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Idaho Territory: A territory established in 1863 that comprised the present-day states of Idaho, Montana, and most of Wyoming. Montana became a separate territory in 1864, and Wyoming became a territory in 1868.
Illegal emigration: The process of moving out of a country without official permission to do so.
Illegal immigration: The process of moving into a country without official permission to do so.
Illinois and Michigan Canal: A canal connecting Chicago and La Salle, Illinois. Built between 1836 and 1848, this canal allowed farmers in the valleys of the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers to send grain and other products through the Great Lakes to the East Coast.
Illinois confederation: A group of Native Americans that included the Cahokia, Kaskaskia, Michigamea, Moingwena, Peoria, and Tamaroa tribes. These tribes lived in what is now Illinois, southern Wisconsin, and parts of Missouri and Iowa until about 1660, when the Iroquois moved west and began attacking them. The Illinois suffered many attacks by other tribes and eventually settled in Indian Territory.
Illinois Regional Archives Depository System: A system of archives and libraries in Illinois that is collecting and preserving local government records of genealogical and historical value.
Illinois Supreme Court: The highest court in the Illinois judicial system.
Illinois Territory: A territory of the United States consisting of what are now the states of Illinois and Wisconsin. It was formed in 1809 when the Indiana Territory was divided and existed until 1818 when Illinois became a state.
Immigrant: An individual who moves into a new country from another country.
Immigrant aid society: An organization formed to provide financial and other forms of assistance to immigrants.
Immigrant children: Children who move to or are sent to live in another country. During the late 1800s and early 1900s, philanthropic organizations sent an estimated 80,000 children (orphans and others) from Britain to Canada. The largest of these organizations was founded by Dr. Thomas John Barnardo.
Immigration: The process of moving into a new country or area.
Immigration and Naturalization Service, USA: The government agency that oversees and enforces United States laws regarding the citizenship, immigration, deportation, and naturalization of aliens. The Immigration and Naturalization Service is under the U.S. Department of Justice.
Immigration information: Information detailing how, when, and where an individual arrives in a new country.
Immigration passenger list: Passenger lists that shipmasters submitted to the United States Immigration and Naturalization Service and its predecessors. Immigration passenger lists are also called ship manifests.
Immigration records: Records that document a person's arrival into a country.
Impressment: The practice of forcing men to serve on a navy ship. The British navy used impressment until 1815.
In-och utflyttningslängder, Sweden: Records that parish ministers in Sweden kept to document people who moved into or away from the parish.
Incompetent adult: An adult who is deemed by a court of law to be incapable of managing his or her own affairs.
Ind-og Udskrivningsbøger, Denmark: Copies of contractual agreements kept by Danish trade guilds.
Indenture: A legal agreement that commits one person to work for another for a specific period of time in exchange for living expenses, travel expenses, or both. Indentures were used to bind apprentices to their masters.
Indenture list: A list of indentured servants.
Indentured servant: An individual who could not afford the trip to America and agreed to work for the price of the trip. Indentured servants were “sold” to the captain of the ship, who delivered them to the individuals for whom they would work.
Independent church, Britain: A term referring to any church in Great Britain during the 1500s and 1600s that was not the Church of England. Independent churches enjoyed their greatest power from 1649 to 1660 when Oliver Cromwell, who was an Independent, ruled England as lord protector. After Cromwell's death, the Independents became a persecuted minority. The Separatists and Puritans, who eventually settled the colonies in America, were Independents. Presbyterianism and Congregationalism formed out of Independent churches. Independents were also called Separatists.
Independent, Britain: A term that refers to a member of the Congregationalist Church in Scotland or a Puritan in England during the civil war (1642–1649).
Index: An organized summary of a set of records or a book that allows a person to find a specific item within the set or book.
Index of Surnames of Householders in Griffith's Primary and Valuation and the Tithe Applotment Books: A surname index to people who paid taxes to the Church of Ireland or the government of Ireland between 1820 and 1864. It can help identify where an individual was living in Ireland. Also called Householders Index and Ireland Householders Index.
Index to Marriage Bonds Filed in the North Carolina State Archives: An index that contains about 170,000 abstracts of marriage bonds for North Carolina residents.
Index to Pennsylvania County Histories: A card index containing 75,000 cards at the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh. It indexes information about people of western Pennsylvania that is contained in many county histories. The library staff will search for two or three specific names in the index.
Index to the Old Parochial Registers of Scotland: An index to virtually every known register of the Church of Scotland. The index consists of 1,147 microfiche and contains entries dating from the late 1500s through 31 December 1854.
Indexes for Montréal, Canada: Indexes to civil registration records in Montréal, Canada.
Indian census roll: A list and description of the members of a tribe of Native Americans.
Indian Mutiny (1857-1859): A rebellion in India that occurred when British soldiers ordered Hindu and Muslim Indian soldiers to bite open cartridges greased with the fat of cows or pigs. The Hindu religion forbids eating beef, and Islam forbids eating pork. The rebellion spread and nearly succeeded, but British troops defeated the Indians in 1859. The rebellion convinced Great Britain to take over the rule of India from the East India Company. Also called the Sepoy Rebellion because the Indian soldiers were called sepoys.
Indian Territory, USA: The region west of the Mississippi River (in what is now the state of Oklahoma) that the United States government reserved for Native Americans. Some of the first Native Americans forced to move there were the Five Civilized Tribes (Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek, and Seminole). The Cherokees called this forced exodus the Trail of Tears because of the many deaths that occurred along the way. Other tribes were forced into this region in later years. The boundaries of the territory changed at various times as new tribes were resettled and as parts of Indian land were made available to white settlers.
Indian Wars: Struggles between the Native Americans, who were protecting their traditional ways of life, and the United States military, who were protecting white settlements along the western frontier.
Indiana Biographical Index: Index of 250,000 names of people from Indiana who are named in biographical sketches.
Indiana Black Hawk War Militia Index: An index to men from Indiana who served in the Black Hawk War (part of the Indian Wars).
Indiana Mexican War Volunteer Index: An index to men from Indiana who served in the Mexican War.
Indiana Militia Index: An index to men who served in the Indiana Militia between 1872 and 1896.
Indiana Territory, USA: A territory established in 1800 that covered present-day Michigan, Indiana, and Wisconsin.
Indio: The Spanish word for Indian; it may refer to a person whose ancestry is totally or partially from the native peoples of Latin America.
Indirect emigration: A type of emigration that occurs when a person leaves his or her country and the ship stops at least once at another port before arriving in the destination country.
Indirect index: An index to land records organized by the name of the individual purchasing land.
Individual biography: The history of one person's life.
Individual petition to Congress: A written request to the United States Congress by or on behalf of an individual or group.
Individual record, Ancestral File™: A computer screen in Ancestral File that shows the available information about a person in the file.
Individual Search: A search available in the International Genealogical Index®, Ordinance Index™, and Scottish Church Records that finds birth, christening, census, will, and other entries.
Industrial or manufacturing schedules: Census data on business and industry. The 1810, 1820, and 1850 to 1880 United States censuses have an industrial or manufacturing schedule.
Inferior court: Any court that is subordinate to the highest court in a judicial system.
Inferior court of common pleas, Maine: A court in Maine with jurisdiction over civil matters from 1699 to 1839. These courts were replaced by district courts.
Inferior quarter court, Massachusetts: A court in Massachusetts with countywide jurisdiction. These courts were also called quarter courts or county courts.
Inflyttade, Sweden: Swedish moving-in records that parish ministers in Sweden kept to document people who moved into the parish. Also called Inflyttningslängder.
Inflyttningslängder, Sweden: A Swedish word for moving-in records. These are records that parish ministers in Sweden kept to document people who moved into the parish. Also called inflyttade.
Informaciones genealógicas: A type of record used in Latin America, translated as genealogical reports. These records served as proof of nobility so that hidalgos might join a fraternal orders or obtain a government positions. They usually contain information about at least three generations of the hidalgo's lineage.
Inheritance tax: Money paid to a government on property inherited from a deceased person's estate.
Initiatory ordinance, Latter-day Saint: A temple ordinance performed in temples of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. The initiatory ordinance is performed before an individual receives his or her endowment.
Insolvent estate: An estate in which the deceased person has more debt than the assets in the estate can pay.
Institutions, PERiodical Source Index: A record type used in the Locality and Research Methodologies sections of the PERiodical Source Index (PERSI) to identify articles that contain information about institutions, such as hospitals, prisons, and jails. This record type does not include schools, which are covered under the record type School.
Intentions: A written notice presented to civil authorities of a couple’s intent to marry. The intentions were posted in a public place for a period of time to give people a chance to object to the marriage.
Interested Researcher List: A list available in Ancestral File™ that gives the names and addresses of people who would like to coordinate research about a person or family listed in Ancestral File.
Interlibrary loan: A service offered by many public, private, and research libraries in which books and other materials located in one library are sent temporarily to another library.
Intermediate appellate court: A court that hears appeals from lower courts. It is not the highest court in a judicial system.
Intermediate court, West Virginia: A court created by special acts of the West Virginia legislature. The jurisdiction varies, but it may include limited civil and domestic cases and appeals from municipal and justice courts.
Internal Revenue Service, USA: An agency of the United States Department of the Treasury that administers and enforces United States tax laws. It collects estate, excise, gift, and other taxes. It also provides tax advice and issues refunds to people who paid too much tax during a year. It was originally established as the Office of Internal Revenue in 1862 to collect taxes needed to pay for the costs of the American Civil War.
International Genealogical Index®: A file of family history information that lists several hundred million names of deceased persons from throughout the world. It also lists some vital information, such as a birth or marriage date and place. Many names in the index come from vital records from the early 1500s to 1885. Others have been submitted by members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. The International Genealogical Index is available on compact disc as part of FamilySearch® and on microfiche.
Internet: A series of connected computer networks.
Intestate: The state of an individual’s estate when he or she dies and has not left will.
Inuit: Another name for Eskimos, a group of people who live in the Arctic regions of Alaska, Canada, Siberia, the Islands in the Bering Sea, and Greenland. Most scientists believe these groups originated in northeast Asia and that they crossed a land bridge into North America 10,000 years ago. Eskimo, meaning eaters of raw meat, is an Indian term for this people. They call themselves by different names, each of which means people. In Canada they call themselves Inuit. In Alaska they call themselves Inupiat or Yuipic. In Siberia and the St. Lawrence Island of western Alaska, they call themselves Yuit.
Inupiat: Another name for Eskimos, a group of people who live in the Arctic regions of Alaska, Canada, Siberia, the Islands in the Bering Sea, and Greenland. Most scientists believe these groups originated in northeast Asia and that they crossed a land bridge into North America 10,000 years ago. Eskimo, meaning eaters of raw meat, is an Indian term for this people. They call themselves by different names, each of which means people. In Canada they call themselves Inuit. In Alaska they call themselves Inupiat or Yuipic. In Siberia and the St. Lawrence Island of western Alaska, they call themselves Yuit.
Inventaire après décès: A French term for a household inventory (a list of a deceased person's belongings). Also called inventaire des biens.
Inventaire des biens: A French term for a household inventory (a list of a deceased person's belongings). Also called inventaire après décès.
Inventory, general: A list of available belongings or goods.
Inventory, institutional: A list of the holdings of an archive or library.
Inventory, probate: A list of a deceased individual’s property.
Iowa Territory: A territory established in 1838 that included all of present-day Iowa, Minnesota, and parts of North and South Dakota.
Ireland Householders Index,: A shortened name for the Index of Surnames of Householders in Griffith’s Primary Valuation and the Tithe Applotment Books. This is a surname index of people who paid taxes to the Church of Ireland or the government of Ireland between 1820 and 1864. It identifies where an individual was living in Ireland. Also called the Householders Index.
Ireland Householders List,: A shortened name for the Index of Surnames of Householders in Griffith's Primary Valuation and the Tithe Applotment Books. Also called the Householders Index.
Irish: Something or someone from Ireland; the Goedelic Celtic language of Ireland (also known as Gaelic).
Irish Civil War (1919-1922): A war between the Irish who wanted independence from Great Britain and the Irish who wanted to remain with Great Britain. It began in 1918 when a group of Irish representatives to Parliament refused to go to London and instead met in Dublin. They called themselves Dáil Éirann (House of Representatives). On 21 January 1919 they declared Ireland to be an independent republic. Fighting broke out between British and Irish forces. In 1920 the British Parliament passed the Government of Ireland Act that split Ireland into two countries. These two countries would have some rights to self-government, but they would remain a part of Great Britain. The Dáil Éirann refused to accept this, and southern Ireland began fighting for complete independence. In 1921 a treaty was signed to allow southern Ireland to become a dominion (self-governing country) called the Irish Free State. The Irish Free State would be part of the British Commonwealth. The Irish were sharply divided over this issue, and civil war broke out. The fighting ended in 1923 when the two groups formed different political parties. The Irish Free State remained a part of the British Commonwealth until 1948, when John A. Costello, the prime minister of Ireland, cut all ties with Great Britain and renamed the Irish Free State the Republic of Ireland.
Irish potato famine: A famine caused when the Irish potato crops planted between 1845 and 1847 failed because of a plant disease. Ireland's population had increased dramatically during the early 1800s. Most of the people lived on small farms that produced little income or rented farms from wealthy landowners. Potatoes had become a staple food for the impoverished population. When the crops failed, over 750,000 people died of starvation, and hundreds of thousands emigrated to the United States, Canada, and other parts of the world. Many thousands more Irish came to Canada during the 1830s for land and economic opportunities than during the potato famine.
Iroquois, Native Americans: A federation of American Indian tribes who occupied upper New York during the 1600s. The federation was comprised of the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca. The Tuscarora joined the federation in 1722. The Iroquois called themselves Ongwanonhsioni, meaning "we long house builders." The Iroquois Federation was the most efficient Indian organization in North America. All of the Iroquois except the Oneida and the Tuscarora sided with the British in the French and Indian Wars and in the American Revolution. In 1779 American General John Sullivan destroyed the Iroquois villages in retaliation. After the war the Cayuga, Mohawk, and some Tuscarora moved to reservations in Canada. Most of the Oneida moved to Wisconsin, and the Onondaga and most of the Seneca and Tuscarora moved to five reservations in New York state.
Islam: A religion originally preached by Mohammed, who was born approximately A.D. 600 in Mecca, Arabia. He taught that there is only one god, Allah, and that he, Mohammed, was god's messenger. The Koran contains the words of god as spoken to Mohammed by an angel. Islam is one of the largest religions in the world, with the largest concentrations of members in the Middle East, North Africa, Turkey, Albania, and Asia.