on your keyboard can be inserted through a special sequence of characters. These sequences are called HTML entities. For example, the following sequence (entity) &rarr; when inserted will be shown as right arrow HTML symbol → and &mdash; when inserted will be shown as an em dash HTML symbol — .


HTML symbol entities
á Â â ´ Æ æ À à Α α & Å å Ã ã Ä ä Β β ¦ Ç ç ¸ ¢
Χ χ ˆ © ¤ ° Δ δ ÷ É é Ê ê È è Ε ε Η η
Ð ð Ë ë ƒ ½ ¼ ¾ Γ γ > Í í Î î ¡ Ì ì Ι ι
¿ Ï ï Κ κ Λ λ « < ¯ µ · Μ μ  
¬ Ñ ñ Ν ν Ó ó Ô ô Œ œ Ò ò Ω ω Ο ο ª º Ø ø Õ õ Ö
ö Φ φ Π π ϖ ± £ Ψ ψ " » ® Ρ ρ
Š š § ­ Σ σ ς ¹ ² ³ ß Τ τ Θ θ ϑ Þ þ ˜
× Ú ú Û û Ù ù ¨ ϒ Υ υ Ü ü Ξ ξ Ý ý ¥ ÿ Ÿ Ζ ζ


Some special characters by topic:

What it looks like What you type

Diacritical marks:
À Á Â Ã Ä Å
Æ Ç È É Ê Ë
Ì Í Î Ï Ñ Ò
Ó Ô Õ Ö Ø Ù
Ú Û Ü ß à á
â ã ä å æ ç
è é ê ë ì í
î ï ñ ò ó ô
œ õ ö ø ù ú
û ü ÿ


&Agrave; &Aacute; &Acirc; &Atilde; &Auml; &Aring; 
&AElig; &Ccedil; &Egrave; &Eacute; &Ecirc; &Euml; 
&Igrave; &Iacute; &Icirc; &Iuml; &Ntilde; &Ograve; 
&Oacute; &Ocirc; &Otilde; &Ouml; &Oslash; &Ugrave; 
&Uacute; &Ucirc; &Uuml; &szlig; &agrave; &aacute; 
&acirc; &atilde; &auml; &aring; &aelig; &ccedil; 
&egrave; &eacute; &ecirc; &euml; &igrave; &iacute;
&icirc; &iuml; &ntilde; &ograve; &oacute; &ocirc; 
&oelig; &otilde; &ouml; &oslash; &ugrave; &uacute; 
&ucirc; &uuml; &yuml;

Punctuation:
¿ ¡ § ¶
† ‡ • – —
‹ › « »
‘ ’ “ ”


&iquest; &iexcl; &sect; &para;
&dagger; &Dagger; &bull; &ndash; &mdash;
&lsaquo; &rsaquo; &laquo; &raquo;
&lsquo; &rsquo; &ldquo; &rdquo;

Commercial symbols:
™ © ® ¢ € ¥
£ ¤


&trade; &copy; &reg; &cent; &euro; &yen; 
&pound; &curren;

Subscripts:
x1 x2 x3 or
x₀ x₁ x₂ x₃ x₄
x₅ x₆ x₇ x₈ x₉

Superscripts:
x1 x2 x3 or
x⁰ x¹ x² x³ x⁴
x⁵ x⁶ x⁷ x⁸ x⁹

Combined:
ε0 = 8.85 × 10−12 C² / J m.
1 Hectare = 1 E4 m²

  • The latter methods of sub/superscripting cannot be used in the most general context, as they rely on Unicode support which may not be present on all users' machines. For the 1-2-3 superscripts, it is nevertheless preferred when possible (as with units of measurement) because most browsers have an easier time formatting lines with it.


x<sub>1</sub> x<sub>2</sub> x<sub>3</sub> or
x&#8320; x&#8321; x&#8322; x&#8323; x&#8324;
x&#8325; x&#8326; x&#8327; x&#8328; x&#8329;
x<sup>1</sup> x<sup>2</sup> x<sup>3</sup> or

x&#8304; x&sup1; x&sup2; x&sup3; x&#8308; x&#8309; x&#8310; x&#8311; x&#8312; x&#8313;

&epsilon;<sub>0</sub> = 8.85 &times;

10<sup>&minus;12</sup> C&sup2; / J m.

1 hectare = 1 E4 m&sup2;

Greek characters:
α β γ δ ε ζ
η θ ι κ λ μ ν
ξ ο π ρ σ ς
τ υ φ χ ψ ω
Γ Δ Θ Λ Ξ Π
Σ Φ Ψ Ω


&alpha; &beta; &gamma; &delta; &epsilon; &zeta; 
&eta; &theta; &iota; &kappa; &lambda; &mu; &nu; 
&xi; &omicron; &pi; &rho; &sigma; &sigmaf;
&tau; &upsilon; &phi; &chi; &psi; &omega;
&Gamma; &Delta; &Theta; &Lambda; &Xi; &Pi; 
&Sigma; &Phi; &Psi; &Omega;

Mathematical characters:
∫ ∑ ∏ √ − ± ∞
≈ ∝ ≡ ≠ ≤ ≥
× · ÷ ∂ ′ ″
∇ ‰ ° ∴ ℵ ø
∈ ∉ ∩ ∪ ⊂ ⊃ ⊆ ⊇
¬ ∧ ∨ ∃ ∀
⇒ ⇐ ⇓ ⇑ ⇔
→ ↓ ↑ ← ↔


&int; &sum; &prod; &radic; &minus; &plusmn; &infin;
&asymp; &prop; &equiv; &ne; &le; &ge;
&times; &middot; &divide; &part; &prime; &Prime;
&nabla; &permil; &deg; &there4; &alefsym; &oslash;
&isin; &notin; &cap; &cup; &sub; &sup; &sube; &supe;
&not; &and; &or; &exist; &forall; 
&rArr; &lArr; &dArr; &uArr; &hArr;
&rarr; &darr; &uarr; &larr; &harr;
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